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Rote Liste gefährdeter Pflanzen Deutschlands. Schriftenreihe für Vegetationskunde: 28

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... On the studied sites it was the first herbal plant species that started flowering. P. vulgaris is listed as a threatened plant species in the red list of threatened plant species of Germany (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996). It reproduces sexually as well as vegetatively (Wells and Barling 1971). ...
... Pulsatilla vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) was the first and only plant species flowering on the study sites when the study bees started to emerge. P. vulgaris is a perennial herb restricted to calcareous grasslands and listed as a threatened plant species on the red lists of threatened plant species of Germany and Bavaria (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996;Scheuerer and Ahlmer 2003). Reproduction is vegetative as well as sexual with bees being the main flower visitors (Kratochwil 1988 females, in all other models there was no significant effect and hence we excluded the number of emerged bee individuals from those models. ...
Thesis
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The right timing of phenological events is crucial for species fitness. Species should be highly synchronized with mutualists, but desynchronized with antagonists. With climate warming phenological events advance in many species. However, often species do not respond uniformly to warming temperatures. Species-specific responses to climate warming can lead to asynchrony or even temporal mismatch of interacting species. A temporal mismatch between mutualists, which benefit from each other, can have negative consequences for both interaction partners. For host-parasitoid interactions temporal asynchrony can benefit the host species, if it can temporally escape its parasitoid, with negative consequences for the parasitoid species, but benefit the parasitoid species if it increases synchrony with its host, which can negatively affect the host species. Knowledge about the drivers of phenology and the species-specific responses to these drivers are important to predict future effects of climate change on trophic interactions. In this dissertation I investigated how different drivers act on early flowering phenology and how climate warming affects the tritrophic relationship of two spring bees (Osmia cornuta & Osmia bicornis), an early spring plant (Pulsatilla vulgaris), which is one of the major food plants of the spring bees, and three main parasitoids of the spring bees (Cacoxenus indagator, Anthrax anthrax, Monodontomerus). In Chapter II I present a study in which I investigated how different drivers and their change over the season affect the reproductive success of an early spring plant. For that I recorded on eight calcareous grasslands around Würzburg, Germany the intra-seasonal changes in pollinator availability, number of co-flowering plants and weather conditions and studied how they affect flower visitation rates, floral longevity and seed set of the early spring plant P. vulgaris. I show that bee abundances and the number of hours, which allowed pollinator foraging, were low at the beginning of the season, but increased over time. However, flower visitation rates and estimated total number of bee visits were higher on early flowers of P. vulgaris than later flowers. Flower visitation rates were also positively related to seed set. Over time and with increasing competition for pollinators by increasing numbers of co-flowering plants flower visitation rates decreased. My data shows that a major driver for early flowering dates seems to be low interspecific competition for pollinators, but not low pollinator abundances and unfavourable weather conditions. Chapter III presents a study in which I investigated the effects of temperature on solitary bee emergence and on the flowering of their food plant and of co-flowering plants in the field. Therefore I placed bee cocoons of two spring bees (O. cornuta & O. bicornis) on eleven calcareous grasslands which differed in mean site temperature. On seven of these grasslands the early spring plant P. vulgaris occurred. I show that warmer temperatures advanced mean emergence in O. cornuta males. However, O. bicornis males and females of both species did not shift their emergence. Compared to the bees P. vulgaris advanced its flowering phenology more strongly with warmer temperatures. Co-flowering plants did not shift flowering onset. I suggest that with climate warming the first flowers of P. vulgaris face an increased risk of pollinator limitation whereas for bees a shift in floral resources may occur. In Chapter IV I present a study in which I investigated the effects of climate warming on host-parasitoid relationships. I studied how temperature and photoperiod affect emergence phenology in two spring bees (O. cornuta & O. bicornis) and three of their main parasitoids (C. indagator, A. anthrax, Monodontomerus). In a climate chamber experiment with a crossed design I exposed cocoons within nest cavities and cocoons outside of nest cavities to two different temperature regimes (long-term mean of Würzburg, Germany and long-term mean of Würzburg + 4 °C) and three photoperiods (Würzburg vs. Snåsa, Norway vs. constant darkness) and recorded the time of bee and parasitoid emergence. I show that warmer temperatures advanced emergence in all studied species, but bees advanced less strongly than parasitoids. Consequently, the time period between female bee emergence and parasitoid emergence decreased in the warm temperature treatment compared to the cold one. Photoperiod influenced the time of emergence only in cocoons outside of nest cavities (except O. bicornis male emergence). The data also shows that the effect of photoperiod compared to the effect of temperature on emergence phenology was much weaker. I suggest that with climate warming the synchrony of emergence phenologies of bees and their parasitoids will amplify. Therefore, parasitism rates in solitary bees might increase which can negatively affect reproductive success and population size. In this dissertation I show that for early flowering spring plants low interspecific competition for pollinators with co-flowering plants is a major driver of flowering phenology, whereas other drivers, like low pollinator abundances and unfavourable weather conditions are only of minor importance. With climate warming the strength of different drivers, which act on the timing of phenological events, can change, like temperature. I show that warmer temperatures advance early spring plant flowering more strongly than bee emergence and flowering phenology of later co-flowering plants. Furthermore, I show that warmer temperatures advance parasitoid emergence more strongly than bee emergence. Whereas temperature changes can lead to non-uniform temporal shifts, I demonstrate that geographic range shifts and with that altered photoperiods will not change emergence phenology in bees and their parasitoids. In the tritrophic system I investigated in this dissertation climate warming may negatively affect the reproductive success of the early spring plant and the spring bees but not of the parasitoids, which may even benefit from warming temperatures.
... The species recorded were assigned to one of the following ecological groups: "target species", "subordinated target species", "dry mesophilic grassland species", "ruderal species" and "other species" (Table 1). We defined as target species all species that are of conservation interest for one of the habitat types, "Xeric sand calcareous grasslands" or "European dry heaths" (Schuboth & Frank, 2010), or are listed in the red lists of Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler, 1996), or of Saxony-Anhalt (Frank et al., 2004). Subordinated target species are all species that are characteristic for the studied dry sandy grasslands or heathlands and show a phytosociological affiliation to Armerion elongatae communities or Genistion pilosae communities, respectively (BfN, 2011;Schubert, 2001). ...
... Plant height was significantly lower on grazed than ungrazed Table 1 Species allocation to ecological groups. Target species according to Schuboth & Frank (2010), Ludwig & Schnittler (1996) and Frank et al. (2004), affiliation to phytosociological groups according to Schubert (2001), Schubert et al. (2001) and BfN (2011). Table 2 Mean values ( ± SE) of species richness, N-values and structural parameters for grazed (G) and ungrazed (UG) plots and macroplots in 2015, seven years after the start of the experiment. ...
Article
The spread of competitive grasses, changes in species composition and vegetation structure are direct consequences of grassland and heathland abandonment. As an alternative to more costly management measures such as traditional pastoralism, year-round low-intensity grazing with large herbivores is increasingly used to restore and maintain semi-open habitats. However, the suitability of this grazing regime has not yet been investigated for long-abandoned, highly degraded but nutrient-poor sandy grassland and heathland communities. In particular, it is unclear if year-round grazing is suitable for preventing the further spread of highly competitive grasses such as Calamagrostis epigejos while simultaneously maintaining or improving characteristic species richness and vegetation structure. Hence, we conducted a comprehensive field study on two spatial scales (plot-level: 25 m², macroplot-level: 1 ha) to analyse the impacts of year-round low-intensity cattle and horse grazing on the development of the highly competitive grass Calamagrostis epigejos, as well as the vegetation structure and plant species richness of long-abandoned but nutrient-poor dry sandy grassland and heathland communities, their mosaics and Calamagrostis stands within an 800 ha heathland between 2008 and 2015. Finally, we assessed the local conservation status of the habitat types after seven years of grazing in comparison to long-abandoned sites. Grazing successfully reduced the coverage of Calamagrostis epigejos, whereby Calamagrostis stands developed towards species-rich sandy grasslands after seven years of grazing. In addition, the quality of the vegetation structure was improved by enhancing the proportion of bare soil, while litter and grass cover, litter thickness and height of the field layer as well as the coverage of ruderal indicators were significantly reduced on grazed sites in comparison to ungrazed sites in 2015. Moreover, we found an overall positive grazing effect on species richness: Total species number, number of target species as well as subordinated target species significantly increased within the vegetation types over time. Thus, year-round low-intensity cattle and horse grazing is a suitable management tool for restoring, maintaining and even improving long-abandoned, nutrient-poor sandy grassland and heathland communities, and thus to enhance the local conservation status of the habitat types. However, if there is a high initial cover of woody species (e.g. shrubs, tree rejuvenation), then an extensive shrub and tree clearance will be necessary, with manual shrub cutting being crucial to reduce the heavy regrowth of the woody species. In addition, a one-time mowing should be implemented in highly degraded heaths to facilitate the vegetative rejuvenation of degenerate stands of Calluna vulgaris, thus improving its attractiveness for the grazing animals.
