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Family Farming is attracting interests of multiples actors of society and comprises a set of several rural activities that are managed and operated by a family and predominantly dependent from family hand labor. In Brazil this kind of activity has an important role in food production, representing 84% of all rural establishments. Linked with the relevance of the subject, there is a growing interest that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) permeates these areas, amplifying access to information by farmers and bringing benefits to rural practices and increasing their competitive factor. This interest is observed through actions promoted by institutions such as governments, NGOs, private institutions and universities. Concomitantly, the Pro-Rectorate of University Extension from São Paulo State University has several outreach projects in this subject on its rolls and, among them, the extension project Digital Skills for Family Agriculture (CoDAF), with a purpose to provide alternatives to mitigate factors that difficult access to information by family farmers. However, the use of ICT, associated with a low educational profile of brazilians farmers, promotes not only concerns with aspects such as the access to content available on websites builded for this kind of public, but also raises questions like how information is available; and the way its users find the information contained therein. To Morville (2005), this kind of 'ease' of a user to find information about something or someone in a particular environment is called findability. Vechiato and Vidotti (2014) proposed a findability evaluation model to information environments with recommendations that should be considered in the strategy, the development and the maintenance of these environments, to achieve a better level [...]
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Findability aspects in family farming digital information
environments
Fernando de Assis Rodrigues, M.S.
1
Elaine Parra Affonso, M.S.
2
Fernando Luiz Vechiato, Dr.
3
Silvana Aparecida Borsetti Gregório Vidotti, Dr.
4
Ricardo César Gonçalves Sant’Ana, Dr.
5
ABSTRACT
Family Farming is attracting interests of multiples actors of society and comprises a set of
several rural activities that are managed and operated by a family and predominantly
dependent from family hand labor. In Brazil this kind of activity has an important role in food
production, representing 84% of all rural establishments. Linked with the relevance of the
subject, there is a growing interest that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)
permeates these areas, amplifying access to information by farmers and bringing benefits to
rural practices and increasing their competitive factor. This interest is observed through
actions promoted by institutions such as governments, NGOs, private institutions and
universities. Concomitantly, the Pro-Rectorate of University Extension from São Paulo State
University has several outreach projects in this subject on its rolls and, among them, the
extension project Digital Skills for Family Agriculture (CoDAF), with a purpose to provide
alternatives to mitigate factors that difficult access to information by family farmers.
However, the use of ICT, associated with a low educational profile of brazilians farmers,
promotes not only concerns with aspects such as the access to content available on websites
builded for this kind of public, but also raises questions like how information is available; and
the way its users find the information contained therein. To Morville (2005), this kind of 'ease'
of a user to find information about something or someone in a particular environment is called
findability. Vechiato and Vidotti (2014) proposed a findability evaluation model to
information environments with recommendations that should be considered in the strategy,
the development and the maintenance of these environments, to achieve a better level of
1
Doctorate student and Master in Information Science at UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista. Member of Novas
Tecnologias em Informação research group (GPNTI) and Competências Digitais para Agricultura Familiar
(CoDAF) project. fernando@elleth.org
2
Doctorate student at UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista. Master in Computer Science. Member of Novas
Tecnologias em Informação research group (GPNTI) and Competências Digitais para Agricultura Familiar
(CoDAF) project. Assistant-Professor at Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente Centro Paula
Souza (CEETEPS) - São Paulo State - Brazil. elaineaffonso@marilia.unesp.br
3
Associate Professor on Department of Information Science at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
(UFRN). Doctor in Information Science UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista. vechiato2004@yahoo.com.br
4
Assistant-Professor Doctor at UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, Faculty of Philosophy and Science - FFC -
Marília Campus, Department of Information Science. vidotti@marilia.unesp.br
5
Assistant-Professor Doctor at UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista. Coordinator of Competências Digitais para
Agricultura Familiar (CoDAF) project. Doctor in Information Science at São Paulo State University
ricardosantana@marilia.unesp.br
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findability of information by the public. In this scenario, the objective of this work was to
identify points of attention related to the findability of information on websites with a set of
users that includes family farmers. The universe of this research was bordered on the structure
and all content available through CoDAF website in December’14. This paper carried out an
exploratory analysis, identifying elements on website and on their source code that enables to
validate recommendations settled on findability evaluation model, towards to a better
findability of information in CoDAF website. The exploratory analysis was divided into five
steps, namely: i) storage of log of users' activities, ii) navigation structure, iii) contents layout,
iv) presentation of content on mobile devices, and v) metadata. On all steps, the collected data
from website was used to observe all the findability recommendations, and then results were
divided into ten categories. The results determined that only four categories partially fulfilled
findability recommendations. The conclusion results on a systematically observation strategy
that concentrates five aspects that need to be considered in Family Farming websites: a) a
generalization of the information contained in items on navigation structures; b) concerns
about visual hierarchy navigation structures with sub-levels; c) minimizing a use of different
structures in layouts content; d) aspects related to user's participation improvement on
information available; e) use of descriptive metadata.
