Article

School Librarians as Technology Integration Leaders: Enablers and Barriers to Leadership Enactment

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Abstract

The highly technological environment of 21st-century schools has significantly redefined the role of school librarians by presenting the opportunity to assume leadership through technology integration. Despite the abundance of literature that has suggested the need for and the importance of school librarians to be a proactive leaders in technology integration, this role is one that has been ignored in the research arena and left undefined for school administrators, teachers, and the school librarians themselves, leading to uncertainty concerning how school librarians enact this role in practice. This research, based on distributed-leadership theory, investigates current practice of accomplished school librarians to identify what factors are enabling some to thrive as technology integration leaders and what factors are hindering others. This report of the results includes the initial identification and categorization of the enablers and barriers experienced by school librarians in enacting a leadership role in technology integration, a discussion of implications for the profession, and areas of future research

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... The school librarian position has transitioned into a technology leadership role in conjunction with the 21st-century pedagogical shift to instructional technology integration and blended learning. Johnston (2012) states that "21st-century learning has necessitated this evolution of the school librarian and presents opportunities for leadership" (p. 3). Baker, Decman, and Willis (2020) acknowledge in their study that changes to instruction from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic have transformed pedagogy and presented a need for "an expanded definition of instructional leadership" (p. 1) and "A campus vision…including the school librarian…is necessary to support teachers and students throughout innovation adoption" (p. ...
... As the position of the school-level instructional technology specialist emerged beginning in the late 1990s (Johnston, 2015a) and proliferated in the years after, role ambiguity (Johnston, 2012) and role conflict between the instructional technology specialist and the school library media specialist (the official title prior to 2009) (Johnston, 2015a) was experienced both by holders of both positions as well as school principals (Johnston, 2015a). By 2009, the AASL Standards of that year identified the leadership role of school librarians for the first time (AASL, 2009) but did not acknowledge the growing role of instructional technology specialists other than in passive acknowledgement of school librarians' service on technology committees at the school and district level (AASL, 2009). ...
... This oversight is alarming, as Wine (2016) notes that school librarians' leadership roles are multidimensional and aligned to standards of technology leadership. Johnston (2012Johnston ( , 2015a) conducted a study of barriers and enablers to school librarians' serving as technology leaders in schools, noting that "this role is one that has been ignored in the research arena...leading to uncertainty concerning how school librarians enact this role in practice" (Johnston, 2015a, p. 17). Johnston (2015a) specifically examined the findings of school librarians who indicated the peer position of an instructional technology specialist as serving as a barrier or enabler to their own technology leadership role. ...
Article
In 2020 and 2021, K-12 instructional settings diversified worldwide due to COVID-19 pandemic-response. During the 2021-2022 school year, a new instructional setting of K-12 remote-synchronous learning launched in a progressive, southeastern U.S. public school district. Substantial school district realignment occurred to serve this new setting; bypassed, however, was a dedicated school librarian position. Despite positive national impact data and the school library profession’s demonstrated ability since the mid-twentieth century to evolve, newly created positions have been funded nationally in schools to evolve with the times, often at the expense of school library positions. Role tensions may emerge between school librarians and other school positions. School librarians’ lived experiences within this congruence of tensions provides a unique research opportunity. The methodology of the study is phenomenology. A purposive, non-random sample of six school librarians comprised the sample population. Initial and follow-up semi-structured interviews were conducted with each of the participants, and data was analyzed to yield rich description of the essence of the participants’ lived experiences. The findings suggest that trends toward standardization of their professional role(s) are countered by the pandemic’s contributions to student learning loss and thus, a critical need exists for the school librarians’ role(s). Implications for school librarians are that they are strongly positioned to thrive during further evolutions of their role(s) as instructional settings continue to diversify and students’ needs change. Implications for school administrators are that school librarians are willing and ready to assume a critical role in literacy instruction that they foresee as urgent.
... Digital resources and tools enrich student learning by enabling them to comprehend, visualize, and explain difficult concepts, which are otherwise difficult to portray inside the classroom, and by providing authentic learning and analytical experiences, such as demonstrations, simulations, experiments and observations of real world events, which were once limited to scientists (Guzey & Roehrig, 2009;Subramaniam et al., 2012). The increased sense of urgency around how to effectively use digital tools and content to impact student learning, paired with teacher's continued struggles and discomfort with using digital content, positions teacher librarians to train teachers and model for teachers how to effectively use technology and media for STEM learning (Albertson & Johnston, 2016;Johnston, 2012;Pandora, 2009;Mardis, 2014;Subramaniam et al., 2013;Wolf, Jones, & Gilbert, 2014). ...
... "I try to work with teachers to come up with lessons for researching topics in the science and math areas" and "I promote lessons to teach students about how they can find up to date information online." In modeling and partnering with teachers, teacher librarians can guide instructional design and offer expertise on the integration of emergent technologies to create engaging and relevant learning experiences for students (AASL, 2018;Johnston, 2012). Sadly, several participants expressed the lack of collaboration with teachers in the science and mathematics areas. ...
... The participants also spoke of learning from other teacher librarians through informal channels, but also through professional organizations. This echoes previous research which found professional organizations as an enabler for teacher librarians acting as leaders in technology integration (Johnston, 2012). ...
Article
A current focus in schools in the United States is STEM education, which prepares students for successful employment and post-secondary studies that require unique and more-technically advanced skills through teaching and learning in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This approach is grounded in problem solving, discovery, and exploratory learning, which requires students to actively engage in a situation in order to find its solution. Students engage in STEM learning in many different ways, with technology and digital resources playing an important role. The prominence of technology in STEM education provides leadership opportunities for teacher librarians. Yet, teacher librarians must be prepared to lead in the integration of technology to support STEM education. This report presents identified needs of teacher librarians in regards to supporting STEM education and discusses implications for better preparing pre-service teacher librarians to lead in order to address the needs of a new generation of learners.