... Most European countries have developed specific actions at the national or regional level in order to enhance lycopod and fern populations. National Red Lists or Red Data Books of vascular plants species are available for the following countries: Albania (Government of Albania 2013), Austria (Niklfeld and Schratt-Ehrendorfer 1999), Belarus ( Kachanovskiy et al. 2015), Belgium (for Flanders; Van Landuyt et al. 2006), Bosnia ( Šilić 1996), Bulgaria (Petrova and Vladimirov 2009), Croatia ( Nikolić and Topić 2007), Czech Republic (Grulich 2012), Cyprus ( Tsintides et al. 2007), Denmark (NERI 2007), Estonia (Lilleleht 2008), Finland ( Rassi et al. 2010), France (UICN France, FCBN and MNHN 2012), Germany ( Ludwig and Schnittler 1996), Great Britain ( Cheffings and Farrell 2005), Greece ( Phitos et al. 1995), Hungary ( Király 2007), Iceland (Náttúrufraeðistofnun Islands 1996, Oblong Woodsia (Woodsia ilvensis) suffered a decline in the past due to over-harvesting in the United Kingdom, but its current population trend is stable. It has been assessed as Least Concern. ...
... Most European countries have developed specific actions at the national or regional level in order to enhance lycopod and fern populations. National Red Lists or Red Data Books of vascular plants species are available for the following countries: Albania (Government of Albania 2013), Austria (Niklfeld and Schratt-Ehrendorfer 1999), Belarus ( Kachanovskiy et al. 2015), Belgium (for Flanders; Van Landuyt et al. 2006), Bosnia ( Šilić 1996), Bulgaria ( Petrova and Vladimirov 2009), Croatia ( Nikolić and Topić 2007), Czech Republic ( Grulich 2012), Cyprus ( Tsintides et al. 2007), Denmark (NERI 2007), Estonia ( Lilleleht 2008), Finland ( Rassi et al. 2010), France (UICN France, FCBN and MNHN 2012), Germany ( Ludwig and Schnittler 1996), Great Britain ( Cheffings and Farrell 2005), Greece ( Phitos et al. 1995), Hungary ( Király 2007), Iceland ( Náttúrufraeðistofnun Islands 1996, In most countries there are regional Red Lists available. In general, the majority of countries in Europe can count on a Red List of vascular plants. ...
... До таких в Україні належить Scutellaria altissima L. (Lamiaceae), яка внесена до офіційних списків регіонально рідкісних видів рослин Вінницької, Дніпропетровської, Житомирської, Кировоградської та Рівненської областей (Andrienko, Peregrym, 2012). Цей вид включений до Червоної книги Чехії та Словаччини як рідкісний та до Червоного списку рослин, які перебувають під загрозою зникнення в Німеччині (Holub, Michalko, 1990;Ludwig, Schnittler, 1996). Недостатня вивченість S. altissima є перешкодою у справі її науково обґрунтованої охорони. ...
Article
Geographical distribution and habitats of Scutellaria altissima (Lamiaceae), a regionally rare species of the Ukrainian flora, were studied. Its localities within the plain areas in the Forest-Steppe, Steppe (mainly on the Donetsk Ridge) Zones and in the Central Polissya are a part of the large European population of this species. In the Crimean Mountains, a separate exclave of its range within the country is located. In Ukraine, habitats of S. altissima are associated with deciduous forests, mainly with broadleaved forests. In the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones, S. altissima is a component of forest communities Scutellario altissimae-Quercion roboris confined to sub-floodplain river terraces and to ravines, respectively. In the Ukrainian Polissya, habitats of S. altissima represent the ecotones between deciduous forests and petrophytic communities. A contiguity of the habitats of S. altissima to river valleys and ravines determines linear (striped) structure of their populations. The impact of anthropogenic pressure leads to transformation of the linear populations into locally isolated ones.
... Hierbei handelt es sich um eine methodische Weiterentwicklung der Vorschläge von Schnittler & Ludwig (1996), die als Grundlage zur Erstellung der Roten Liste von 1998 dienten. Bei Ludwig et al. (2005) Ludwig et al. (2005) zufolge sollen zur Ermittlung des langfristigen Bestandstrendes Daten der letzten circa 50 bis 150 Jahre berücksichtigt werden. ...
... In all those countries, this species is registered in only one or two localities. The species is considered rare in Europe and is included on the Red Lists of some European countries (Ludwig et al. 1996;Temniskova et al. 2008). According to Perić & Perić (2007) and Baral (1984Baral ( , 2004, S. jurana is a mountaneous, red listed cup fungus in North and Central Europe, very rarely found on Tilia platyphyllos in Southern Europe (Serrano et al. 2007) and T. tomentosa Moench in Southeastern Europe (Savić et al. 2018). ...
Article
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This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: red algae Lemanea rigida and Paralemanea torulosa, mycorrhizal fungi Amanita simulans and Terfezia pseudoleptoder-ma, parasitic fungus Microbotryum vinosum, saprotrophic fungus Sarcoscypha jurana, stonewort Chara tenuispina, mosses Brachytheciastrum collinum and Meesia longiseta, monocots Dactylorhiza romana and Neotinea maculata and dicots Adenophora liliifolia, Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Tanacetum corym-bosum subsp. cinereum are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.
... (Kützing, 1843(Kützing, , 1849. Відтоді в наукових публікаціях протягом тривалого часу куляста макроскопічна водорість згадувалася як Cladophora aegagropila (Linnaeus) Trevisan (Van den Hoek, 1963;Ludwig, Schnittler, 1996;Tolstoy, Österlund, 2003) та Cladophora sauteri (Nees) Trevisan (Yoshida, 1964;Hirose et al., 1977). До того, як з'явилася можливість застосовувати молекулярно-біологічні методи, існувало припущення, що егагропіла є комплексом видів роду кладофора подібної морфологічної форми, що формують специфічні галуження лише за певних відповідних біотопічних та екологічних умов (Nakai et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The results of the analysis of the diversity of rare algae of Ukraine are presented. The discussion is the basis for inclusion in the fourth edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine the species Aegagropila linnaei Kütz. (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta), Paludicola keratophyta (Bory) M.L.Vis et Necchi (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta) and Lychnothamnus barbatus (Meyen) Leonhardi (Charales, Charophyta). Their descriptions, nomenclature history, ecological features and typological timing are given. Summarized information on the distribution of known species proposed for protection at the state level in Ukraine and the world. The publication is illustrated with original photos and drawings. The information is supplemented by maps with the indicated localities of growth.
... Referring to this community we considered Lilium bulbiferum L. as the target species in our experiment. Nowadays, Lilium bulbiferum is highly endangered due to continuous habitat loss, management intensification, and more frequent drought events (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996;van Elsen et al. 2006;Bos 2012;Meyer et al. 2013Meyer et al. , 2015. Current conservation measures aim at a long-term protection of remnant Lilium bulbiferum population by establishing rye fields that are subject to organic farming, using a typical lowland rye breed adapted to sandy and low-nutrient soils (so-called Champagne rye; Bos 2012). ...