Keywords: Information and Communications Technology. Information Findability. Family
Farming. Information Science
INTRODUCTION
Family farming is a theme that is attracting the interest of various sectors of society.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - the FAO -
family farming includes
[...] all family-based agricultural activities, and it is linked to
several areas of rural development. Family farming is a
means of organizing agricultural, forestry, fisheries, pastoral
and aquaculture production which is managed and operated
by a family and predominantly reliant on family labour,
including both women’s and men’s. (Food and Agriculture
organization, 2014, p. 1)
In Brazil, family farming is composed of more than 4 (four) million establishments,
representing approximately 84% (eighty four percent) of the total establishments in this
sector, occupying a total area of 80,25 million (eighty thousand two-hundred and twenty-five)
hectares (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, 2006).
Therefore, family farming has a prominent role in food production and the
maintenance of this chain of production is important for meeting the needs of the modern day
society. In 2013, the FAO formalized that 2014 would be celebrated as the year of Family
Farming throughout the world, where efforts would be made to give greater attention to the
issue in attempt to
[...] to reposition family farming at the centre of agricultural,
environmental and social policies in the national agendas by
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identifying gaps and opportunities to promote a shift towards
a more equal and balanced development. (Food and
agriculture organization, 2014, p. 1)
Associated to the relevance of this theme, there is also a growing interest from the
states and Non-Profit Government Organizations (NGO), private institutions of academia
used so that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) permeate these spaces - and
this process triggered actions which seek to somehow encourage the introduction of practices
and knowledge for the use of ICT in rural communities. These actions are directed to the
formulation of programs and rural extension policies that establish not only programs and
awareness workshops benefiting the use of ICT, but also awareness for the amount of data
and information available throughout the web (Bisi, et. al., 2013; Yusop et al., 2013).
The use of ICT is increasingly being inserted in the universe of rural activities as a
competitive factor. In other words, the use of technological tools can help contribute and
amplify the access to important information, both for the development and improvement of
agricultural activities, as much as the formation of networks for the exchange of experiences
(Assad and Panetti, 2009).
In these scenario, arose in 2012 the university extension project Competências
Digitais para Agricultura Familiar (CoDAF) with the objective to provide alternatives that
minimize the factors that hinder the access to information through family farmers, for
example, the lack of capacity and familiarity with ICT and information systems that exist
today (CoDAF, 2014a).
To assist with the process of communication with the stakeholders, the CoDAF has a
website that acts as a point of reference, with the role to promote:
[...] courses and activities developed by the project, beyond
the dissemination of important information and content for
family farmers, such as information on government support
programs, family farming advantages and its principal
characteristics. (CoDAF, 2014a, p. 1)
However, the use of ICT associated with the profile of the factors involved in family
farming promotes concerns not only in relation to the access of content available on the
CoDAF project extension website, but also raises questions of how information is available;
and the way its users find the information.
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The ease in finding information from anywhere and at any moment, about something
or someone, from any location of time is called, findability, or in the portuguese language
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known as ‘encontrabilidade’ (Landshoff, 2011; Marcos, 2007; Vechiato and Vidotti, 2014).
The findability of information in digital information environments occurs from the
information search through navigation mechanisms (offered by the website itself) or by
research strategies in an outside search engine website. However, the findability study goes
beyond the navigation and search tools of these systems, analyzing
[...] features that delineate the characteristics the subjects of
information, combines mobility, convergence and ubiquity
from technological developments, considered as human
actions for the pursuit of knowledge in a given environment
that has digital and analog characteristics. (Vechiato and
Vidotti, 2014, p. 4)
Vechiato and Vidotti (2014) also propose a review of information findability in digital
information environments, with bases in attributes - characteristics which promote the
possibilities to find information by users in an informational environment - and
recommendations - which from theories and attributes, established attention points to improve
information findability.
In this scenario, the objective of this study is to identify the main points related to
information findability on websites with a public who, among its set of users, has family
farmers. The universe of research was bordered to the structure and content available through
the CoDAF extension project in December of 2014.
In methodology, the work uses an exploratory analysis of the website, identifying the
attributes established by the evaluation model proposed by Vechiato and Vidotti (2014, p. 11-
19), trying to identify possible recommendations towards a better information findability.