... Teacher leadership goes beyond the scope of the teacher leading students in a classroom; teachers are empowered within a culture of learning, taking authority from pedagogical expertise, and focusing on improving instruction and student learning (Murphy, 2007;Smylie, Conley, & Marks, 2002;York---Barr & Duke, 2004). Based on this definition, the leadership practices of teacher librarians are essentially those of teacher leaders (Johnston, 2012). Distributed leadership provides a solid theoretical foundation for research on leadership practices within a school and can illuminate the multiple dimensions of leadership that occur in a school, including those of teacher librarians. ...
... In examining the concepts and propositions of distributed leadership theory it is apparent they relate to teacher librarians and can provide guidance examining the leadership practices of teacher librarians, an area in which there is a dearth of research (e.g. Branch & Oberg, 2001;DiScala & Subramaniam, 2011;Everhart, 2007;Everhart & Dresang, 2007;Everhart et al., 2012;Johnston, 2011Johnston, , 2012Underwood, 2003). The technologically advanced environment of the 21st century school has made an impact on leadership practices in education and has afforded teacher librarians an opportunity to enact technology leadership roles, but the research in this area is even more limited (e.g. ...
... The technologically advanced environment of the 21st century school has made an impact on leadership practices in education and has afforded teacher librarians an opportunity to enact technology leadership roles, but the research in this area is even more limited (e.g. Branch---Mueller & de Groot, 2011;Everhart, Mardis, Johnston, 2012;Hughes---Hassel & Hanson---Baldauf, 2008;Johnston, 2012). While distributed leadership has been applied in LIS research in the areas of public libraries and academic libraries (e.g. ...
Article
The ever-evolving and complex technological environment of 21st century schools and the new leadership capacities that accompany it have signified a paradigm shift in leadership. Distributed leadership has emerged as a possible method for dealing with the increased responsibilities and pressures placed upon school principals. Distributed leadership theory is proposed as a means of in-depth analysis of the practice of school leaders in order to understand the dynamics of leadership practice and proposes that leadership function is stretched over the work of a number of individuals (Spillane, 2006). This theory, the concepts, propositions it contains, and the research evolving from it present a means for exploring and analyzing the leadership activities, actions, and roles of teacher librarians. The applicability of distributed leadership to teacher librarian leadership will be demonstrated through this report of research that applied distributed leadership theory to investigate the enablers and barriers to teacher librarian technology integration leadership.
... [9,18] Digital video is one such resource that can be utilized to support learning and it is commonly the teacher librarian who recommends videos to teachers (Albertson & Johnston, 2016;Mardis, 2007Mardis, , 2014McIlvain, 2010). The increased sense of urgency around how to effectively use digital tools and content to be able to impact student learning paired with teacher's continued struggles and discomfort with using digital content, positions teacher librarians to train and model for teachers how to effectively use technology and media for STEM learning (Johnston, 2012;Mardis, 2014;Pandora, 2009;Subramaniam et al., 2013). ...
... The participants also spoke of learning from other teacher librarians through informal channels, but also through professional organizations. This echoes previous research which found professional organizations as an enabler for teacher librarians acting as leaders in technology integration (Johnston, 2012). ...
... Education research illustrates that utilizing technology effectively in the classroom can improve students' critical thinking skills, improve standardized test scores, provide numerous innovative educational opportunities, increase student motivation, and enhance the overall learning experience for students. In modeling and partnering with teachers, school librarians can guide instructional design and offer expertise on the integration of emergent technologies to create engaging and relevant learning experiences for students (AASL, 2009;Johnston, 2012). As information specialists and educators, teacher librarians can engage students and support teachers by providing access to and instruction for utilizing digital resources, encourage students in authentic inquiry practices, and provide real-world collaborative learning opportunities to promote STEM learning. ...
... While sound technology management and leadership cannot be attributed to just one area of the conceptual framework, it is essential in making research-validated technology decisions. Nearly all the literature consulted, with the exception of the APA's (1997) learner-centered framework and Marzano et al.'s (2001) nine categories of instructional strategies that affect student achievement, cited effective leadership as critical (Bellamy, 2007;Courville, 2011;Finkel, 2012;Fullan, 2013b;Gomes, 2011;Greaves & Hayes, 2008;Hall, 2010;Johnson & Maddux, 2008;Johnston, 2011;Luthra & Fochtman, 2011;Spector, 2013). As mentioned previously, this conceptual framework recognizes the importance of technology leadership throughout the entire decisionmaking process and the individuals (at varied levels throughout a school district) who are helping transform learning. ...
... Though classroom teachers may not be involved extensively in procurement, their role in technology implementation is aligned with the reviewed literature. The creation of positions like "tech coaches" or increasing the leadership responsibilities of teacher librarians is evident in Johnston's (2011) research and deemed integral to effective technology integration. An analysis of the data revealed that teachers across the 10 participating districts were largely being utilized in this context when compared to procurement (where they are used sparingly). ...
... e.g., teachers, tech coaches, school librarians, etc.;Johnston, 2011), among many other tasks. Elected trustees (who formally govern school boards) weigh in on large purchases and set overall policies and budgets related to technology expenditures as well. ...