Article
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Many recent studies have analysed plant species responses to environmental change, but interactive effects of global change drivers and how they are modulated by biotic interactions are still poorly understood. In a mesocosm experiment, we studied the interactive effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and drought events on plant growth and how these effects are shaped by competitive interactions, using a segetal plant community typical of the lowlands of central Europe (composed of Lilium bulbiferum (segetal species) and Secale cereale (crop species)). We expected that N fertilization increases the drought sensitivity of Lilium (negative interaction effect), and that these effects are shaped by interspecific competition with Secale. Secale and Lilium showed opposing responses to N fertilization (second year of the experiment): Whilst Secale aboveground and belowground biomass almost doubled with N fertilization, Lilium aboveground and belowground biomass showed no response or decreased, respectively, providing Secale with a competitive advantage. Lilium aboveground tissue dieback (as a proxy for growth vigour) was 22% in N and 35% in drought treatments (control: 6%), but reached 91% when combining these treatments. Increasing Lilium tissue dieback was strongly related to decreasing belowground (root) biomass, caused by both negative direct effects of combined treatments (N fertilization + drought), and negative indirect effects acting via treatment-induced increase in Secale biomass. Our results demonstrate that competitive interactions can shape the effects of global change drivers on plant growth. This knowledge in turn could be important for plant species conservation, particularly in the face of ongoing shifts in environmental conditions.
... In Q14b wurden zum Beispiel Peplis portula, Parnassia palustris, Carex vesicaria und Carex echinata gefunden, wobei darauf hingewiesen sei, dass der Quellbereich aufgrund intensiver Beweidung stark bedroht ist, was eine Gefährdung für die verbliebenen Individuen dieser Arten darstellt. Außerdem konnte in Q8, Q9 und Q15 Carex canescens nachgewiesen werden, die bei den Biotopkartierungen 1995Biotopkartierungen , 1996Biotopkartierungen und 1997 (luDwig & schnittler 1996, Breunig 2002. ...
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Carolinea 79 (2021): 19-63 Um den Zustand von Quellbiotopen im baden-württembergischen Odenwald bei Wilhelmsfeld zu untersuchen, wurden insgesamt 79 Wald- und Offenlandquellen erfasst, von denen 13 Quellen monatlich gewässerkundlich beprobt und 18 Offenlandquellen vegetationskundlich untersucht wurden. Quellen sind hier von Natur aus eher nährstoffarme Standorte, doch die Wasseranalysen sowie die Ausbreitung von nährstoffbedürftigen Pflanzenarten an einigen Quellen deuten an, dass über die Einzugsgebiete der Quellen teilweise erhebliche Nährstoffmengen eingetragen werden. Dies hängt vor allem mit den Intensivierungsmaßnahmen in der Landwirtschaft zusammen. Aufgrund veränderter Wirtschaftsformen geht dies häufig zusätzlich mit einer starken Trittbelastung durch Beweidung oder mit einsetzender Verbrachung von Quellstandorten einher. Das Brachfallen von Quellen begünstigt die Ausbildung von hochwüchsigen Dominanzbeständen, was zur Ausdunkelung kleinwüchsiger Arten führt und viele seltene Arten der Braunseggen- Sümpfe verdrängt, welche die offenen, nährstoffarmen Feuchtstandorte ursprünglich besiedelten. Zur Untersuchung des Zustandes der Offenlandquellen wurden die Bestände daher auf ihre Gesellschaftsnähe zu den Braunseggen-Sümpfen untersucht, wobei neben Relikten der Braunseggen-Sumpf Gesellschaften verschiedene Übergangsformen zu Sumpfdotterblumen-Wiesen, der Mädesüß-Fluren und der Großseggenriede beschrieben werden konnten, welche die Vegetation der Offenlandquellen im Untersuchungsgebiet heute prägen.
... It is critically endangered in Bulgaria (Petrova and Vladimirov, 2009) and endangered in the Czech Republic (Holub and Procházka, 2000) and Hungary (Király, 2007). It is considered as a taxon of least concern in France (UICN France et al., 2010), Germany (Ludwig and Schnittler, 1996) and Switzerland (Moser et al., 2002). x ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global warming on suitable niches of montane orchid, Traunsteinera globosa, using ecological niche modelling approach. Additionally, the effect of various climate change scenarios on future changes in the distribution and overlap of the orchid magnet species and pollinators was estimated. According to the conducted analyses the coverage of suitable niches of T. globosa will significantly decrease as a result of global warming and also pollinators of this orchid will face the habitat loss. The most important pollinators which will be present for most populations of the studied orchid will be Acmaeops collaris, Eristalis pertinax, Eristalis tenax and Rutpela maculata. The magnet species, Trifolium pratense, will be absent only in 5% of T. globosa range and in these regions the pollination success of orchid can be reduced. Another interesting result of the present study is that all models created for T. globosa indicated parts of the Caucasus as suitable for the occurrence of this orchid. Currently, these regions are home to other Traunsteinera representative – T. sphaerica which morphologically resembles T. globosa but it has white flowers. This result raise a question of the actual separateness of the two Traunsteinera species. It is possible that T. sphaerica should be considered as an ecotype of T. globosa.
... This ecosystem service is especially important from the perspective of nature conservation (Jurgeit et al., 1997;Funkel et al., 2003). In our study is represented by five functions: plant species richness, abundance of plant species endangered in Germany (Ludwig et al., 1996) and in Saxony-Anhalt (Frank et al., 1992), abundance of plant species characteristic for riparian corridors sensu Siedentopf (2005), as well as abundance of recently introduced alien plant species (neophytes; Table 1; Note S2). The latter function is considered a negative indicator of ecosystem functioning and consequently we included it in the analysis with a reversed value. ...
Article
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Various ecosystem functions provided by floodplains depend on a natural river activity and floodplain morphology. Therefore, anthropogenic alterations of rivers modify their flooding regimes and may affect the provisioning of numerous ecosystem functions. Restoration projects, which aim at reestablishing natural processes of floodplains, require a better understanding of the ecosystem’s ability to simultaneously provide multiple functions (multifunctionality) and how this relates to the environmental template. Here we investigate the relationship between environmental drivers and ecosystem multifunctionality. We focus on 24 ecosystem functions, representing five ecosystem services provided by floodplains of the Mulde River: plant productivity, biodiversity provisioning, retention of sediments, nutrients and pollutants. These functions were measured on 74 plots located on three well preserved floodplain sites of the Mulde River. We described synergies and trade-offs between single functions using correlations and calculated quantitative measures of ecosystem multifunctionality, quantified as the number of functions provided above either 50% of maximal functioning, or 75% of maximal functioning. We then explored relations of multifunctionality with two environmental factors, which also affect the probability of flooding i.e., the hydrological distance and the distance to the water table. Although numerous functions related to sedimentation processes were positively correlated to each other, they traded off with functions related to biodiversity provisioning. This advocates the application of a holistic measure of ecosystem functioning. Multifunctionality indices decreased with an increase of both distance to the water table and hydrological distance, with effects of the distance to the water table being most strongly negative. These findings imply that ecosystem multifunctionality is highest at sites which are flooded regularly. We conclude that restoration attempts which shorten hydrological distance and distance to the water table, like removal of artificial embankments or reconstruction of side channels, may have a positive effect not only on single functions, but also on overall ecosystem multifunctionality. We also advocate the application of a multifunctionality measure to facilitate management and restoration of floodplains.
... One of the rarest charophyte species worldwide is Lychnothamnus barbatus, the macroalga characterized by a disjunctive, Euro-Australasian distribution (Casanova, García & Feist, 2003;Bhatia, 2006;Sugier et al., 2010). The species is threatened by extinction, and is Red-listed in Poland (Siemi nska et al., 2006), Lithuania (Sinkevičienė, 2010), Germany (Schnittler & Ludwig, 1996), the Balkans (Blaženči c et al., 2006), and Australia, where the species was the first endangered non-vascular plant (Bostock & Holland, 2010). In Poland, L. barbatus is under strict protection because, in the Red List of Plants and Fungi in Poland (Mirek et al., 2006), it is classified as an endangered species of algae (Siemi nska et al., 2006). ...