Research tools was used: a) Google Chrome
2
and Mozilla Firefox browsers - in its forms of
web browsers and code-font viewer to HyperText Markup Language (HTML) format, and b)
for the exploratory analysis DaSilva
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- a website accessibility validator.
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Landshoff (2011) proposed three forms of translation for findability in the portuguese language:
“encontrabilidade”, “formas de encontrar a informação” and “encontro da informação”.
2
Google and Google Chrome are brands registered by Google Inc.
3
DaSilva is a tool developed by Acessibilidade Brasil in partnership with W2B Soluções Internet, being the first
website accessibility evaluator in the portuguese language, with bases in the accessibility guidelines and
recommendations by W3C/WAI (WCAG1 e WCAG2) and by E-mag developed by the Brazilian electronic
government in partnership with Acessibilidade Brasil. With DaSilva is it possible to analyze all the pages from a
website and indicate the accessibility errors present by on that pages” (Dasilva, 2014).
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This study is segmented into 5 (five) chapters, this one is the introduction itself,
sequentially, an exploratory analysis of the CoDAF extension project website, results,
conclusions and references.
EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF THE CODAF EXTENSION PROJECT WEBSITE
The exploratory analysis of the necessary characteristics for the evaluation process of
findability of information on the CoDAF extension project website, is divided into five
phases.
Sequentially, each phase looks to describe characteristics such as: the storage of user
activity, the navigational structure, the content disposition, the content presentation through
mobile devices and the metadata.
Storage of User Activity
To make its content available, the CoDAF extension project adopted a content
management system technology called Joomla!
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. By default, Joomla! has no specific tool for
the storing and recovery of data about users activities.
Navigational Structures
The main navigation structure of the website is located on the bottom of the page (in
footnotes area), arranged centrally, horizontally, and have a total of 7 (seven) items, being that
3 (three) are hyperlinks with labels in a text format, and the rest as images (Figure 1).
Figure 1 - Shot of the principal navigation structure
Source: Cropped by the authors from CoDAF (2014)
Starting from the left to right, the items on the navigation bar are arranged as follows:
access to the Facebook page (a label made up of the Facebook logo linked to the respective
social media website), Informations to Family Farmers (a text label), “Informations to
Consumers(a text label), About CoDAF project (a text label), the logo for Coordenação
de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) (a text with no hyperlink), the
logo for Pró-reitoria de Extensão Universitária da Universidade Estadual Paulista (PROEx)
(a text with no hyperlink) and a image from Creative Commons, visually representing the
license from content of website (a image with no hyperlink).
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Joomla! it is a Content Management System and is licensed under the GNU - General Public License.
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When accessed one of the items Informations to Family Farmers”, “Informations to
Consumersor About CoDAF project”, individually, from primary navigation, the website
engines redirects the user to a specific page for each item, when and where will appear the
structure to a secondary navigation (Figure 2), additionally located on the left side of the
website, vertically, composed by hyperlink items with text labels. The primary navigation
structures continues to be present in all these pages.
If an item on secondary navigational have sublevels, this sub-items are displayed and
aligned to the right of the page, such as a “tree” hierarchy structure. For example, the item
“Trabalhos” has three sub-items: “Articles”, Presentations” and Applications(highlighted
by the red rectangle).
Figure 2 - Screenshot of the secondary navigation structure
Source: Cropped by the authors from CoDAF (2014)
However, the group of items that show up in the secondary navigation structure vary
according to the content. In other words, by clicking on each of the items: a) “Informations to
Family Farmers”, b) Informations to Consumers”, and c) “About CoDAF project”, the items
found in the secondary navigation structure will be different.
Table 1 - Items identified in each of the secondary navigation structures
Secondary Navigation
Structure
Primary Navigation Structure
Informations to Family
Farmers
Informations to
Consumers
About CoDAF project
Main Page
X
X
X
About CoDAF
X
X
X
Members
X
X
News
X
Informations about
Family Farming
X
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Scientific Works
X
X
Events
X
X
List of Family
Farmers
X
X
CoDAF courses
X
Search for Products,
Farmers and Cities
X
X
Farmer’s Map
X
X
Contact Us
X
Source: Authors
Table 1 presents the items from each the secondary navigation (First column from the
left) found in each of the items from the primary navigation (splitted up in the next three
columns from left to right). When one item (row) is found in the secondary navigation
structure (column), the cell that intersects those is marked with an ‘X’.
Content Disposition
The pages found on the website uses 5 (five)
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distinct structures for diagramming
content (Figure 3).
Figure 3 - Example of diagramming structure of content on the website
Source: CoDAF (2014)
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For systematic effect, was associated a numbering system to uniquely represent each of the identified
structures, beginning with the roman numeral I and ending with V, in ascending order.