Thesis
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Very little research has examined K–12 educational technology decision-making in Canada. This collective case study explores the technology procurement process in Ontario's publicly funded school districts to determine if it is informed by the relevant research, grounded in best practices, and enhances student learning. Using a qualitative approach, 10 senior leaders (i.e., chief information officers, superintendents, etc.) were interviewed. A combination of open-ended and closed-ended questions were used to reveal the most important factors driving technology acquisition, research support, governance procedures, data use, and assessment and return on investment (ROI) measures utilized by school districts in their implementation of educational technology. After participants were interviewed, the data were transcribed, member checked, and then submitted to " Computer-assisted NCT analysis " (Friese, 2014) using ATLAS.ti. The findings show that senior leaders are making acquisitions that are not aligned with current scholarship and not with student learning as the focus. It was also determined that districts struggle to use data-driven decision-making to support the governance of educational technology spending. Finally, the results showed that districts do not have effective assessment measures in place to determine the efficacy or ROI of a purchased technology. Although data are limited to the responses of 10 senior leaders, findings represent the technology leadership for approximately 746,000 Ontario students. The study is meant to serve as an informative resource for senior leaders and presents strategic and research-validated approaches to technology procurement. Further, the study has the potential to refine technology decision-making, policies, and practices in K–12 education. iii Acknowledgements
... According to Baker (2016) this role of the teacher librarian is very important because students need to have skills in multiple literacies so that they acquire the skills and knowledge to succeed in this ever-changing technological society. Some studies have shown that teacher-librarians are poised to take on this role (Branch-Mueller & DeGroot 2011;Johnston, 2012b). For example, Johnston (2012b) examined school librarians as technology integration leaders, noting that teacher-librarians are uniquely positioned to undertake the role of technology leadership because of their 'knowledge of pedagogical principles and curriculum, paired with technology and information expertise, ' (p.15). ...
... The literature, however, also points to several contextual factors that have been inhibiting the teacher librarian from assuming such a critical role. These factors include uncollaborative and unsupportive staff, insufficient quantity of resources, insufficient staffing of the libraries, low perception of many school librarians in the organizational structure of the school, obsolete equipment, lack of time to work with teachers including planning and learning about the technologies among others (Calvert, 2016;Johnston, 2012b). For the teacher librarian to overcome some of these barriers he or she will require strong leadership skills which will involve being innovative and adaptive. ...
... When principals have a positive working relationship with teacher librarians, principals can serve as advocates and a source of support to promote school librarians as instructional partners. The quality of the relationship between the principal and the school librarian impacts the school library and the librarian's place within the school (Johnston, 2012b). ...
Article
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The ability of teacher librarians worldwide to develop and maintain school library programmes has been severely constrained by a number of factors ranging from inadequate budgetary allocations, lack of support from principals and other key stakeholders such as Ministry of Education personnel. However, even with limited funding and support, some teacher librarians have used ingenious strategies to develop and maintain their library programmes. This literature review synthesizes international research obtained from peer-reviewed journals, theses and professional papers on the personal attributes that a teacher librarian should possess in order to influence the development of a school library programme and the types of relationships the teacher librarian need to have with key stakeholders to be successful. The literature examined spanned a time period mostly from 2000-2018. The literature review found that leadership, collaboration, communication and interpersonal skills were the dominant skills a teacher librarian should possess in order to develop and maintain a school library programme alongside a good relationship with the school community.
... Original survey research rarely uses all of the data collected and this unused data can provide answers or different perspectives to other questions or issues (Heaton, 2008, Johnston, 2012Smith, 2008), yet the key to using existing survey data effectively to find meaningful answers is a good fit between the research question and the dataset (Doolan & Froelicher, 2009;Kiecolt & Nathan, 1985;Magee et al, 2006). In this study, the research questions fit well with that of the original study since both studies focused on school librarians and technology leadership. ...
... Secondary data analysis offers methodological benefits and can contribute to LIS research through generating new knowledge (Heaton, 2008, Johnston, 2012Smith, 2008). The overall goal of this method is the same as that of others, to contribute to scientific knowledge through offering an alternate perspective; it only differs in its reliance on existing data. ...
Article
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Technological advances have led to vast amounts of data that has been collected, compiled, and archived, and that is now easily accessible for research. As a result, utilizing existing data for research is becoming more prevalent, and therefore secondary data analysis. While secondary analysis is flexible and can be utilized in several ways, it is also an empirical exercise and a systematic method with procedural and evaluative steps, just as in collecting and evaluating primary data. This paper asserts that secondary data analysis is a viable method to utilize in the process of inquiry when a systematic procedure is followed and presents an illustrative research application utilizing secondary data analysis in library and information science research.
... Another study by [29] provided one of the most detailed models applicable for a description of factors that served as barriers to the integration of new technology into libraries. A wide list of barriers was considered in this paper, and each of them should be assessed from the perspective of its applicability to the target population of this paper. ...
... A wide list of barriers was considered in this paper, and each of them should be assessed from the perspective of its applicability to the target population of this paper. The following barriers were mainly highlighted in the aspect of new technology integration among librarians: the lack of time, exclusion of librarians from leadership roles, the lack of funding, inadequate staffing, the climate of competition in the workplace, technology resources, fixed schedule, the lack of role definition and absence of managerial support, the lack of professional development and expertise, feeling of frustration and absence of workfamily balance, and personal health [29]. Altogether, it is clear that professional librarians could face a significant range of problems and barriers that might not allow them to contribute to the integration of new technology into the workplace. ...
Article
This study assessed the problem of the development of new technology and knowledge management in cultural organizations. The specific role of the community of practice (CoP) as an instrument of change management and knowledge generation in cultural organizations was considered. In terms of the study problem, qualitative research methods were used for the analysis of the academic literature and practical cases of libraries in Florida. The outcomes of the study demonstrated that the CoP did not play a negative role in the process of new technology integration in cultural organizations. In contrast, CoPs played a serious positive role thus generating ideas for innovations and supporting the personnel of libraries in their development. Concerning sources of barriers, the lack of resources, limited capabilities of librarians, and low support of management were considered the main issues. Further research should identify specific recommendations applicable for the improvement of the situation and sharing of the best experience in the sphere of digital transformation of cultural organizations.
... The complex relationship between the school librarian and other technology specialists in the school was identified as a factor in school librarians' leadership enactment in technology integration, serving as an enabler when there is a collaborative relationship and as a barrier when the relationship is competitive (Johnston, 2012). The goal of this research was to serve as a foundation on which to build research-based strategies to support practicing school librarians who seek to overcome barriers, and to distinguish those factors that enable this vital role to be achieved in practice. ...