Article
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In a time of rapid environmental changes, identification of the effects of climate warming on charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) will enable the optimization of conservation measures, especially for extremely rare species. Lychnothamnus barbatus is one of the rarest charophytes worldwide, which has decreased in the number of occupied sites over the last century. However, the recolonization of former sites has been observed in recent years (e.g. Lake Kuźnickie, Poland). The study aimed to analyse the effects of climatic changes and human pressure on the L. barbatus population. Three 30 cm sediment cores were collected from minimum, average, and maximum depths of L. barbatus occurrence to determine the past vegetation composition. Sediment cores were dated using the radioisotopes lead‐210, caesium‐137, and carbon‐14. A spatial analysis of the lake catchment changes during the last 120 years was also conducted. The study demonstrated L. barbatus presence in Lake Kuźnickie at the beginning of the 16th century. However, a sharp increase in the proportion of this species in the vegetation community occurred in the 19th century and during climate warming at the end of the Little Ice Age. Factors that significantly influenced the present occurrence of the L. barbatus population included improvement in water quality and the oospore bank deposited in the bottom sediments. This study is the first palaeoreconstruction in a modern lake dominated by L. barbatus. Based on the history of L. barbatus in Lake Kuźnickie after the end of the Little Ice Age, the positive effect of climate warming on the contemporary recovery of this charophyte is postulated. The reaction of L. barbatus to climate warming appears to differ from commonly accepted scenarios for aquatic macrophytes because its recovery in the past and at present coincided with increases in air temperature. This research indicated the appropriate management and conservation practices for lakes with L. barbatus populations.
... Thoreales are common in tropical and subtropical areas (Sheath and Hambrook 1990, Sheath et al. 1993, Carmona and Necchi 2001 and are considered rare and threatened in Europe (Eloranta et al. 2011). Accordingly, T. hispida is included in the Algae Red List in some European countries (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996, Sheliag-Sosonko 1996, Simienska 2006, Simić et al. 2007, Temniskova et al. 2008, Täuscher 2010, and it is still considered a species with a very restricted distribution (García and Aboal 2014 and references therein). In Italy, it was reported for the first time in Lombardia (northern Italy) in the Oglio River, a mid-size and nutrient-rich tributary of the Po River, where a seasonal monitoring study conducted during 2009-2011 revealed that a 40 km stretch hosted three T. hispida populations (Bolpagni et al. 2015 Ephemerum recurvifolium is a submediterranean-euryatlantic species quite rare in Europe, where it is considered at risk in many countries (Hodgetts and Lockhart 2020) and listed as Near Threatened in the new IUCN European Red List (Hodgetts et al. 2019). ...
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In this contribution, new data concerning red algae, bryophytes, fungi and lichens of the Italian flora are presented. It includes new records and confirmations for the algal genus Thorea , for the bryophyte genera Ephemerum , Hedwigia , Pogonatum , Riccia , Sphagnum , and Tortella , the fungal genera Pileolaria and Sporisorium , and the lichen genera Bacidia , Cerothallia , Chaenotheca , Cladonia , Halecania , Lecanora , Phylloblastia , Physcia , Protoparmelia , Pycnora , Segestria , and Sphaerophorus .
... Thoreales are common in tropical and subtropical areas (Sheath and Hambrook 1990, Sheath et al. 1993, Carmona and Necchi 2001 and are considered rare and threatened in Europe (Eloranta et al. 2011). Accordingly, T. hispida is included in the Algae Red List in some European countries (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996, Sheliag-Sosonko 1996, Simienska 2006, Simić et al. 2007, Temniskova et al. 2008, Täuscher 2010, and it is still considered a species with a very restricted distribution (García and Aboal 2014 and references therein). In Italy, it was reported for the first time in Lombardia (northern Italy) in the Oglio River, a mid-size and nutrient-rich tributary of the Po River, where a seasonal monitoring study conducted during 2009-2011 revealed that a 40 km stretch hosted three T. hispida populations (Bolpagni et al. 2015 Ephemerum recurvifolium is a submediterranean-euryatlantic species quite rare in Europe, where it is considered at risk in many countries (Hodgetts and Lockhart 2020) and listed as Near Threatened in the new IUCN European Red List (Hodgetts et al. 2019). ...
... The form and intensity of agricultural practices have severely changed during the last decades, impacting particular weed species negatively and driving some of them to the brink of extinction . Currently 20% of all endemic plant species, including weeds, are on the red list of vascular plants in Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996). This list was last updated in 1996, but is currently revised and will most likely reveal a higher number of species in need of conservation (personal communication Stefan Meyer, University of Göttingen). ...
Thesis
There is evidence that diverse plant communities in terrestrial ecosystems are either more stable or more productive in terms of food web support and ecosystem service provision. In agro-ecosystems, characterized by high disturbance and external inputs, plant diversity and their services can only be provided by weeds. In the first study, vegetation recordings and farmer surveys were conducted in on-farm experiments in two regions of Southwestern Germany. The aim was to examine the effects of agricultural management on weed community composition, weed biodiversity and occurrence of rare arable weed species in cereal fields. Weed biodiversity was influenced mainly by crop species, herbicide use and farming system as well as nitrogen and light availability. Weed communities were quite similar in both study regions and dominated by Alopecurus myosuroides, Galium aparine, Viola arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus and Veronica persica. A redundancy analysis revealed that the weed community was mainly shaped by crop species, tillage, location in the field and timing of herbicide application. The results highlight the erosion of weed communities due to intensive agricultural practices and emphasize the conservation of weed biodiversity per se and rare arable weed species in particular. The next aim was to examine if this biodiversity is able to support weed control related ecosystem services, like the predation of weed seeds. The objectives of this study were to investigate the connection between weed biodiversity, Carabid beetle diversity and weed seed predation as well to evaluate the role of farming intensity in this sequence. For this purpose, on-farm experiments were performed on the Eastern Swabian Alb. A positive correlation between weed biodiversity and Carabid beetle diversity was identified as well as a pattern of medium Carabid beetle diversity providing the highest weed seed predation. There was no consistent influence of farming intensity on weed seed predation. The revealed connection between weed diversity, Carabid beetle diversity and weed seed predation highlights the role of plants in food web support and subsequent ecosystem service provision. The utilization of these services depends on the promotion of biodiversity by designing appropriate management strategies. In the next step, the general principles underlying ecosystem service provision by biodiversity, were conveyed to a cover cropping system. The aim was to test single sown cover crops and species mixtures in terms of weed suppression efficacy and reliability. For this purpose, cover crop species were sown singly and as mixtures in a field experiment. Lower weed dry matter and weed densities were found predominantly in treatments with favorable establishment and above-average biomass production. Mixtures performed much more homogeneous in regard to the measured parameters compared to single sown cover crops. The results suggest that, although particular single sown cover crops are more effective to control weeds than mixtures, mixtures are more reliable under changing conditions. Altering the species composition of cover crop mixtures according to more complementary traits might further improve their weed control efficacy. The results of this dissertation demonstrate the importance of plant biodiversity in the provision and reliability of weed control related ecosystem services, either by weeds themselves or by specifically designed cover crop mixtures. Furthermore, management factors influencing weed biodiversity were determined, which can aid in the creation of more sustainable management strategies for a diverse agroecosystem and the conservation of rare arable weed species.
... Hence, the European Drosera species are listed as endangered, vulnerable or rare in many European countries 132,117 . For example, Drosera rotundifolia is critically endangered in Croatia 162 , endangered in Greece and Hungary 119,177 , and vulnerable in Bulgaria and Germany 140,175 . In Switzerland, collecting is allowed only for scientific purposes and with a special permit issued by the cantonal and federal administrations. ...
Article
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Drosera rotundifolia is a perennial insectivorous herb which occupies open, wet, oligotrophic habitats such as acidic bogs and poor fens, and specifically grows in Sphagnum-dominated communities. Since mediaeval times the species has been collected from natural habitats and used as a remedy for coughs and pulmonary diseases. Due to the substantial decline of Drosera habitat, the plant has been protected in most European countries since the 1980s, which means that wild D. rotundifolia has become unavailable to the pharmaceutical industry. The persistent demand has stimulated research into the cultivation of Drosera in several European countries. These studies have shown that Drosera cultivation is time-consuming and not (yet) cost-effective, and there is a need for the development of cultivation methods. This article reviews the morphology, distribution, ecology and reproduction of Drosera rotundifolia; outlines its commercial use and nature conservation requirements; and describes previous research on its propagation and cultivation.
... (Franken, Germany). It was also observed in Morocco, and in Macedonia and is reported from different places, such as Germany (Hustedt 1930;Ludwig & Schnittler 1996;Krammer & Lange-Bertalot 1985), Great Britain (Whitton et al. 2003), North Macedonia (Levkov et al. 2005), Russia (Stenina & Patova 2007) and Sardinia (Krammer 2000;Lange-Bertalot et al. 2003). No ultrastructural data are provided and no reference to the presence of spines is given. ...