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Common characteristics for all structures:
A. Logo image of the CoDAF extension project, located at the top, centralized,
with measurements of 361 pixels (width) and 135 pixels (height), hyperlinked
so that by clicking on it, it will redirect the user to the websites initial page;
B. A Font size manipulator to website, located on the upper right hand corner;
C. Breadcrumbs
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located below the original logo of the website, with a purpose to
enable a user to may identify landmarks, in order to spatially direct the path of
access to a content;
D. Three columns at the bottom of the website, with each one of them
representing, respectively from left to right, a) hyperlinks to the four latest
news updates available on the website, with the label being the title of the
article; b) hyperlinks to the last four rural properties of family farmers
registered on website, the label being composed of the name of the town in
which the property resides and the name of the farm; and c) hyperlinks of four
featured contents on the website, with the label being the title of the content;
E. The primary navigation structure, located at the bottom, centrally aligned.
Below the image of the logo of the CoDAF extension project and the Breadcrumbs,
and above the three columns with access to recent featured content, is marked the place where
differences appear in the form of content presentation in each of five distinct structures
identified in website layout.
The structure I presents the content in two columns. The column on the left contains
the secondary navigation structure and the larger column on the right presents content in a
multimedia mix of texts and images. Its use is focused on the presentation of news,
institutional texts, rural property descriptions, events, among many others.
Figure 4 presents an example of an institutional text using this structure.
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The standard Breadcrumbs proposes to be a kind of trail created during navigation, visible in strategic way
places on the page layout, allowing the user to see exactly where he’s been and where he is, within the page
hierarchy (Santos, 2009).
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Figure 4 - Screenshot of an example of structure I
Source: Cropped by the authors from CoDAF (2014)
The structure II presents the content in two columns. The column on the left contains
the secondary navigation structure and the larger column on the right presents a list of items
divided into two more columns. Each item is made up of one hyperlink and its label is a
combination of an image (icon) with a text. Each item has a hyperlink for access to other
content. Its use is focused on categorizing topics within one context on the website.
For example, Figure 5 shows an example of how to use structure II to present on the
website available courses in a concentrated format.
Figure 5 - Screenshot of an example of structure II
Source: Cropped by the authors from CoDAF (2014)
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Structure III presents the content in two columns. The column on the left contains the
secondary navigation structure and the larger column on the right presents previews of
existing content of the website. It is divided, from top to bottom, first by featured content,
followed by six items in two separate columns. In the end, the structure places a list of all
other content, where each item is a hyperlink with the label being the title of the content to be
accessed with.
Figure 6 - Screenshot of an example of structure III
Source: Clipping from the authors of CoDAF (2014)
Its use is dedicated to concentrating the access of themed content in one place, as a
place to find all the news, or all the events. Figure 6 presents an example of the structure
utilized to concentrate all news on the website.
Structure IV presents the content in two columns. The column on the left contains the
secondary navigation structure and the larger column on the right, contains content in a table
format, with no header, and a single column where its cells are order alphabetically,
ascending.
This structure is used only to list registered family farmers who already share their
data to CoDAF extension project, being that each cell of the table is a hyperlink to a specific
page with information about that specific rural property. The label is formed by the
combination of the town in which the rural property is located, plus the name of the farm
(Figure 7).
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Figure 7 - Screenshot of an example of structure IV
Source: Cropped by the authors from CoDAF (2014)
Structure V presents all content in a single column. This structure aims to be the hub
of content searches offered on the portal and therefore, this process is divided into two stages.
During the first stage (Figure 8), the structure is made up of items to perform the
search, them being: a) an open text box, b) a button that triggers the action of the search, with
the label ‘Search’ and c) a short text containing modus operandi of the search.
Figure 8 - Screenshot of an example of structure V (first stage)
Source: Cropped by the authors from CoDAF (2014)
When the user clicks on the button Search’, the user is sending information about the
search to the website, and in this second stage, the website presents to the users the results
within a different structure (Figure 9).
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Figure 9 - Screenshot of an example of structure V (second stage)
Source: Cropped by the authors from CoDAF (2014)
The website uses a third-party search engine, customized to only display content
related with CoDAF extension project website and the search results are presented in a list
ordered by relevance. Each result has a set of four lines of text formed by the title of its
contents (that also has a hyperlink for access), followed by a two line with preview of the
content and (below) a Uniform Resource-Locator (URL) of the content. It is possible to
reorganize the content to be listed ordered by relevance or by date published, also being able
to filter the results to only retrieve images.