... School librarians were charged, "to play a leading role in weaving such skills throughout the curriculum so that all members of the school community are effective users of ideas and information" (AASL, 2009, p. 46). It is this "weaving" or the integration of technology into the curricular areas where school librarians, based on their knowledge of pedagogical principles and school curriculum, technology expertise, and collaborative experience, can serve as leaders and valuable assets to their schools (Johnston, 2012). These standards further asserted that with the changing information landscape of the 21st century that includes interactive technologies and a participatory culture, school librarians must evolve as leaders to address the needs of this new generation of learners. ...
Article
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Empowering Learners: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs (AASL, 2009) charges school librarians “to play a leading role in weaving such skills throughout the curriculum so that all members of the school community are effective users of ideas and information” (p. 46). Providing leadership in technology integration for the purposes of learning is paramount and the responsibility for leading this movement to prepare learners for participating and succeeding in our global society is seemingly placed with school librarians. While school librarians were once the sole person responsible for technology in the schools, the proliferation of technology in education has resulted in the emergence and adaptation of roles and responsibilities, one such role being the instructional technology specialist. This article reports findings on how the presence of an instructional technology specialist can either enable or deter a school librarian enacting a leadership role in technology integration.
... The qualitative research methodology eased the analyst to assess things in their natural surroundings, endeavouring to understand, or interpret occurrences concerning the consequences that individuals carry with them. Johnston (2012) submitted that technological developments have prompted immense measures of information that has ...
... The bigger samples are more demonstrative of the target population and consider more noteworthy legitimacy and more generalisable conclusions. Having admittance to this kind of data provides access to all investigators, even the beginner or unfunded researcher, consequently levelling chances and building limit with respect to empirical study (Johnston 2012) in the LIS enquire about. ...
Article
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Background: Technology and innovation were envisaged as the key to competitive advantages and have become a hallmark of business life worldwide. Without technologies and invention practically, no organisation can survive. Thus, this required a clear understanding of how managing innovation and technology influenced business survival. This was much more explicit in an unprecedented and unavoidable competition in the business world environment, and particularly in the local government authorities’ context, it can be of great significance. Objectives: The main objective of this article was to provide a framework for assessing the effects of managing competitive advantage through technology and innovation in the context of metropolitan cities. This study also helped to provide an understanding of how technological innovation factors affected the performance of organisation effectiveness. Methodology: The methodology used in this study was mainly the secondary data analysis. A complete and thoroughly secondary data analysis process has been utilised as a research design and approach to complete this research work. This section rationalised the selection of the preferred methodology, dealt with data collection and data analysis and covered how data originated from secondary data sources. Results: One of the fundamental contributions of this investigation has been the development of a pool of valuable data in relation to managing technology and innovation for sustainable competitive advantage in the City Government of Taiwan as public sector. Furthermore and based on the results of reviewing and evaluating the relevant literature and theories taken together, this study has led to the development and proposal of a model, the conceptual framework. This developed conceptual framework reflected the bond between managing competitive advantage techniques through technology and innovation and business performances, which can be applied to different business sectors of the central government. The concept can also be applied to different businesses or to different countries confronted by similar challenges and issues of managing technology and innovation. Conclusion: This article posited the importance of managing competitive advantage through technology and innovation, particularly as an essential ingredient of competitive advantage for the local government authorities or metropolitans and municipalities.
... This study largely employs a secondary data analysis of the phenomenon in a descriptive analysis. The significance of using existing survey data and originally published data, to find meaningful answers cannot be overemphasized (Creswell, 2014;Johnston, 2012;Smith, 2008) The results of the entire NECO-SSCE candidates in the country were accumulated using readily published results by NECO body. The valid results of the candidate's performance were arranged into the year of the examination, a number of candidates that sat for the examination and number of candidates that passed the examination with credit pass in the years under investigation which was from 2009 to 2017. ...
Article
This paper analyses some of the factors that hinder the performance of Secondary School Students on the National Examination Council-Senior School Certificate Examination in Nigeria in the area of English as a foreign language standard examination. After juxtaposing the NECO-SSCE performances over the years, the study utilized several empirical studies, with quantitative framework, to examine these factors that both have positive or negative significance and influence in underpinning the academic performances of the learners. Several factors such as the learners' attitudinal factor, teachers' input and teaching strategy including years of experience and teaching qualifications, socioeconomic and cultural background of the learners, parenting attitude, age and gender factor, exposure to the target language, learning materials and host of others have been identified and discussed. The paper, however, considers these factors as applicable to most of the standard tests on English as a target language not only peculiar to the Nigerian NECO-SSCE English examination. Finally, the paper suggests certain recommendations which chiefly centre on offering professional development to teachers as well as encourage the stakeholders to cater for the needs and comfort of the students.
... The adoption of new technologies would help to improve the library services to a greater extent. The changing needs for information among the 21 st -century users have been redefined the role of librarians (Johnston, 2012). The need for reskilling and upskilling the librarians due to the technological developments is mandatory (Brown et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
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The impetus for conducting this study is to showcase the penetration of technologies in libraries and its smooth functioning. Major technological trends viz. Blockchain, Robotics, Drones, Mobile Apps and Big data and their adoption and application in libraries have been discussed in different studies by the author. Based on the cumulative analysis of the literature available and the subsequent studies by the author, the areas in the library functions as well as services to which the technology could be applied were identified and discussed. The study found that all the technologies have potential in the libraries such as creating an encrypted database, flying books, talking robots and so on. The adoption of these technologies would help to improve the library services to a greater extent. The study also provides a blueprint to LIS professionals to infuse new technologies to libraries and uplift the image of libraries, especially among the younger generation.