Article
A new freshwater diatom species Pinnularia baetica sp. nov. is described from two different ponds from the Mediterranean area: Andalucia (South of Spain) and Lake Livadičko, Serbia. The species is described by observations under light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The most similar taxa to P. baetica are P. atlasii and P. infirma that were studied through material obtained in lagoons of northern Morocco (locus classicus of P. atlasi). Although there are similarities in the morphological characters of the frustule, it was possible to verify both through LM and SEM observations, clear differences between P. baetica and the latter two taxa: Pinnularia baetica has a panduriform shape more pronounced than P. infirma and larger valve size. On the other hand, the absence of spines in P. baetica, the more convergent striation at the poles and a slightly wider valve are the main differences with P. atlasi. This paper documents the distribution areas of P. baetica in calcareous systems of oligotrophic mid-mountain ponds of Spain and Serbia.
... Here, only target species (not target and plant material species) are displayed. RL, Red List status for Germany (BRD, Ludwig and Schnittler, 1996), and Hesse (H, BVNH, 2008). EIV m, Ellenberg indicator value for moisture, ∼, adaptation to changing water levels, =, adaptation to flooding (Ellenberg, 2003); reproduction, reproduction via s, seeds, or v, vegetative, and combinations thereof; seedbank, ability to form a persistent seedbank, 0, no, 1, yes; seed mass, mean seed mass in mg. ...
Article
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Rare and endangered floodplain meadows have been a focus of previous restoration projects, but knowledge about the long-term development of newly created meadows is scarce. We studied the long-term development of sites restored via the transfer of seed-containing plant material on former arable fields and former species-poor grassland. We analyzed the long-term development of the vegetation and tested the differences between former land-use types and former preparatory treatments. In former arable fields, we studied the influence of sowing with a grass seed mixture. In former species-poor grassland, we tested the effect of topsoil disturbance by rotovation to inhibit competition by the resident grassland vegetation. Restoration was generally successful with mean transfer rates (number of meadow species at restoration site/number of meadow species at donor site) of 60%, increased species richness, and high proportions of plant material species in the vegetation. Transfer rates were similar between arable fields and former species-poor grassland, though the number of target species for restoration (typical and/or endangered species) was higher in former arable fields. Communities on grassland sites developed more slowly but were more resilient against flooding. Sowing the grass seed mixture had no influence on restoration success on former arable fields, and the positive effects of rotovating on former species-poor grassland decreased over time. We conclude that the transfer of seed-containing plant material is an adequate method to restore species-rich grasslands that are resilient enough to persevere under floodplain dynamics.
... The species is declining throughout its indigenous range, seemingly due to the enlargement of scale and the intensification of agricultural practices (Tomšovic & Krahulcová 1991). Polycnemum majus has an endangered status in several different European countries such as Germany (Ludwig & Schnittler 1996), Switzerland (Bornand et al. 2016), Austria (Niklfeld & Schratt-Ehrendorfer 1999), and several regions in France (Auvert et al. 2011, Haugel & Toussaint 2012, Vangendt et al. 2014 and Italy (Buffa et al. 2016). ...
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Abstract. – In 2018 a population of Polycnemum majus was rediscovered near Rochefort (province of Namur). The species had long been considered extinct in Belgium. The label of a herbarium specimen from 1866 led to a formerly known historical site where more than a century and a half later a population is still present. The paper recounts how the species was rediscovered and describes the site and the characteristics, ecology, status and distribution of the species. Résumé. – Redécouverte en Belgique de Polycnemum majus (Amaranthaceae) grâce à un spécimen d’herbier vieux de 152 ans. En 2018, une population de Polycnemum majus a été redécouvert près de Rochefort (province de Namur). L’espèce était considérée comme éteinte en Belgique depuis longtemps. L’étiquette d’un spécimen d’herbier datant de 1866 a permis de redécouvrir un site historique, où plus d’un siècle et demi plus tard, une population subsiste toujours. L’article décrit la redécouverte, la station et les caractéristiques, l’écologie, le statut et la répartition de l’espèce. Samenvatting. – Herontdekking van Polycnemum majus (Amaranthaceae) in België dankzij een 152 jaar oud herbariumspecimen. In 2018 werd een groeiplaats van Polycnemum majus herontdekt nabij Rochefort (provincie Namen). De soort werd geruime tijd als uitgestorven beschouwd in België. Het etiket van een herbariumspecimen uit 1866 leidde tot een historisch gekende locatie waar meer dan anderhalve eeuw later nog steeds een populatie aanwezig is. Het artikel beschrijft de herontdekking, de vindplaats en de kenmerken, de ecologie en de status en verspreiding van de soort.
... Pulsatilla vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) was the first and only plant species flowering on the study sites when the study bees started to emerge. P. vulgaris is a perennial herb restricted to calcareous grasslands and listed as a threatened plant species on the red lists of threatened plant species of Germany and Bavaria [38,39]. Reproduction is vegetative as well as sexual with bees being the main flower visitors [40]. ...
Article
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Climate warming has the potential to disrupt plant-pollinator interactions or to increase competition of co-flowering plants for pollinators, due to species-specific phenological responses to temperature. However, studies focusing on the effect of temperature on solitary bee emergence and the flowering onset of their food plants under natural conditions are still rare. We studied the effect of temperature on the phenology of the two spring bees Osmia cornuta and Osmia bicornis, by placing bee cocoons on eleven grasslands differing in mean site temperature. On seven grasslands, we additionally studied the effect of temperature on the phenology of the red-list plant Pulsatilla vulgaris, which was the first flowering plant, and of co-flowering plants with later flowering. With a warming of 0.1°C, the abundance-weighted mean emergence of O. cornuta males advanced by 0.4 days. Females of both species did not shift their emergence. Warmer temperatures advanced the abundance-weighted mean flowering of P. vulgaris by 1.3 days per 0.1°C increase, but did not shift flowering onset of co-flowering plants. Competition for pollinators between P. vulgaris and co-flowering plants does not increase within the studied temperature range. We demonstrate that temperature advances plant flowering more strongly than bee emergence suggesting an increased risk of pollinator limitation for the first flowers of P. vulgaris.
... Additionally, a taxon-181 specific conservation value was calculated following Oertli et al. (2002). To that end, each identified 182 species was assigned a threat status according to its most threatened status on any of the following 4 183 lists: regional red lists of Lower Saxony (Altmüller & Clausnitzer, 2010;Garve, 2004;Korsch et al., 184 2013;Krüger & Nipkow, 2015;Podloucky & Fischer, 1994), national red lists of Germany (Grünberg et 185 al., 2015;Korsch et al., 2013;Kühnel et al., 2009;Ludwig & Schnittler, 1996;Ott et al., 2015), the 186 international red list (IUCN, 2018) and the annex lists of the European Union (EU) Habitats Directive 187 and the EU Birds Directive (EU, 1992;EU, 2009). For each species, the highest threat status 188 mentioned on any of these four lists was used. ...
Preprint
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Humanity is facing a biodiversity crisis, with freshwater-associated biodiversity in a particularly dire state. Novel ecosystems created through human use of mineral resources, such as gravel pit lakes, can provide substitute habitats for conservation of freshwater and riparian biodiversity. However, many of these artificial ecosystems may exhibit high recreational use intensity, which may limit their biodiversity potential. The species richness of several taxa (plants, amphibians, dragonflies, damselflies, waterfowl, songbirds) was assessed and a range of taxonomic biodiversity metrics were compared between gravel pit lakes managed for recreational fisheries (N = 16) and unmanaged reference lakes (N = 10), while controlling for non-fishing related environmental variation. The average species richness of all examined taxa was similar among both lake types and no substantial differences in species composition were revealed when examining the pooled species inventory. Similarly, there were no differences among lake types in the presence of rare species and in the Simpson diversity index across all the taxa that were assessed. Variation in species richness among lakes was correlated with woody habitat, lake morphology (surface area and steepness) and land use, but not correlated with the presence of recreational fisheries. Thus, non-fishing related environmental variables had stronger effects on local species presence than recreational-fisheries management or the presence of recreational anglers. Collectively, no evidence was found that anglers and recreational-fisheries management constrain the development of aquatic and riparian biodiversity in gravel pit lakes in the study region. Conservation of species diversity at gravel pit lakes could benefit from an increasing reliance on habitat enhancement activities.