Content Presentation through Mobile Devices
The website does not have its own interface for the display of content on portable
devices such as smartphones, tablets and other similar gadgets. Figure 10
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shows the interface
of the website when pulled up on an Apple iPhone 5 smartphone
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with the iOS operating
system (left), and an Asus Nexus
9
model 7 smartphone
10
, with an Android operating system
(right). In both devices it is necessary to have both horizontal and vertical navigation bars.
7
The iOS and Android operating systems were chosen because they are the most common operating system
used on smartphones. (HACHMAN, 2014)
8
Apple, iPhone, iPhone 5 and iOS are brands trademarked by Apple Inc.
9
Nexus and Android are brands registered by Google Inc.
10
Asus is a brand registered by ASUSTeK Computer Inc.
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Figure 10 - Website mobile version visualized in two devices.
Source: Authors
Metadata
There is no specific information in the website source-code for a purpose to describing
the content available on the website, such as metadata.
Figure 11 - An example of the website source-code
Source: Cropped by the authors from CoDAF (2014)
The source-code (Figure 11), written in HTML format, does not display any
description of the content.
RESULTS
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From results obtained by the exploratory research on CoDAF extension project
website, were identified the following characteristics
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as recommendations for information
findability (Vechiato e Vidotti, 2014):
1. Utilize instruments for the organization of information, such as navigational
taxonomies and terminology monitoring instruments, such as thesauri and ontologies,
when appropriate.
1.1. The existing navigational taxonomy has a adequate categorization of
concepts/terms:
- The website has a structure divided into a primary and a secondary navigation.
The items founded on each navigation are categorized consistently in relation to
content already on the website. In other words, the content is distributed in a
consistent manner with the proposed themes.
- The items founded on secondary navigation, in the context of “Informations to
Family Farmersand its sub-items, were observed the following characteristics:
a) The item “News” shows at the bottom of a list with older news, but the label of
the area is referred to as More articles
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”, which can confuse the user. The same
occurrence appears in the item Events”; b) The content exhibited when the item
“Informations about Family Farming” is accessed does not display all of the
existing content in this context, for example, missing the item “DAP”; c) The text
label for the item Manuals, Instructions and other lecturesis written in different
ways in the secondary navigation and in the structure of the content on item
“Informations about Family Farming”; d) the item “Trabalhos” is absent in the
item Projects”; e) the item Search Products, Farmers and Cities does not shows
the secondary navigation structure, and; e) the content for the item Farmer’s
Map” only has one hyperlink;
- The items that are comprised by the secondary navigation structure in the
context of “Informations to Consumersand its sub-items, were identified the
following characteristics: a) the item Search Products, Farmers and Cities does
not shows the secondary navigation structure, and b) the contents of the item
“Farmer’s Map” only displays a single hyperlink in its content;
- The items that are comprised by the secondary navigation structure in the
11
In order to facilitate reading, the recommendations proposed by Vechiato and Vidotti (2014) are
cited with their terms in italics.
12
From portuguese: more articles.
15
context of About CoDAF project and its sub-items, were identified the
following characteristics: a) the accessing the content for the item Members”,
the secondary navigation structure displays the items of navigation for the item
Informations to Family Farmers”; b) the item “Trabalhos” presents divergence
its sub-items and the content that is available, the items Project and
Applications” are absent in the secondary navigation structure, and c) the
hyperlink “Articles/Presentations” does not work adequately.
1.2. The existing navigational taxonomy has significant and consistent terms that do
not hinder your understanding:
- The terms are suitable to represent the contents and theme of the website and are
presented in a clear and objective way. The content of the navigation structures of
the website does not use acronyms, abbreviations or terms in other languages, the
presence of these could compromise the access had by the family farmers;
1.3. A controlled vocabulary is used, acronyms and/or ontologies, to represent the
subject of the information resources:
- The website does not present evidence establishing the use of a controlled
vocabulary, acronyms and/or ontologies, in the representation of topics in the
existing information resources.
1.4. - The website does not present evidence that establishes a use of a controlled
vocabulary, acronyms and/or ontologies, in the representation of topics on the
existing information resources.
2. Implement social sorting capabilities (folksonomy) and navigation through the tags
assigned by the subject.
2.1. There are social sorting capabilities (folksonomy) that favor the participation of
the information subject:
- In the exploratory analysis, no evidence was identified that website is using any
sort of social classification for its content.
2.2. The tags generated by subjects are available in a ‘tag cloud’ way, to facilitate
social navigation:
- Similar to the above item, no evidence was identified that website uses any sort
of “tag cloud” disposition.
3. Represent the informational resources through metadata.
3.1. The informational resources are coherently represented by metadata:
- There is no evidences of a metadata use to describe the informational resources
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available on the website. This absence was observed both in the source-code
(written in HTML and JavaScript) and in contents.