... This analysis builds on a robust body of literature within library science, as well as theoretical frameworks from literacy studies. Within the field of library science, the study of librarianship has typically framed professional identity within descriptions of tasks, roles, and status (Johnston, 2012;Lance, Rodney, & Hamilton-Pennell, 2000), which differs from a sociocultural literacy framework. Integrating a sociocultural framework into library sciences therefore evokes dissonance. ...
... These televised episodes reported ghostwriting strategies with improper use of paid contract writing agencies by university students. Secondary research allows for greater interaction between theory and empirical data because the researcher is not burdened with the practicalities of data collection (Hakim 1982); although their data analysis is limited by lack of opportunity for follow-up to gather additional data or specifics of the data collection processes (Johnston 2012(Johnston , 2014. Moreover, secondary data such as commercial output from investigative journalism comprises "action news" that are more inclusive of sensitive findings than scholarly output (Haggerty 2004). ...
Article
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Educational institutions rely on academic citizenship behaviors to construct knowledge in a responsible manner. However, they often struggle to contain the unlawful reuse of knowledge (or academic citizenship transgressions) by some learning communities. This study draws upon secondary data from two televised episodes describing contract cheating (or ghostwriting) practices prevalent among international student communities. Against this background, we have investigated emergent teaching and learning structures that have been extended to formal and informal spaces with the use of mediating technologies. Learners’ interactions in formal spaces are influenced by ongoing informal social experiences within a shared cultural context to influence learners’ agency. Building upon existing theories, we have developed an analytical lens to understand the rationale behind cheating behaviors. Citizenship behaviors are based on individual and collective perceptions of what constitutes as acceptable or unacceptable behavior. That is, learners who are low in motivation and are less engaged with learning may collude; more so, if cheating is not condemned by members belonging to their informal social spaces. Our analytical lens describes institutional, cultural, technological, social and behavioral contexts that influence learner agency.
... Johnston's study (2012) found that this attribute is enabling as a factor; if the school librarian had a relationship with a supportive school management it helped the librarian to facilitate technology integration activities. Consequently, a Academic Staff Union of Polytechnics, Zone C 4 th National Conference (Virtual) 27 th -29 th October, 2020 380 supportive school management or climate is one which encourages professional development, facilitates funding for the library, and encourages the librarian to take a leadership role in the school (Johnston, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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The disruption by COVID-19 from its entry into Lagos in February, 2020, has affected various sectors of the economy and particularly, the fisheries sector. While it has been reported that COVID-19 virus does not infect seafoods, it has been found to alter food systems. This study assessed the pains and gains (impacts) of COVID-19 pandemic on the fisheries at the fishing settlement, retail, wholesale and industrial levels using questionnaires, interview sessions with key management and relevant personnel, focused group discussions as well as secondary data from the target industry. It covered period before lockdown (pre-COVID-19; December 2019-February, 2020), during lockdown (COVID-19 lockdown; March-June, 2020) and that following the lockdown (post-COVID-19; July-August, 2020). Qualitative and quantitative data from artisanal, retail, wholesale and industrial sub-sectors showed that while the pandemic caused decline in income and impairment of livelihood, it increased costs of logistics, electricity supply, production and commuting while the quality of seafood harvested was unaffected. It had positive impacts on personnel health consciousness and hygiene, fish catch at both the artisanal and industrial sub-sectors, and reduced stress levels but varying effects on fish consumption, staff emolument and cost of products.
... Recent research (Project Tomorrow, 2014) illustrates that teachers are in need of professional development instruction for locating and identifying digital content, especially digital videos. Other professionals, such as school librarians and instructional technologists, may also be capable of connecting effectively with educators by taking into account varying perspectives of users, including, but not limited to, age, gender and grade level taught, to aid and design specific instruction for teachers in locating and using digital video to meet their instructional needs (Green, 2013;Johnston, 2012;Khoo, 2006;Mardis, 2009;Mardis et al., 2012;Perrault, 2007a;Zhou, 2014). ...
Article
Purpose This article aims to examine how the interactions and perceptions of users from a defined domain, i.e. science education, vary across different groups of teachers while retrieving video. Given the prevalence of digital resources in use in education today, it is critical to assess users’ perspectives and experiences for retrieving information across different contexts and individual user groups. Design/methodology/approach Interactive search experiments with 28 users were performed. A pre-experiment questionnaire collected the demographic information used to form groups for comparison in the present study. Users attempted six experimenter-developed topics using a prototype video retrieval system; experimental measures were recorded, including all actions, completion rates, errors and durations. Users rated their experiences and levels of satisfaction with different aspect of the system after each search topic. Data analyses included mean comparisons across the different groups. Findings A variety of influences emerged from the results, including significant variations among teachers’ interactions, levels of satisfaction and expectations across different groups of users. Research limitations/implications Understanding the interactions and perceptions when retrieving digital video provides insights for information professionals on how to better support the needs of different users. If systems are not taking into account users and context, there can be a mismatch between the needs of users and interactive systems, which can lead to low perceptions and further underuse of digital resources. Originality/value Although similar influences on digital libraries have been analysed in other contexts, they have not been directly assessed, as they specifically pertain to experiences with and perceptions of video.
... Developing a leadership curriculum (Everhart and Dresang, 2007) Impact of school librarian preparation programs on leadership development (Smith, 2009) Leadership of National Board Certified School Librarians (Everhart, Mardis and Johnston, 2011) Enablers and barriers to technology leadership (Johnston, 2012) School-wide leadership for the first-year school librarian (Mardis and Everhart, 2014) Leadership in the adoption of digital textbooks (Kang, 2015) Resistance The output of this phase is an explicit, informed, conceptual framework that often takes the form of a model and/or metaphor that is developed from the theorist's knowledge of and experience with the phenomenon, issue, or problem concerned. (Lynham, 2002, 232). ...
