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Positive Effects of Wildlife Tourism on Wildlife

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... The roles they play are: management and protection of cultural heritage, conservation of wild flora and fauna, conservation education and awareness campaigns, and management of waste at their tourist facilities campsites, along the nature trails. These findings are similar to those reported by other researchers (Giampiccoli & Mtapuri, 2015;Ruiz-Ballesteros & Cáceres-Feria, 2016;Günlü, 2009;UNWTO, 2012;Higginbottom et al., 2001;Marschall et al, 2017;UNWTO, 2017;and Varsi, 2012). ...
... Tourism may help restore or safeguard intangible cultural treasures like music and oral traditions (UNWTO, 2012). The public appears to be more willing to support the preservation of a region to safeguard charismatic animal species than eco-system conservation in general (Higginbottom et al., 2001). Educating tourists to obey restrictions such as behavioural guidelines or codes of conduct for animal interactions is vital (Marschall et al, 2017). ...
... Wildlife tourism refers to the activity where travelers are brought into contact with non domesticated animals [33]. It comprises different forms and can involve activities where the animals are captive or free-ranging [34]. There are significant differences in human attitudes towards animals when they participate in any of these forms of interaction. ...
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Quantifying the effect of human-wildlife interactions, and particularly those where negative perceptions exist, can have a benefit towards the conservation of species. The negative perceptions surrounding human-shark interactions can be put forward as a case in point. In this work, we use six relevant statements questions to test human perceptions before and after controlled human interactions with the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias. Questions were adapted from Kellert's typology of human attitudes towards animals. A total of 322 tourists participating in white shark cage diving tours in Gansbaai, South Africa were exposed to two surveys (pre and post-experience) to assess whether a shift in perception can happen. We focused the work on measuring the effect of the shark cage diving tourism activities to change negative perceptions towards white sharks in people who dare to cage diving with sharks. To determine the underlying structure of the statements involved in shark perception, exploratory factor analyses were performed. Two attitudes, Dominionistic and Ecologistic-Scientific explained 52.8% of the variance. In addition, analyses of differences between pre and post-surveys in participants of White Shark cage diving tours indicated a positive change in perception towards white sharks after the activity. No age, gender, or transcultural differences were found, and possible psychological and political approaches were addressed. Controlled human-shark interaction can aid in a positive shift of the attitudes towards this animal, which can have significant potential implications. Ultimately, exposure to sharks could be a valuable tool for promoting public attitudes, especially when paired with the correct interpretation of shark behavior and its impact on the ecosystem.
... Orams (2002) concurred by postulating that wildlife tourism brings about interaction opportunities for both local communities and tourists at the same time allowing tourists and wildlife animals in the engagement. In some cases COVID-19 resulted in a perceived upsurge in poaching incidences particularly at Mahenye community in Zimbabwe where both anti-poaching staff and tourists who could have provided an extra eye were absent (Higginbottom et al., 2001). There is no interaction and movement of people to conform to sustainable eco-tourism communities. ...
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The purpose of this chapter is to explore the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on tourism and hospitality. Motivation of the researchers in constructing the chapter was to logically alert the present-day and future world tourism and hospitality business leaders on how to respond to the disruptive forces attributed to deadly viral pandemics like the of COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose being to draw conclusions and identifying the research gaps. It is based on a structural analysis methodology to frame the categories of the major analysis in combination with scientific rigour to a broad and complex problem. Research results proved that the primary effects of COVID-19 pandemic on tourism and hospitality industry include technology disruption, globalisation problems and logistical inefficiencies. Implications to contemporary tourism and hospitality industry business leaders include bringing-in technologies, incubating survival plans of actions. The study results underscore the necessity of understanding effects of COVID-19 pandemic on tourism and hospitality so as to craft both proactive and reactive strategic stances. The research contributes to literature and theoretical novel introspections into the depth and breadth of how various tourism and hospitality industry metamorphoses can lead to navigation and survival in such COVID-19 pandemic environments.
... Pro-conservation behaviors are a wildlife tourism benefit that are commonly studied. Although there are a wide variety of PCB described in the literature (Higginbottom, 2004;Higginbottom et al., 2001Higginbottom et al., , 2003 wildlife tourists have been shown to hold different perceptions of individual behaviors. For example, Apps et al. (2018) found that, after a wildlife tourism experience, tourists did not increase their participation in financial donation, although all other behaviors increased. ...
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A proposed benefit of wildlife tourism is tourists’ participation in proconservation behaviors (PCB). Diffusion theory proposes that one’s perceived efficacy of a behavior will influence rates of behavior adoption. However, empirical data on factors that influence wildlife tourists’ perceived efficacy of PCB (PEPCB) are lacking. This study evaluated experiential elements’ influence on tourists’ PEPCB, and the role of social media as an emerging PCB. Data were collected from in situ and ex situ wildlife tourists (n= 475), presenting a systems-level view of wildlife tourism. Engagement with interpretation, attitudes, and past PCB performance did not influence PEPCB. Data suggests PEPCB are favorable and existing PCB are diffused throughout the wildlife tourism community. Data did support tourists’ use of social media as an emerging PCB, which is not widely diffused. Management recommendations for existing and future PCB are discussed.
... The involvement of animals in tourism has a long history and sadly, various studies expose endemic exploitation and deceptive practices (Cohen, 2013;Moorhouse et al., 2017;Shani, 2012). While the negative impacts of animal-based tourism dominate the work, a smaller body of literature assesses the positive results of wildlife tourism, including financial and in-kind contributions for conservation, socio-economic incentives for communities, as well as educating visitors to increase their awareness of conservation and/or animal welfare issues (Higginbottom et al., 2001). Although there are exceptions, including recent studies that cyber-activism can support animal welfare in tourism settings (Mkono, 2018;Shaheer et al., 2021), media reports and other studies often highlight the harmful impacts of when social media, tourism and animals collide. ...