4. Invest in infocommunication mediation of subjects:
4.1. The subjects participate in the production of the information available:
- The only channel of communication on the website is through the resource
Contact Us”. There is not an area to leave comments or buttons to share the
information with others.
4.2. The subjects participate in the organization/representation of available
information:
- Users can’t participate in organization and representation of information on the
website.
5. Amplify the possibility of the subjects finding information through different
environments and devices.
5.1. The informational environment enables its resources, products and/or consistent
services on multiple devices:
- As presented in the previous chapter, the site presents difficulties in the
presentation of content on mobile devices. The user of the website always needs
to use the horizontal scrollbar to access all of the content available. For example,
in the display of text a horizontal scrollbar is necessary to read each line in each
one of the paragraphs.
6. Investigate the behaviors, competencies, experiences and intentions of the subjects.
6.1. There are indications that the system is concerned with the intentions of the user
through interactions such as an user log analysis or other types of technologies
for this purpose:
- The website does not use a technology to store and analyze user logs. Therefore,
there are no indicative issues related to intentionality of the subjects, in either a
passive form (such as recording the actions of the subject on the website, periods
of activities on website, among others), or in an active way (such as the use of
folksonomy, to express their intention by assigning keywords to describes a
content).
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7. Apply recommendations and evaluations of accessibility
13
and of usability:
- In relation to specific questions of accessibility, the start page source-code - that
contains the structure and start page data - was inputted to validation through the
analysis of the accessibility presented by the evaluation tool DaSilva (2014). The
results of the tool has identified 21 (twenty-one) errors that compromise the full
access to the content for users with special needs and 63 (sixty-three) warnings, with
recommendations for the best practices. Of the results obtained in this summary, the
following errors are highlighted: a) images, logos and other non-textual contents do
not have an alternative textual label for use by screen reader softwares; b) the
abscense of instructions in places where the user needs to do some data entry (such as
a text-box), and c) some parts of content that are not operable from the keyboard,
requiring the use of a mouse or touch screen. Also highlighted are the following
recommendations: a) the use of other elements to make content prominent besides
colors, such as common forms of symbols and shapes; b) the proper ordering and
transition of components available in the content, when accessed by keyboard
shortcuts, and c) images containing text should be replaced by images without text or
a image with a text outside of the image, for example, allowing the reading of this text
with a screen reader software.
8. Invest in the use of affordances to guide the subjects in space (wayfinding) during the
navigation:
- The site uses Breadcrumbs to create spatial orientation marks in every displayed
content. Each mark is of one item of the primary or secondary navigation system, with
the exact ordering of items in which these navigation structures must be accessed to
get this content.
9. Invest in the use of affordances for query and search results:
9.1. The search mechanism uses resources that assist the subject in the development
of the search strategy (such as the autocomplete resource):
- There is no use of any affordances at the moment in this study, for example the
use of autocomplete or suggestions in the period of typing to a search term.
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This study takes into consideration the definition of accessibility of the World Wide Web Consortium (2014),
where accessibility on the internet means people with special needs can use the web, realize, understand,
navigate, interact and contribute, including the elderly, in order to provide equal access and opportunities for
people with different abilities, with security and anonymity. The accessibility supports the inclusion of people
with special needs, elderly, residents in rural areas, in under developed countries, and among others.
18
9.2. On the page with the search results there are aspects presented to help refine the
search:
- In the search results from the website, it is possible to classify the results by
data or relevance and filter results of every kind or only images.
10. Provide pragmatic searches:
- The website uses a third-party search algorithm from the search tool Google
Search
14
and therefore has no descriptive elements that could support how operation
or the strategy works on search algorithm.
Table 2 - Information findability results from CoDAF website
Item
Attributes and Findability of Information
Results
1
Information Organization and Terminology Control
1.1
Navigational Taxonomy (has adequate categorization of concepts/terms)
Y
1.2
Significant and consistent terms
Y
1.3
Use of controlled vocabulary, thesauri and/or ontologies
N
2
Features of Social Classification and Navigation
2.1
Folksonomy
P
2.2
Tag cloud
N
3
Representation of Informational Resources through Metadata
3.1
Use of Metadata
N
4
Infocommunication Subject Mediation
4.1
Subject participation in the production of information
N
4.2
Subject participation in the organization of information
N
5
Possibilities of the Subject to find Information through different Environments and
Devices
5.1
Availability of resources, products and/or services in informational
environments consistently on multiple devices
N
14
Google Search is a brand trademarked by Google Inc.