Article
Meta-ethnography is an interpretive method that provides a way to synthesize the findings of two or more qualitative studies concerning a similar research question or topic. Going beyond the traditional literature review, which looks at individual studies, meta-ethnography facilitates generalizations through extracting concepts, metaphors, and themes. This paper provides a thorough description of the seven steps of meta-ethnography as defined by Noblit and Hare (1988). Implications for this method and the field of Library and Information Science (LIS), especially in the area of theory building, are discussed. Appropriate examples of actual and potential applications within LIS and related disciplines are given to illustrate the potential for the meta-ethnographic method.
Article
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In 2003 Delia Neuman wrote "Research in School Library Media for the Next Decade: Polishing the Diamond." One of the most influential pieces on school library research written in the last twenty years, the article provided a map for school library research by defining areas of concern and importance. Neuman developed questions grounded in the research and scholarship of the field at that time. These questions served as a charge for researchers to address in the next ten years. Neuman called on researchers to "polish the diamond and make it shine more brightly in its own right and sparkle more valuably in the larger field of education" (2003, 504). This study uses Neuman's model of the diamond to examine school library research and scholarship from 2004 through 2014. Following Neuman's guiding questions through a systematic review of the literature from the past ten years, this study finds that there is still much "polishing" to be done by school library researchers, and like Neuman, defines new "facets" that provide future direction to "move forward both the field's research agenda and its effective practice" (Neuman 2003, 505).
Article
One cannot discuss school libraries without touching the role of school librarians. For a library to be effective there need to be a professional librarian. The aim of the paper was to identify the roles played by school librarians in the school vicinity. The paper highlighted that the teacher librarian or school librarian should be well qualified as a teacher and a librarian so as to be able to play his/her role in teaching, and providing the library services. The researcher made some recommendations based on literature that every school library should be staffed by a professional school librarian who will be able to effectively perform his/her librarian duties maximally. School librarians should also be trained as a teacher as well as be trained as a librarian so that they are competent in their duties.
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The study explores library programs in primary and secondary schools in Croatia and Hong Kong. The aim is to find what library programs the school libraries in Croatia and Hong Kong run in their schools, how these programs affect students’ learning and what are similarities and differences between school libraries in Croatia and Hong Kong. The study findings show that school libraries on both locations run programs to support students’ reading and to enhance their information literacy and research skills. School library programs in Croatia and Hong Kong include some similar components but also differ in some respects in approach and content. School librarians in Croatia involve wider community engagement while school librarians in Hong Kong apply technology for collection development and library instruction. Library programs in schools in both locations transcend the school walls and reach beyond the school curriculum as well.
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The leadership of librarians (notably, school librarians) is sometimes invisible, or at least rarely acknowledged. This chapter explores one academic’s experiences as a school librarian and the inherent leadership roles embedded in her work. Despite years of impact studies, the visibility of the school librarian as a competent school or university leader has remained elusive. Recent shifts in the paradigm of the principal as the sole positional leader to a distributed leadership model has enabled other educators, particularly school librarians, to become engaged leaders in literacy, reading promotion, information fluency, personalized learning, and positive student learning outcomes. This chapter will examine the leadership of school librarians in the context of positioning the librarian in the central role of a recognized leader rather than as an informal leader in the shadow of others.
Article
Decades following the advent of geospatial technology use in government, industry, and academia, elementary and secondary classrooms remain mostly uninitiated in the ways of spatial analysis, data collection, and map creation. While computers have become more common in schools, limitations of bandwith, accessibility, and familiarity remain barriers to using geospatial technology across the curriculum. A multitude of small studies has been undertaken describing the success of teachers using geospatial technology in classrooms, yet these reports have not led to widespread usage by technology, geography, science, or social studies teachers. Geospatial technology professionals who shared their enthusiasm for this resource with educators decades earlier remain surprised at the continued dearth of geographic information science (GIS) in pre-collegiate classrooms. This review uses survey results from seven professional development workshops in Colorado to frame a discussion of the cycle of adoption of new technologies by K-12 educators. Survey results in Colorado substantiate previously-identified concerns about the time it takes to learn and instruct using GIS, the increased burden of teaching English and math as part of science and social studies instruction, and the technical challenges associated with lack of up-to-date computers and sufficient bandwidth. Librarians, who are often overlooked as educational collaborators, can become equal partners in educational ventures. As more and more patrons of libraries wish to explore digital maps, academic librarians trained in GIS will be called to assist patrons in addressing new challenges and can model this behavior for K-12 educators and school librarians. Based on the survey comments from Colorado K-12 teachers interested in geospatial technologies, geographers, academic librarians, and school librarians should consider developing approaches that support elementary and secondary educators in learning and teaching with geospatial technology.
Article
Research has shown that collaboration between teachers and librarians has a positive effect on student learning, but can be difficult to achieve. In order to explore the incorporation of teacher and librarian collaboration into preservice education, two master?s level classes studying young adult literature, one in teacher education and one in library and information studies (LIS), were given an assignment that required them to work together to complete a week?s worth of lesson plans for a high school English class based on a commonly read novel. Student responses demonstrate limiting and enabling factors that affect integrating collaboration into professional preparation.
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Although the conditions for successful technology integration finally appear to be in place, including ready access to technology, increased training for teachers, and a favorable policy environment, high-level technology use is still surprisingly low. This suggests that additional barriers, specifically related to teachers' pedagogical beliefs, may be at work. Previous researchers have noted the influence of teachers' beliefs on classroom instruction specifically in math, reading, and science, yet little research has been done to establish a similar link to teachers' classroom uses of technology. In this article, I argue for the importance of such research and present a conceptual overview of teacher pedagogial beliefs as a vital first step. After defining and describing the nature of teacher beliefs, including how they are likely to impact teachers' classroom practice I describe important implications for teacher professional development and offer suggestions for future research.