... Casual status was determined from the German flora Rothmaler (Jäger, 2016) and the online database of the Bundesamt für Naturschutz (www.floraweb.de). We also checked red list status for all species (Ludwig & Schnittler, 1996) to control for a potential bias in the analysis by including red-listed archaeophytes and native species. Thus, we repeated the analysis after restricting the species set to non-red-listed species (i.e., not classified as critically endangered, endangered or vulnerable). ...
Article
Aim Invasions are dynamic processes. Invasive spread causes the geographical range size of alien species to increase with residence time. However, with time native competitors and antagonists can adapt to invaders. This build‐up of biotic resistance may eventually limit the invader’s performance and reduce its range size. Using a species‐for‐time approach, we test (a) whether native communities more strongly reduce the fitness of immigrants with longer residence times, and (b) whether the range size of immigrant species shows a unimodal response to residence time. Location Germany. Time period 18,000 years BP to present. Major taxa studied 352 plant species in the Asteraceae family. Methods For plant species with a wide range of minimum residence times in Germany (6–18,000 years), we combined a common garden experiment with historical and macroecological analyses. In a multi‐species experiment, we quantified the effect of native communities on fitness components of 30 annual Asteraceae. For these and other species, we then analysed how current range size depends on minimum residence time and other covariates. Results Native communities reduced survival, reproductive output and fitness of Asteraceae. This fitness reduction was stronger for immigrant species with long residence times. We found a unimodal relationship between range size and residence time of Asteraceae in Germany, when including natives that immigrated after the last glaciation. Main conclusions Biotic resistance may limit the performance and geographical ranges of immigrant species over long time‐scales. The initial advantages invaders have over natives thus may not persist over millennia, supporting the concept of an alien–native species continuum defined by gradual changes in eco‐evolutionary processes. While our analysis controlled for major ecological, evolutionary and biogeographical factors, it is conceivable that the detected patterns are influenced by additional differences between natives and aliens. Experimental macroecology has great potential to disentangle these processes and predict long‐term invasion dynamics.
... year from 1960 (Kornmann and Sahling 1962) to 1966 and three more times in the 1970s . The species disappeared after 1977 and has been considered as extinct in Germany since 1996 (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996). ...
Thesis
In this doctoral project, I investigated the recent inventory, distribution and phylogenetic relationships of Ulva sensu lato in northern Germany, including sampling sites at the Baltic Sea, Wadden Sea and on Helgoland. Furthermore, I compared the recent results with historic findings. Therfore, this thesis constitutes a complete revision of the species inventory of Ulva sensu lato in northern Germany. Assessments of biodiversity were based on both the analysis of classical morphological characters and DNA barcoding. Phylogenetic analysis of more than 370 sequences of the tufA marker gene revealed the presence of 20 different species in German waters.
... (Franken, Germany). It was also observed in Morocco, and in Macedonia and is reported from different places, such as Germany (Hustedt 1930;Ludwig & Schnittler 1996;Krammer & Lange-Bertalot 1985), Great Britain (Whitton et al. 2003), North Macedonia (Levkov et al. 2005), Russia (Stenina & Patova 2007) and Sardinia (Krammer 2000;Lange-Bertalot et al. 2003). No ultrastructural data are provided and no reference to the presence of spines is given. ...
Preprint
A new benthic freshwater diatom species belonging to the genus Pinnularia was found in Laguna Seca of Sierra Seca in the north of the province of Granada, Spain. Pinnularia baetica sp.nov. is proposed as a new species based on observations under light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and its special ecology typical of a calcareous lagoon. The most similar taxa to P. baetica is P. atlasii and with more differences P. infirma and the last two were studied through material obtained in lagoons of northern Morocco. Although there are similarities in the morphological characters of the frustule, it was possible to verify through LM and SEM micrographs, evident differences between P. baetica and the other two taxa; on the one end, P. baetica has a panduriform shape more pronounced than P. infirma and bigger size. On the other hand, the absence of spines in P. baetica and the more convergent striation at the poles are the main differences with P. atlasi. Phylum Ochrophyta Caval.-Sm. (Cavalier-Smith 1995) Class Bacillariophyceae Haeckel emend. Medlin & Kaczmarska (Medlin & Kaczmarska 2004) Subclass Bacillariophycidae Round (Round et al. 1990) Order Naviculales (Bessey 1907 sensu emend) Family Pinnulariaceae D.G. Mann, 1990, Genus Pinnularia C.G. Ehrenberg, 1843 Pinnularia baetica Fernández Moreno & Sánchez Castillo sp. nov
... • Annex II of Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the conservation of natural habitats of wild fauna and flora [27]. • Red Lists on regional, national [66,67,87], European [88] or international [89] level. • Listings for the national responsibility for the conservation of species [32]. ...
Article
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Background The European Food Safety Authority proposed a concept for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants in the EU that is based on the definition of thresholds for the acceptability of potential adverse effects on the environment. This concept, called Limits of Concern (LoC), needs to be further refined to be implemented in the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms. Methods We analyse and discuss how LoC can be defined for the environmental risk assessment for three different types of genetically modified plants. We outline protection goals relevant to the genetically modified plants in question and discuss existing concepts and suggestions for acceptability thresholds from the environmental risk assessment of different regulatory areas. We make specific recommendations for the setting and use of LoC for each type of genetically modified plant. Results The LoC concept can be suitably applied for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified organisms, if the different protection goals in agro-environments are specifically considered. Not only biodiversity protection goals but also agricultural protection goals need to be addressed. The different ecosystem services provided by weeds inside and outside agricultural fields have to be considered for genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Exposure-based LoCs are suggested based on knowledge about dose–effect relationships between maize pollen and non-target Lepidoptera for insect-resistant maize. Due to the long-term nature of biological processes such as spread and establishment, LoCs for genetically modified oilseed rape should be defined for the presence of the genetically modified plant or its genetically modified traits in relevant protection goals. Conclusions When setting LoCs, the focus should be on protection goals which are possibly affected. Potential overlaps of the LoC concept with the ecosystem service concept have to be clarified to harmonise protection levels in the agro-environment for different stressors. If additional impacts on agro-biodiversity resulting from the cultivation of genetically modified plants are to be avoided, then high protection levels and low thresholds for acceptable effects (i.e. LoC) should be set.
... At Helgoland K. leptoderma was probably observed for the first time in 1934 (Schmidt 1938) and thereafter each year from 1960 (Kornmann and Sahling 1962) to 1966 and three more times in the 1970s (Kornmann and Sahling 1983). The species disappeared after 1977 and has been considered as extinct in Germany since 1996 (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996). ...
Article
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Combined genetic, morphological and ontogenetic observations show that the circumarctic boreal green algal macrophyte Kornmannia leptoderma has expanded its distribution range into the Baltic Sea, on a German coastal section of 220 km length. The species is also again (or still) established at its former extreme southern distribution limit in the North Sea, the German island of Helgoland, where it has not been detected during the last four decades. Macroscopic visible sporophytes of K. leptoderma are nowadays present in the Baltic Sea and at Helgoland from February to September, while they were in the past only detected from February to May at Helgoland. This capacity for formation of sporophytes in summer correlates with the circumstance that K. leptoderma from the Baltic Sea can complete its life cycle at 15°C while several studies conducted decades ago with material from Helgoland and from Pacific coasts consistently reported an inhibition of the algal gametogenesis at temperatures that exceed 12°C. Possibly K. leptoderma has undergone adaptations that facilitate its spread into warmer environments, unless the Kornmannia present in the Baltic Sea and on Helgoland today represents a newly introduced cryptic species.
... Pilze und Käfer, haben einen hohen Anteil an der gesamten Artenvielfalt in mitteleuropäischen Wäldern. Zugleich gilt ein besonders hoher Anteil dieser Organismengruppen als gefährdet [1,4,5,6]. Nach naturschutzfachlicher Auffassung ist die Forstwirtschaft der Hauptverursacher für die Gefährdung [4,7,8,9,10]. In Forstkreisen ist hingegen die Ansicht weit verbreitet, dass die moderne Waldwirtschaft der Artenvielfalt keinesfalls schadet, sie häu g nach dem Motto "Schutz durch Nutzung" eher fördert [11]. ...