19
6
Investigation of the Behaviors, Competencies, Experiences and Intentions of the
Subjects
6.1
Analysis of the interaction log and other technologies
N
7
Recommendations and evaluations of Accessibility and Usabiliy
7.1
Usability of the environment
P
7.2
Accessibility of the environment
P
8
Use of Affordances to Guide the Subjects in space (wayfinding) during the
Navigation
8.1
Use of breadcrumbs and metaphors
Y
9
Use of Affordances for Query and Search Results
9.1
The search mechanism uses resources that assist the subject in the
development of the search strategy
N
9.2
On the page with the search results there are aspects presented to
help refine the search
Y
10
Provide Pragmatic Searches
10.1
The search results are different types of documents based on the initial
search strategy of the subject, presenting them in related forms
N
Source: Authors
Table 2 summarizes the results from the information findability analisys of the
CoDAF website. The results are grouped into recommendations, such as the model proposed
by Vechiato and Vidotti (2014). From left to right, the first column represents a sequential
and unique identifier number for every recommendation, followed by a column with a brief
description. The last column represents the status of THE recommendation from the CoDAF
website, with possible values being 'Yes' (symbol 'Y'), 'No' (symbol 'N') or 'Partial' (symbol
'P').
CONCLUSIONS
From the results of information findability on information environments geared to the
public of family farming, this work proposes a observation strategy with five points of
attention to websites:
20
1. Generalization of the information contained in the navigation structure:
The items Informations to Family Farmers”, Informations to Consumers and
About CoDAF project”, available in the primary navigation structure, could be moved to the
top, preventing the continued use of the vertical scrollbar to access these items and/or return
to start page.
The logos available in the primary navigation structure (Creative Commons, CAPES e
PROEx logos) should have hyperlinks to their respective official websites, thus harmonizing
all items in this navigation - in other words, structuring navigation in a way that all objects
have a hyperlink, facilitating the understanding of the family farmers.
The website could offer the user the use of folksonomy, a tag cloud and the use of
controlled vocabularies, in order to help future interventions in the organization of items
contained in the navigation structure.
2. The visual hierarchy navigation structures with sublevels:
When the items Scientific Worksare CoDAF coursesare accessed, available in
the secondary navigation structure, the hierarchical data structure available within these items
is indented in a way that does not promote the identification of this hierarchy.
The visual structure of the items, Search for Products, Farmers and Citiesdo not
includes the secondary navigation, which creates a different structure from all the other
content on display on the website, hinder to a better understanding of the navigation
disposition to family farmers.
3. The reduction in the use of different structures to presents a content:
Structure V, specific to the website content research, could offer the use of affordances
for the elaboration of the query, for example, autocomplete and suggestions, to increase the
potential of content search strategy by family farmers.
Elaborate its own interface to shows website’s content fully available on devices with
limited screen capability, for example, mobile devices. This point reflects directly in mobility
capabilities, of convergence and ubiquity - an important characteristic for family farmers.
With regard to aspects related to usability and accessibility, despite the website
navigation allowing the use of the ‘TAB’ key to scroll through the navigation structures, the
hyperlinks and objects, of the items Scientific Works and “Articles can not be accessed
that way. In addition, all content is only available in Portuguese. Additionally, it is important
that the sequence of this keyboard movement is organized in an order - and that regardless of
the sort or organization chosen - is standardized in all content available.
21
The website has a collection of images in which mostly have alternative text features
allowing the screen reader software to read them. However, a total of 4 (four) images, which
are located in the page footer, do not have this feature. The website also has some content in
video format, which also does not use equivalent alternative textual form.
All errors identified by the accessibility validator DaSilva should be corrected, so that,
by following the best practices of accessibility and usability, therefore it is possible that the
information environment enhances access to a wider audience, for example, visually
impaired, elderly and others.
4. Issues of user participation in content generation:
The structures I, II, III and IV could offer the users a way to make comments and
suggestions, promoting family farmers to participate in website information production and
also contact peers.
Enable and install components in the Content Generating System, Joomla! for the
storage and tracking of users' activities, promoting and possibility a research of users's
behaviors and the intentionality of subject.
5. The use of descriptive metadata:
The website could provide metadata in source-code in order to describe the contents
available on website.
This analysis sought out to highlight the importance of information findability
recommendations proposed by Vechiato and Vidotti (2014). The fulfillment of these
recommendations on the CoDAF website may facilitate navigation, search, retrieval and
location of the content available, trying to reach a specific target audience (family farmers),
who still have some limitations imposed by external factors, for example, unfamiliarity with
the use of ICT.