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This study is an assessment of the impact of Alaska school librarians on academic achievement in the state's public schools. It examines the direct relationship between such staffing and student performance and identifies selected activities of library media staff that affect test scores. Other conditions of library media center operation were also considered as potential predictors of academic achievement. During the 1997-98 school year, library media centers in 211 Alaska public schools were surveyed about their staffing levels, hours of operation, staff activities, usage, technology, policies, and cooperation with public libraries. Each library media program characteristic was assessed as a potential predictor of academic achievement, and relationships among potential library media predictors that might create indirect effects on academic achievement were also examined. Recommendations for raising student achievement levels are included. Appendices include a bibliography, list of participants, copy of the questionnaire, a brochure entitled "A School Librarian Can Make a Difference!" and early results briefs. Although the findings, conclusions, and recommendations reported in this work are substantially the same as those of its original edition, this edition corrects typographical and transcription errors, eliminates unnecessary and misleading methodological information, clarifies ambiguous statements, corrects misinterpretations of statistical details, and contains citations accidentally left out of the original bibliography. (MES)
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In 1993, the Colorado State Library published "The Impact of School Library Media Centers on Academic Achievement." This follow-up study focuses attention on the library media specialist and the services she or he provides throughout the building, rather than just the library media center as a specific place, and emphasizes the fact that better library media services lead to better student performance on standards-based tests. In addition to confirming and updating the findings of the first Colorado study, this project expands on the original study's results by measuring the impact on academic achievement of specific leadership and collaboration activities of library media specialists; principal and teacher engagement in library media programs; and information technology, particularly networked computers offering licensed databases and the Internet/World Wide Web. On all three counts, this study showed a positive impact. This study is put into perspective with past research as well as the American Association of School Librarians' new standards, "Information Power." It contains reports of the findings in a variety of readily usable formats, including: an executive summary, a brochure, and a brief report that includes similar studies completed recently for Alaska and Pennsylvania. Appendices include a bibliography; list of participants; sample survey form; the brochure; and a section of "Fast Facts" and PowerPoint slides. Includes 40 tables and 2 figures. (AEF)
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Stories of leadership successes follow a familiar structure: A charismatic leader, often the CEO or school principal, takes over a struggling school, establishing new goals and expectations and challenging business as usual within the organization. This leader creates new organizational routines and structures that with time transform the school's culture, contributing in turn to greater teacher satisfaction, higher teacher expectations for students, and improved student achievement.
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This study focused on "digital natives" as preservice teachers to examine their beliefs, attitudes, and technology experiences and expertise, identify the strengths and weaknesses in their technology knowledge and skills, and explore what technology preparation was needed to prepare them to integrate technology in their future classrooms. Results reveal that (a) the digital-native preservice teachers reported strong positive beliefs in technol-ogy, yet moderate confidence and reserved attitude in using technology; (b) the majority (80%) of them spent the most time on social-communication activities, and only about 10% of them spent the most time on learning-related activities; (c) they were very proficient with basic technologies but were not familiar with more advanced technologies; (d) the scope of their use of Web 2.0 technologies was limited to mainly social-networking Web sites, and they lacked the experiences and expertise in using Web 2.0 technologies with great potential for classroom application; and (e) they lacked experiences and expertise in using classroom technologies, especially assistive technologies. The results suggest that, growing up with technology, digital natives as preservice teachers are savvy with basic technologies and social-communication technologies. However, their technology proficiency is limited by both the narrow scope and the lack of depth of their technol-ogy activities. Systematic technology preparation is needed to help them learn more advanced technologies, classroom technologies, and assistive technologies, and more important, to help them make the connections between technology and teaching and to help them make the transition from digital-native students to digital-native teachers.
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This paper describes strategies used by the authors to assist preservice social studies teachers with understanding and applying models and practices for effectively integrating technology into their future classrooms—thus, strengthening the link between technology and pedagogy (or technological pedagogical content knowledge). Efforts with preservice teachers described here have been informed by the authors' successes assisting in-service teachers with understanding how technology can empower inquiry-based teaching practices in social studies classrooms, as well as efforts to more fully integrate technology into the overall teacher education programs at the authors' institutions.
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The role of school library media specialists and the competencies they need in order to succeed have changed and expanded over many years. This paper reviews research and other publications related to competencies and the preparation of school library media specialists. Although few research studies directly address competencies and educational programs for school library media specialists, several have implications for one or both. First, Information Power (1988, 1998) and its relationship to competencies and preparation programs is discussed. Second, publications and documents that focus on competencies are reviewed. Third, research studies and conceptual papers with implications for competencies and preparation of school library media specialists are examined. Finally, conclusions and implications for research and the preparation of school library media specialists are offered.
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Este artigo concentrou-se nas continuidades históricas entre a literacidade na internet e a literacidade no impresso, de forma que as expectativas ambiciosas que a sociedade guarda para a literacidade no impresso (notadamente, a importância de escrever tão bem quanto ler e a expectativa de um entendimento crítico) podem ser estendidos para a literacidade na internet na era da informação, porque isso não apenas dá suporte para uma forma de trabalho qualificada, mas também assegura expressão cultural, participação cívica e deliberação democrática. Questionamos o senso comum em relação à habilidade dos mais jovens com a internet, não apenas para desafiá-los, mas para fazer ver a deficiência social em dar o suporte suficiente para sua literacidade.
Article
This study explores Virginia elementary school principals' perceptions of the instructional role of the library media specialist and the origin of these perceptions. Principals who responded to the study strongly endorse the role of library media specialist as teacher of information literacy skills and as instructional partner. Respondents indicated that they learn about the instructional role of the library media specialist from library media specialists with whom they work, either in their current positions as principals or through their previous experiences as classroom teachers. Principals form their views on the basis of both negative and positive interactions with library media specialists and base their expectations of their current and future library media specialists on these prior experiences and expectations. Another key finding was that principals place primary responsibility for initiation of collaboration at both the individual teacher level and the school level with the library media specialist. These findings indicate that school library media specialist preparation programs should prepare their graduates to positively present and advocate for their key instructional role and that training in this area should be provided for those library media specialists already in the field.