... The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a perceived increase in poaching incidences at the Mahenye community ecotourism project due to poor ecosystem monitoring by both anti-poaching staff and tourists who provide an extra eye (Higginbottom et al., 2001). Increases in poaching have been reported as providing more fodder for the international anti-hunting lobby against hunting tourism (Machena et al., 2017). ...
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The sustainability of community ecotourism under the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) in Zimbabwe is under stress due to shocks including the new coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The pandemic has potential to impede the efforts the community ecotourism sector has been making towards the attainment of the United Nations 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. The specific objectives of the research were to: (i) document the shocks emanating from the COVID-19 pandemic on the Mahenye community ecotourism project and (ii) suggest possible coping and recovery strategies to the COVID-19 pandemic shocks at the Mahenye community ecotourism project. Qualitative methods were adopted encompassing data mining, expert opinion and key informant interviews. The overall impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on Mahenye ecotourism elements have been negative. The present research results could enable ecotourism to be sustainable in the face of shocks emanating from infectious pandemics like COVID-19 and future others.
... Therefore, PAs play a key role in the development of Sri Lankan NBT. Extensive research indicates that tourists tend to focus more on the observation of fauna (especially wild animals) than flora (Higginbottom et al., 2001;Rodger et al., 2007). Sri Lanka typifies this lop-sided segmentation of the NBT market, since PAs where elephants can be observed are the most popular. ...
... Therefore, PAs play a key role in the development of Sri Lankan NBT. Extensive research indicates that tourists tend to focus more on the observation of fauna (especially wild animals) than flora (Higginbottom et al., 2001;Rodger et al., 2007). Sri Lanka typifies this lop-sided segmentation of the NBT market, since PAs where elephants can be observed are the most popular. ...
Chapter
This chapter explores the status quo of China’s Protected Areas (PA) network and the challenges faced in an era of rapid increases in tourism. PAs encapsulate the sustainable tourism debate not least due to their rapid recent increase. China’s 3,392 Forest Parks are designated in theory for their significant landscapes and ecology, but in reality forest tourism tends to prioritize regional development over conservation. With 30% of all domestic trips derived from visits to national forest parks, escalating visitor numbers have imposed great pressure on the natural resource base, although significant economic benefits have ensued. To tackle the challenge of resource management, China’s central government initiated a new integrated system of national parks in 2015, aiming to reinforce conservation in these forest parks. As one of the ten pilot sites selected for the new policy, Pudacuo National Park has introduced a wide range of sustainability initiatives while Huangshan (the Yellow mountains) offers an alternative paradigm for scenic areas by adopting a seasonal pricing strategy and visitor limits based on carrying capacity rationale. Having discussed these two case studies, and tourism development issues during the transition from the Forest Park system to the National Park network, this chapter highlights the barriers that impede nature conservation in Chinese park management.
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The present study focuses on Tourism and management practices at Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (MTR) an important and popular wildlife attraction located at one of the hotspots of biodiversity, the Western Ghats. The study focuses on the curre practices at the reserve and identifies the s information to visitors, wildlife experiences, facilities and waste management. Suggestions on sustainable tourism strategies which can result in the better development and mana importance of collaboration between Reserve managers and corporate, researchers and public thereby maximise the benefits of research, corporate responsibility and public participation and contribute to conservation and boost the economy.
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In the African context, Zimbabwe has been one of the most aggressive promoters of the sustainable use philosophy. In contrast to the fact that the world’s biodiversity is shrinking daily, Zimbabwe’s wildlife management practices, both in the Parks and Wildlife Estate (PWLE) and the communal/private land sector, are expanding. More than 30% of the country’s land mass is now under some form of wildlife use. Few countries in the world can match this trend. There are greater numbers of several wildlife species, including the elephant, than at any time in the country’s history, despite human population growth and land tenure problems. A marked exception to this is the black rhinoceros. It is possible that if innovative wildlife management practices were introduced into the conservation of this species (including consumptive use) several years ago, the black rhinoceros’s status would have been very different today. Why are land areas for wildlife increasing? Zimbabwe boasts several progressive and innovative conservation initiatives, including the Communal Area Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE), the Conservancy concept, Intensive Protection Zones (IPZs) for the rhinoceros and detailed evaluation of multi-species (cattle and/or wildlife) production systems. Within these initiatives, sport hunting and live sales of wild animals are generating considerable income to both the private sector and communal wildlife programmes. Other innovative research programmes include use of electric fencing in control of problem animals. This chapter presents information on these initiatives and challenges the view, from an African perspective, that exploitation (sustainable use) of wildlife is negative and may only achieve short-term economic objectives.
Chapter
Ecotourism has played an important role, along with education and anti-poaching patrols, in conservation projects for mountain gorillas. Small groups of tourists are taken by trained guides to visit habituated groups of gorillas. This chapter examines the available evidence on the effects of tourism on the gorillas, both advantageous and deleterious. Tourism has provided a valuable source of income for the national parks in both Rwanda and Zaire, as well as benefiting the national economies and giving the local governments a strong incentive to protect the gorilla population. In addition, the gorilla groups visited by tourists and the areas of the forest which they inhabit are monitored daily and probably receive improved protection. The levels of illegal human disturbance in areas visited and not visited by tourists are compared. Over half the population is now in groups monitored for research or tourism. However, these visits could cause disturbance and stress to the gorillas and greatly increase the risk of human diseases being introduced into the population. Census results show that the proportion of immature animals in monitored groups is higher than in other groups, suggesting that any adverse effects of human visits are outweighed by the protection received. Civil war in Rwanda has demonstrated how political stability is crucial for successful ecotourism programmes.