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... A cada dia o setor rural tem se beneficiado com as tecnologias de informação e de comunicação, na intenção de trazer melhoria contínua às atividades agrícolas, como um agente facilitador no acesso a dados e informações relevantes nas tomadas de decisões do usuário (RODRIGUES et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Com o advento das Novas Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC’s), percebe-se uma crescente busca de Empresas, Instituições e até dos Movimentos Sociais, por serviços de compra e venda mediante instrumentos digitais, principalmente, plataformas que oferecem os produtos em um determinado repositório ou website. Estas tecnologias informacionais tendem a auxiliar para que o cliente compre ou conheça melhor os produtos oferecidos pelas empresas por meio de sua credibilidade e fidedignidade no mercado.
Article
Peter Morville interview about information architecture and findability.
Projeto Competências Digitais para Agricultura Familiar (CoDAF) e sua contribuição para a extensão rural paulista
  • Ricardo César Santana
  • Gonçalves
  • Fernando Rodrigues
  • Assis
  • Fábio Moreira
  • Mosso
Santana, Ricardo César Gonçalves; Rodrigues, Fernando Assis; Moreira, Fábio Mosso (2013), " Projeto Competências Digitais para Agricultura Familiar (CoDAF) e sua contribuição para a extensão rural paulista ". In: Seminário Paulista de Extensão Rural, 2. Campinas.
Website do projeto de extensão CoDAF -Competências Digitais para Agricultura Familiar
  • Codaf
CoDAF (2014), "Website do projeto de extensão CoDAF -Competências Digitais para Agricultura Familiar". Tupã. Avaliable at: <http://codaf.tupa.unesp.br>. Acessed on: 12 dez.
Avaliador DaSilva versão WEB
  • Dasilva
Dasilva (2014), "Avaliador DaSilva versão WEB". In: DaSilva. Brasil. Avaliable at: <http://www.dasilva.org.br>. Acessed on: 19 dez. 2014.
Android, iOS gobble up even more global smartphone share
  • Mark Hachman
Hachman, Mark (2014), "Android, iOS gobble up even more global smartphone share". In; PC World. Estados Unidos da América. Avaliable at: <http://www.pcworld.com/article/2465045/android-ios-gobble-up-even-more-globalsmartphone-share.html>. Acessed on: 18 dez. 2014.
Censo agropecuário 2006: Agricultura Familiar " . Primeiros resultados. Brasília. 267 p. ISSN: 0103-6157 Avaliable at: <http://www.ibge.gov.br/home
  • Instituto Brasileiro E Geografia E Estatística
Instituto Brasileiro e Geografia e Estatística (2006), " Censo agropecuário 2006: Agricultura Familiar ". Primeiros resultados. Brasília. 267 p. ISSN: 0103-6157. Avaliable at: <http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/economia/agropecuaria/censoagro/agri_familiar_20 06/familia_censoagro2006.pdf>. Acessed on: 18 dez. 2014.
Findability: elementos essenciais para as formas de encontro da informação em bibliotecas digitais". 127 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Tecnologias da Inteligência e Design Digital
  • Renate Landshoff
Landshoff, Renate (2011), "Findability: elementos essenciais para as formas de encontro da informação em bibliotecas digitais". 127 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Tecnologias da Inteligência e Design Digital) -Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2011. Avaliable at: <http://www.sapientia.pucsp.br//tde_busca/arquivo.php?codArquivo=13775>. Acessed on: 15 maio 2013.
Ambient Findability: Libraries at the Crossroads of Ubiquitous Computing and the Internet". Information Today, Inc. Online -The leading magazine for information professional
  • Peter Morville
Morville, Peter (2005), "Ambient Findability: Libraries at the Crossroads of Ubiquitous Computing and the Internet". Information Today, Inc. Online -The leading magazine for information professional. Vol. 29 nº6, Nov/Dec. Avaliable at:<http://www.infotoday.com/online/nov05/morville.shtml>. Acessed on: 19 dez. 2014.
Design de Artefatos Digitais baseados em padrões e plataformas
  • Dino Lincoln Santos
  • Figueirôa
Santos, Dino Lincoln Figueirôa (2009), "Design de Artefatos Digitais baseados em padrões e plataformas". Dissertação de Mestrado -Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Recife. Avaliable at: <http://www.repositorio.ufpe.br/jspui/bitstream/123456789/3194/1/arquivo2196_1.pdf.>. Acessed on: 20 dez 2014.
Encontrabilidade da Informação: atributos e recomendações para ambientes informacionais digitais
  • Silvana Aparecida Borsetti Vidotti
  • Gregório
Vidotti, Silvana Aparecida Borsetti Gregório (2014), "Encontrabilidade da Informação: atributos e recomendações para ambientes informacionais digitais". In: Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa em Ciência da Informação, 15. Belo Horizonte. Avaliable at: <http://enancib2014.eci.ufmg.br/documentos/anais/anais-gt8>. Acessed on: 18 dez. 2014.