Article
Global interconnectedness enabled by information technology calls for new skills, knowledge and ways of learning to prepare students for living and working in the 21st century. Guided Inquiry equips students with abilities and competencies to address the challenges of an uncertain, changing world. School librarians are vital partners in creating schools that enable students to learn through vast resources and multiple communication channels. School libraries are dynamic learning centers in information age schools with school librarians as primary agents for designing schools for 21st century learners.
Article
To determine if practicing school library media specialists perceive they have been able to implement their roles as described in Information Power: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs (1988) and Information Power: Building Partnerships for Learning (1998), a survey was developed by the researcher. The survey further sought to determine if school library media specialists perceive it is important to assume a leadership role in the use of instructional technology. The survey was distributed to a random sample of 1,000 school library media specialists. Analysis of the 505 returned surveys indicates that school library media specialists perceive they are unable to fully implement their roles in practice. The most frequent barriers to full implementation were lack of time, including lack of time to plan with teachers; lack of adequate funding; lack of interest and support of classroom teachers; use of a fixed schedule; lack of clerical staff; and too many schools or students to provide for. Elementary school library media specialists who use flexible scheduling perceive they are able to practice more roles than library media specialists who use either combination or fixed scheduling.
Article
Results of a survey of American Library Association (ALA)-accredited programs of library and information science (LIS) suggest that many prospective school library media specialists are being educated in comprehensive, graduate-level only programs. Many of these programs aim to create competent information professionals who can be effective leaders, collaborators, and teachers in the educational community. The curricula emphasize technology and instructional design as well as more traditional areas of professional librarianship such as resources for children and youth and reference services. The candidates—who are representing an increasing portion of students in graduate LIS education programs—are expected to meet the same admissions and academic performance standards as students enrolled in MLS programs. Impending shortages of school library media specialists and state certification requirements that are out-of-step with current best practices are concerns for those who work to educate future media specialists.
Article
Copyright of works published in School Libraries Worldwide is jointly held by the author(s) and by the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL). The author(s) retain copyright of their works, but give permission to IASL to reprint their works in collections or other such documents published by or on behalf of IASL. Author(s) who give permission for their works to be reprinted elsewhere should inform the editor of School Libraries Worldwide and should ensure that the following statement appears with the article: Reprinted with permission, from School Libraries Worldwide, <issue volume, number, date, pages> The leadership role of the library media specialists is the most important factor in establishing the viability of the school media program. The purpose of this study was to determine how preservice media specialists in the United States perceive leadership responsibilities and certain tasks associated with the school library media profession. One hundred and fifty preservice media specialists enrolled at five universities in the southeastern US were asked to participate in this study. Data indicated that many of the preservice media specialists in this study viewed themselves as support personnel rather than school leaders. For the most part, this research establishes the need to include leadership development courses in the degree programs offered to preservice media specialists.
Article
Copyright of works published in School Libraries Worldwide is jointly held by the author(s) and by the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL). The author(s) retain copyright of their works, but give permission to IASL to reprint their works in collections or other such documents published by or on behalf of IASL. Author(s) who give permission for their works to be reprinted elsewhere should inform the editor of School Libraries Worldwide and should ensure that the following statement appears with the article: Reprinted with permission, from School Libraries Worldwide, <issue, volume, number, date, pages> This study examined the extent of information literacy instruction in grades 6 and 7 and the degree to which a variety of supportive factors are in place in classrooms and school library programs in one western Canadian province. Based on responses to questionnaires from teachers and teacher-librarians, four trends emerged: (a) the existence of broad-level support in schools including a constructivist teaching and learning environment, principals' support of information literacy, and teachers' knowledge of information literacy; (b) the need for school-and district-level frameworks of information literacy; (c) the need for increased attention to teaching ethical and critical thinking aspects of information literacy; and (d) challenges to increasing the potential role of the school library program. Implications for teacher-librarians as school leaders of the "new literacies" required to participate in the Information Age are presented.
Article
There is no question that principal support is vital to the establishment and maintenance of a quality library media program. The problem is the support flows from trust, and trust flows from understanding. Many principals do not understand what teacher-librarians really do, nor do they appreciate the potential the library media program has for contributing to student and faculty achievement. Principals' perceptions of school libraries and teacher-librarians have been shaped by four interactive forces. The first is their own experiences in school libraries as children, in which they perceived the library as peripheral to the classroom. The second is the effect of their professional training, in which the library's role in curriculum and instruction was consipicuously absent. The third is the nature of the teacher-librarian's work, which is to enable and empower others. The fourth is the low profile teacher-librarians and school libraries have in the professional literature read by teachers and administrators, which prevents them from updating their sense of what the library really is and can do. The cumulative result is that administrators have only a limited and inaccurate understanding of libraries and teacher-librarians. The only way to change principal perceptions is to assault them directly, repeatedly, and from a multiplicity of directions. Reshaping perceptions takes time and effort and commitment. In the meantime, these erroneous perceptions will continue to guide most principals' relationships with school library media specialists.
Article
In 2008, the United States' Institute for Museum and Library Services funded Project Leadership-in-Action (LIA) that included surveys of the technology integration practices of teacher librarian leaders with National Board Certification. Preliminary 2009 survey results suggested that the 295 respondents worked in well-resourced libraries with personnel assistance as well as numerous computers and devices. Respondents reported that they led school technology integration in many areas but also had areas in which to improve such as services to special needs learners, participation in student assessment, and transferring their leadership success to professional and local communities. Project Leadership-in-Action (LIA) Survey Questions are appended. (Contains 1 table and 6 figures.)
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Central Florida, 2002. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 147-151). "30-69460." Microfiche.
School Technology Leadership: An Empirical Investigation of Prevalence and Effect
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