Article

A Non Invasive Approach for Rapid Malaria Diagnosis from Urine and Saliva of Malaria Patients

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Abstract

The non-invasive, cost-effective malaria tests that minimize the need for blood collection are the need of time. The diagnosis of malaria in biological fluids other than blood would be a valuable approach in case management and epidemiological studies of malaria. Many rapid diagnostic kits are available in the market but till now there is no kit for diagnosing malaria from urine and saliva samples. Keeping these lacunae, this study has given a light to the new non invasive approach for malaria diagnosis for the first time.

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... A recent study from Iran shown not a similar trend of our study, the study confirms that they are getting more cases of thrombocytopenia due to P. vivax than falciparum and attributes this to the possible development of a new genotype of P. vivax [22] . Some other study done by Alejandro et al that describes detection of the malaria antigens in urine of patient with acute falciparum and vivax malaria infection that reflect association between malaria severity and the urine malaria antigen presented the P. value <0.05 and was agree with our finding [23,24] . [25][26][27] . ...
Article
Background: The malaria parasite (sporozoite) infect a human after biting by infected female anopheles mosquito, the erythrocyte which develop of normoblast finally developed to mature erythrocytes, the malaria parasites (P. falciparum and P. vivax) most common endemically in Khartoum. Aim: A study was aimed to investigate the association of malaria parasite density with three biomarkers (thrombocytopenia, urine malaria antigens, and ABO & RhD groups). Methods: A gold standard thick blood film to demonstrate a malaria stained using Gaimsa stain, a density of malaria expressed by number of crosses, then by immune-chromatography test (ICT) to detect malaria antigens according to species from urine deposit, the platelets was estimated by automated haematology analyser (Sysmex KX21 & Mindray) and peripheral blood picture to assess and confirm the platelets count, the ABO and RhD were detected using simple slid method and direct tube method to confirm results, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 and the statistical significant was expressed in P value < 0.05. Results: In 63 malaria patients with irrespective to age, the density of malaria parasite show 39 (+), 16 (++) and 8 (+++) respectively, there were significant associations of malaria parasite density (+++) with thrombocytopenia and urine malaria antigens P. value 0.000, 0.004 respectively and insignificancy in (ABO & RhD) and malaria parasite density the P. value 0.959. Conclusion: A present finding explicit both thrombocytopenia, and urine malaria antigens may associate with high malaria parasite density, but insignificancy association of ABO, RhD phenotypes with density of malaria parasites.
... A recent study from Iran shown not a similar trend of our study, the study confirms that they are getting more cases of thrombocytopenia due to P. vivax than falciparum and attributes this to the possible development of a new genotype of P. vivax [22] . Some other study done by Alejandro et al that describes detection of the malaria antigens in urine of patient with acute falciparum and vivax malaria infection that reflect association between malaria severity and the urine malaria antigen presented the P. value <0.05 and was agree with our finding [23,24] . [25][26][27] . ...
Article
Background: The malaria parasite (sporozoite) infect a human after biting by infected female anopheles mosquito, the erythrocyte which develop of normoblast finally developed to mature erythrocytes, the malaria parasites (P. falciparum and P. vivax) most common endemically in Khartoum. Aim: A study was aimed to investigate the association of malaria parasite density with three biomarkers (thrombocytopenia, urine malaria antigens, and ABO & RhD groups). Methods: A gold standard thick blood film to demonstrate a malaria stained using Gaimsa stain, a density of malaria expressed by number of crosses, then by immune-chromatography test (ICT) to detect malaria antigens according to species from urine deposit, the platelets was estimated by automated haematology analyser (Sysmex KX21 & Mindray) and peripheral blood picture to assess and confirm the platelets count, the ABO and RhD were detected using simple slid method and direct tube method to confirm results, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 and the statistical significant was expressed in P value < 0.05. Results: In 63 malaria patients with irrespective to age, the density of malaria parasite show 39 (+), 16 (++) and 8 (+++) respectively, there were significant associations of malaria parasite density (+++) with thrombocytopenia and urine malaria antigens P. value 0.000, 0.004 respectively and insignificancy in (ABO & RhD) and malaria parasite density the P. value 0.959. Conclusion: A present finding explicit both thrombocytopenia, and urine malaria antigens may associate with high malaria parasite density, but insignificancy association of ABO, RhD phenotypes with density of malaria parasites.