Article
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Regelmäßig wird die Ansicht vertreten, dass viele gefährdete Arten im Wald tatsächlich noch vorhanden sind und lediglich ihr Nachweis bisher unzureichend war. Die Neufassung der Roten Liste der Käfer scheint diese Auffassung zu bestätigen. So hat sich der Anteil gefährdeter Holzkäfer von 60 % in den 1980er-Jahren auf 28 % verringert. Für die Gruppe der Urwaldrelikt Arten unter den Käfern ist hingegen eine langfristig negative Tendenz des Artenreichtums nachweisbar. Diese kann zwanglos durch die Einführung der modernen Forstwirtschaft erklärt werden und stellt die Reproduzierbarkeit von Roten Listen der Käfer infrage.
... One of the most interesting taxa is Surirella barrowcliffia Donkin 1869, which so far has never been reported from Poland. From the information available in the world's algological databases, such as Algaterra and AlgaeBase, it appears that Surirella barrowcliffia has already been reported from England (Whitton et al. 2003) (freshwater of the Coquet River in Northumberland, England, in 1869 by Donkin), in the Crapina-Jijila lake complex in Romania (Caraus 2012), France (Amossé 1932) as well as in Finland (Tynni 1980) and in northern Germany, near Bremen in the Weser and the Kleine Wumme rivers (notes by Hustedt 1910;1955;1956 from the Hustedt Collection, BRM;Hustedt 1957;Ludwig & Schnittler 1996). The species has also been found in the Baltic Sea region, but it was identified as a fossil species (Krammer, Lange-Bertalot 1988). ...
Article
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Diatoms of the genus Surirella are considered to be a very diverse group, many of them are endemic species found in old lakes as well as in tropical regions worldwide. This study describes a new location of Surirella barrowcliffia. In 2005-2007, algological research on the taxonomic composition of benthic diatoms was conducted in the middle section of the Pilica River (Central Poland). A total of 23 benthic samples were collected from a single sampling site located in the town of Sulejów (159.8 km upriver). Altogether 242 diatom species were identified in the collected material. One of the most interesting taxa in this community was S. barrowcliffia. According to the information available in the world’s algological databases, such as Algaterra and AlgaeBase, S. barrowcliffia has so far been found only in England, France, Finland, northern Germany – in the Weser and the Kleine Wumme rivers, near Bremen, and in Romania in the Crapina-Jijila lake complex. S. barrowcliffia has not been recorded in the previous research conducted not only in the middle section of the Pilica River, but also in other Polish aquatic ecosystems.
Article
Geographical distribution, ecological conditions and the current state of populations of a regionally rare species of the Ukrainian flora, Moneses uniflora (Ericaceae), were studied. In Ukraine, this species is at the southern limit of its range in Eastern Europe. Locations in the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Polissya Lowland are a part of a large Euro-Asiatic geographical population. A separate exclave of its range is located in the Crimean Mountains. The habitats of M. uniflora in Ukraine are associated with green moss coniferous forests. The species grows in spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians, in pine forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris in the Polissya Lowland, and in pine forests dominated by Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana in the Crimean Mountains. Local populations of M. uniflora in Ukraine are characterized by low numbers (up to one hundred shoots with a predominance of vegetative shoots) and small areas (1–2 m2). Anthropogenic pressure on the habitats of M. uniflora resulted in range decline and determined its current southern limit that coincides with the border between the Forest (Polissya) and the Forest-Steppe zones. In the past, during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, M. uniflora occurred in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Uncontrolled deforestation and amber mining have led to intense habitat destruction and decline of species populations. Each local population of this species in Ukraine needs to be protected. Moneses uniflora is to be included to the next edition of the Red Data Book of Ukraine.
Article
River relocations due to realization of infrastructure projects or flood protection provide a high potential for ecological restorations and the creation of near-natural habitats. Colonization success of new riparian habitats in the dynamic riverine zone is rarely predictable, as the survival of sessile plants is highly dependent on flood events. Relocated rivers offer a unique opportunity to study restoration success, and using genetic information allows tracing to source populations and assessing connectivity. This study focuses on the colonization of a new, 3.4 km long river stretch in the Inn catchment (Switzerland), with an artificial, stable shoreline and a dynamic riverine zone with gravel bars. We assess the colonization success of Myricaria germanica, a flagship species for floodplain pioneer vegetation, 14 years after river relocation. The population with over 600 individuals of which 147 were used for genetic analysis based on 22 microsatellite markers in comparison to 11 potential source populations up- and downstream of the new site. Our results on demography and genetic composition together with information on flood events allow tracing the origin of the subpopulation along the stable shoreline to a single founder event but several founder individuals further upstream. The subpopulation in the dynamic zone is younger and more likely strongly dependent on gene flow from the stable shoreline subpopulation, but allows for rejuvenation at the site. Genetic patterns along the catchment indicate ongoing gene flow, suggesting potential for colonization success for further restorations in the catchment. Our data reveals that near-natural flood dynamics with repeated larger flood events is a key factor for successful colonization of dynamic riparian habitats.
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An annotated checklist of the pleurocarpous moss genus Plagiothecium in Eurasia is presented for the first time based on a thorough review of the literature. Data have been compiled from previous relevant works conducted on the genus over more than 70 years and published up to the end of June 2020 for 107 Eurasian countries (and islands). Sectional classification is based on molecular phylogeny of the genus published recently. A total of 41 taxa are reported, including 29 species and 12 infraspecific taxa (nine varieties and three forms) belonging to eight sections. The highest numbers of taxa were found in China (20 taxa), the Russian Federation (20 taxa) and Japan (18 taxa), while the smallest numbers of taxa were recorded in the Middle East, Central Asia and the islands area. Not a single species of Plagiothecium was recorded in 26 regions, whereas P. denticulatum, P. nemorale and P. cavifolium turned out to be the most widespread species in the entire study area. They were recorded in most of the surveyed countries and islands. For each accepted taxon, information on relevant literature, synonyms, distribution within Eurasia and globally are provided. Comments on each taxon, ecological preferences, and notes on doubtful records are also included. Additionally, distribution maps for each recognised taxon are supplied. This checklist can enlighten and foster a better understanding of the distribution, diversity, and ecology of Plagiothecium in Eurasia and provides an incentive for future research on the genus.
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Background Structures and functions of ecosystems and, subsequently, their services for human societies may be influenced by climate change and atmospheric deposition. Jenssen et al. (UBA Texte 87/2013: 1–381, 2013) developed a spatially explicit evaluation system enabling the evaluation of ecosystems’ integrity. This methodology is based on a spatially explicit ecosystem classification of forests. Based on the six ecological functions, the methodology enables to compare the ecosystem type-specific integrity at different levels of ecological hierarchy for a reference state (1961–1990) with the further development of the forest ecosystem types as measured for the years 1991–2010 and as modelled for the period 2011–2070. The present study aimed at deepening the methodology and developing it into a practical system for assessing and mapping forest ecosystem integrity and services. The objectives of this advanced investigation were: (1) to quantify the reference conditions for a total of 61 forest ecosystem types; (2) to test the possibility of supplementing the quantification of ecosystem integrity by information on soil biocenoses as yielded by soil monitoring; (3) to model chemical soil indicators and to compare the respective results with those derived by Ellenberg’s indicator values for nutrient state; and (4) to verify the indicator modelling. Results Reference states related to the time prior to 1991 have been quantified for a total of 61 forest ecosystem types covering 85% (81,577 km ² ) of the mapped forest area of Germany. The reference states comprise statistical indicators for the plant-species diversity (habitat function), for nutrient and water balances and further ecological information as net-primary production and carbon storage. The assignment of lumbricide communities as soil biocenosis indicators was attempted but not succeeded because of insufficient data availability. The nutrient cycle types of the elaborated reference states were characterized by humus form, C/N ratio in topsoil and N indicator values according to Ellenberg et al. (Scr Geobot 18:1–262, 2001). Applying the developed methodology, for 83 out of 105 study plots the reference states prior to 1991 could be determined. Conclusions For complementing forest ecosystem reference states by soil biocenosis indicators it is necessary to further evaluate the primary literature looking for missing observation data. The W.I.E. indicator value applied in this paper to determine topsoil C/N ratios in forests is well suited for area-covering mapping of both near-natural forest–soil states and deposition-induced disharmonic state changes, in which C/N value and base saturation are no longer correlated.