... A recent study from Iran shown not a similar trend of our study, the study confirms that they are getting more cases of thrombocytopenia due to P. vivax than falciparum and attributes this to the possible development of a new genotype of P. vivax [22] . Some other study done by Alejandro et al that describes detection of the malaria antigens in urine of patient with acute falciparum and vivax malaria infection that reflect association between malaria severity and the urine malaria antigen presented the P. value <0.05 and was agree with our finding [23,24] . [25][26][27] . ...
Article
Background: The malaria parasite (sporozoite) infect a human after biting by infected female anopheles mosquito, the erythrocyte which develop of normoblast finally developed to mature erythrocytes, the malaria parasites (P. falciparum and P. vivax) most common endemically in Khartoum. Aim: A study was aimed to investigate the association of malaria parasite density with three biomarkers (thrombocytopenia, urine malaria antigens, and ABO & RhD groups). Methods: A gold standard thick blood film to demonstrate a malaria stained using Gaimsa stain, a density of malaria expressed by number of crosses, then by immune-chromatography test (ICT) to detect malaria antigens according to species from urine deposit, the platelets was estimated by automated haematology analyser (Sysmex KX21 & Mindray) and peripheral blood picture to assess and confirm the platelets count, the ABO and RhD were detected using simple slid method and direct tube method to confirm results, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 and the statistical significant was expressed in P value < 0.05. Results: In 63 malaria patients with irrespective to age, the density of malaria parasite show 39 (+), 16 (++) and 8 (+++) respectively, there were significant associations of malaria parasite density (+++) with thrombocytopenia and urine malaria antigens P. value 0.000, 0.004 respectively and insignificancy in (ABO & RhD) and malaria parasite density the P. value 0.959. Conclusion: A present finding explicit both thrombocytopenia, and urine malaria antigens may associate with high malaria parasite density, but insignificancy association of ABO, RhD phenotypes with density of malaria parasites.
... A recent study from Iran shown not a similar trend of our study, the study confirms that they are getting more cases of thrombocytopenia due to P. vivax than falciparum and attributes this to the possible development of a new genotype of P. vivax [22] . Some other study done by Alejandro et al that describes detection of the malaria antigens in urine of patient with acute falciparum and vivax malaria infection that reflect association between malaria severity and the urine malaria antigen presented the P. value <0.05 and was agree with our finding [23,24] . [25][26][27] . ...
Article
Background: The malaria parasite (sporozoite) infect a human after biting by infected female anopheles mosquito, the erythrocyte which develop of normoblast finally developed to mature erythrocytes, the malaria parasites (P. falciparum and P. vivax) most common endemically in Khartoum. Aim: A study was aimed to investigate the association of malaria parasite density with three biomarkers (thrombocytopenia, urine malaria antigens, and ABO & RhD groups). Methods: A gold standard thick blood film to demonstrate a malaria stained using Gaimsa stain, a density of malaria expressed by number of crosses, then by immune-chromatography test (ICT) to detect malaria antigens according to species from urine deposit, the platelets was estimated by automated haematology analyser (Sysmex KX21 & Mindray) and peripheral blood picture to assess and confirm the platelets count, the ABO and RhD were detected using simple slid method and direct tube method to confirm results, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 and the statistical significant was expressed in P value < 0.05. Results: In 63 malaria patients with irrespective to age, the density of malaria parasite show 39 (+), 16 (++) and 8 (+++) respectively, there were significant associations of malaria parasite density (+++) with thrombocytopenia and urine malaria antigens P. value 0.000, 0.004 respectively and insignificancy in (ABO & RhD) and malaria parasite density the P. value 0.959. Conclusion: A present finding explicit both thrombocytopenia, and urine malaria antigens may associate with high malaria parasite density, but insignificancy association of ABO, RhD phenotypes with density of malaria parasites.
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World Health Organization, World Malaria Report
World Health Organization, World Malaria Report. Technical Report. Geneva : World Health Organization 2008.