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Euastrum lacustre is reported for Russia for the first time. This alcaliphilic species was found in the periphyton and plankton of three lakes in the Kursk Region (European Russia). A description of morphology, including the relief of cell wall, and habitats where this taxon is found are represented. LM and SEM microphotographs are provided. Morphological differences of E. lacustre from similar species are discussed. New species for region, namely Closterium aciculare, Cosmarium formosulum, C. granatum, C. pseudoinsigne, C. reniforme and Staurastrum pingue, are found in the samples together with E. lacustre.
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For the first time, a verified point map is made of the area of Iris aphylla L. s.l. - a species of pan-European level of protection. The materials of our own field research (77 sites), herbarium data (1122 sheets in 22 Herbaria), scientific publications (studied some 270 articles, monographs), additional communications of specialists from regions (98 points), critically analyzed databases (GBIF) were used. The map shows the locations of 1260 species sites, including 224 historical (data earlier 1968) and 1036 actual data (1969-2018). The main part of the area begins in the east of Slovakia, Hungary, south-east of Poland, in the west of Romania, extending to the left side of the Volga River. The northern border of the area extends from the Lublin Upland in Poland further across Lviv, Ternopil, Khmelnitsky, Zhytomyr, Kiev, Chernigov, Sumy regions of Ukraine, further in Russia across Bryansk, Orel, Tula, the southern part of Moscow and Ryazan regions, the Republic of Mordovia, the south-eastern part of Nizhny Novgorod region, the south of the Chuvash Republic and the Republic of Tatarstan. The eastern border goes along the east of Ulyanovsk region, the west of Samara, Saratov and Volgograd regions, the southern limit of the distribution goes along the southern border of Voronezh and Belgorod regions, passing to Kharkiv region of Ukraine and further across Poltava, Kirovograd, Mykolayiv, Odessa regions of Ukraine, passing to the south of Moldova and Romania. There are updates in the map of the species in Atlas of H. Meisel (Meusel et al., 1965): the continuous area of I. aphylla begins not in the right side of the Dniester River in Moldova but in the west of Romania, the east of Slovakia and Hungary and south-east of Poland. It includes the south-east of Bryansk region, the entire Orel region of Russia, does not reach the Meshcherskaya lowland in Ryazan region, the Volga River in Nizhny Novgorod region, is absent in the largest part of the Chuvash Republic, does not reach the mouth of the Kama River in the Republic of Tatarstan, does not reach Volgograd and Rostov-on-Don. Three separate fragments of the area are in the Caucasus: the western part is in the south of Stavropol and Krasnodar Krai and Adygea, Ingushetia, North Ossetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachaevo-Cherkessia, coming to the northern Georgia; the eastern part is located in Dagestan; the southern part - in West Armenia. New isolated sites are found in Germany, in the north-east of Poland, in the south of the Belarus Republic, in the south-east of Ukraine, in Kaluga, Moscow, Orenburg regions of Russia, and in the south-east of Armenia. The species is absent in Italy and Turkey.
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Pflanzliche Vielfalt stellt für den Menschen eine wichtige Ressource dar (Abschn. 1.1). Der Mensch hat einen gravierenden Einfluss auf die Natur und verändert Lebensräume, Herkünfte und pflanzliche Wachstumsbedingungen nachhaltig, was auch von gesellschaftspolitischer Relevanz ist. Deshalb bedarf es des Naturschutzes.
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Questions Has plant species richness in semi‐natural grasslands changed over recent decades? Do the temporal trends of habitat specialists differ from those of habitat generalists? Has there been a homogenization of the grassland vegetation?. Location Different regions in Germany and the United Kingdom. Methods We conducted a formal meta‐analysis of re‐survey vegetation studies of semi‐natural grasslands. In total 23 data sets were compiled, spanning up to 75 years between the surveys, including 13 data sets from wet grasslands, six from dry grasslands and four from other grassland types. Edaphic conditions were assessed using mean Ellenberg indicator values for soil moisture, nitrogen and pH. Changes in species richness and environmental variables were evaluated using response ratios. Results In most wet grasslands, total species richness declined over time, while habitat specialists almost completely vanished. The number of species losses increased with increasing time between the surveys and were associated with a strong decrease in soil moisture and higher soil nutrient contents. Wet grasslands in nature reserves showed no such changes or even opposite trends. In dry grasslands and other grassland types, total species richness did not consistently change, but the number or proportions of habitat specialists declined. There were also considerable changes in species composition, especially in wet grasslands that often have been converted into intensively managed, highly productive meadows or pastures. We did not find a general homogenization of the vegetation in any of the grassland types. Conclusions The results document the widespread deterioration of semi‐natural grasslands, especially of those types that can easily be transformed to high production grasslands. The main causes for the loss of grassland specialists are changed management in combination with increased fertilization and nitrogen deposition. Dry grasslands are most resistant to change, but also show a long‐term trend towards an increase in more mesotrophic species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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This paper reports the occurrence of the freshwater brown alga Heribaudiella fluviatilis (Areschoug) Svedelius in four new localities in southeastern Europe, as well as the first records for Croatia. Additionally, we report here a new type of substrate for H. fluviatilis, on stones in karstic rivers characterized by tufa formations. Despite a generally low number of findings, this and previous studies indicate that the species is not as rare as generally perceived; rather, it is overlooked, under-collected and therefore under-reported. The paper provides detailed diagnostic features of the thalli and habitats where the alga was found, with notes on corresponding vegetation, physical conditions and water chemistry. Additionally, along with the new records of the red alga Hildenbrandia rivularis (Liebmann) J. Agardh in Croatia, the associations of Heribaudiella-Hildenbrandia are reported for streams of Black Sea and Adriatic basins.
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ContextMethods for measuring restoration success that include functional connectivity between species’ populations are rare in landscape ecology and restoration practices. We developed an approach that analyzes connectivity between populations of target species and their dispersal probabilities to assess restoration success based on easily accessible input data. Applying this method to landscape development scenarios can help optimize restoration planning. Objectives We developed an assessment for restoration success and restoration planning based on functional connectivity between species’ populations and spatially explicit scenarios. The method was used in a case study to test its applicability. Methods Based on data on available habitat, species’ occurrence and dispersal ranges, connectivity metrics and dispersal probabilities for target species are calculated using the software Conefor Sensinode. The metrics are calculated for scenarios that reflect possible changes in the landscape to provide a basis for future restoration planning. We applied this approach to floodplain meadows along the Upper Rhine for four plant species and three future scenarios. ResultsIn the case study, habitats of the target species were poorly connected. Peucedanum officinale and Sanguisorba officinalis were more successful in recolonizing new habitats than Iris spuria and Serratula tinctoria. The scenarios showed that restoration of species-rich grassland was beneficial for dispersal of the target species. As expected in the agriculturally dominated study area, restoration of former arable land significantly increased dispersal probabilities. Conclusions In the case study, the developed approach was easily applicable and provided reasonable results. Its implementation will be helpful in decision-making for future restoration planning.
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Bromus racemosus L. is a rather rare grass species of moist meadows. It has strongly decreased in the course of the 20th century due to intensification of agricultural grassland management, and is therefore included in Red Lists of several European countries. Its winter annual life-cycle is remarkable for a species of permanent grasslands. The aim of this study is to determine the habitat preference and optimal management of B. racemosus in the Netherlands and surrounding countries. Vegetation, soil and hydrological data from 28 sites in the Netherlands have been compared with B. racemosus cover, and with vegetation data from surrounding countries. The results indicate that B. racemosus is characteristic of Molinio- Arrhenatheretea meadows with good mineralisation and aftermath grazing. The optimum lies in grasslands of the alliance Alopecurion pratensis (Deschampsion cespitosae), but the species ranges from wetter Calthion palustris meadows to drier Arrhenatherion elatioris and Cynosurion cristati grasslands. It prefers intermediate nutrient levels and hydrological conditions (mesic sites), but within this range the highest cover is found in relatively nutrient rich and dry sites. Because of the absence of a seedbank and a low dispersal capability, B. racemosus is vulnerable to changes in grassland management. A management of mowing after 15 June and aftermath grazing is most suitable, since it enables fruit ripening and the maintenance of an open sward, needed for germination and development. The risk of extinction is likely to be higher in flat polders than in floodplain sites with natural relief, where the species may shift between belts in different years.
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