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Encouraging Active Learning in Higher Education: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective


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Based on the work of Self-Determination Theory, this article suggests how to implement Self- Determination Theory based principle in a learner- centered perspective. Higher education has traditionally rested on learning methods that render passive students. Societal changes require self- regulatory skills and an active motivational set. However, lack of theoretical, empirical and practical driven theory in implementation of learner-centered education has lead to a philosophical debate. It is argued for a holistic model for implementing principles derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) in a learner- centered paradigm. SDT makes specific prediction for nurturing vs. neglecting learning environments, and thus highly appropriate framework. An important differentiation between types of motivations that differs in relative autonomy, and social climates that may be perceived as amotivating, controlling, and informational is necessary for understanding learning and educational practices. Finally, practical recommendations for teachers in higher education to put into practice. It is argued for a system in which all levels of education supports motivation to support student motivation. Both the institutional- level and teacher culture must have a learner- centered perspective, further, pre-during-post class preparations are important for high quality learning.
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Encouraging Active Learning in Higher Education: A Self-Determination
Theory Perspective
Lucas M. Jeno
bioCEED Centre of Excellence in Biology Education
Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Norway
Based on the work of Self-Determination
Theory, this article suggests how to implement Self-
Determination Theory based principle in a learner-
centered perspective. Higher education has
traditionally rested on learning methods that render
passive students. Societal changes require self-
regulatory skills and an active motivational set.
However, lack of theoretical, empirical and
practical driven theory in implementation of
learner-centered education has lead to a
philosophical debate. It is argued for a holistic
model for implementing principles derived from
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) in a learner-
centered paradigm. SDT makes specific prediction
for nurturing vs. neglecting learning environments,
and thus highly appropriate framework. An
important differentiation between types of
motivations that differs in relative autonomy, and
social climates that may be perceived as
amotivating, controlling, and informational is
necessary for understanding learning and
educational practices. Finally, practical
recommendations for teachers in higher education
to put into practice. It is argued for a system in
which all levels of education supports motivation to
support student motivation. Both the institutional-
level and teacher culture must have a learner-
centered perspective, further, pre-during-post class
preparations are important for high quality
1. Introduction
Transformation from industry-based society to
knowledge-based society demands the need for
skills such as critical thinking, explorative abilities,
creative thinking, and transferable skills. Skills such
as automatic and rudimentary knowledge may be
unproductive and undesirable in the future. A child
born this year enters the labor force in 26 years if
he graduates with a master degree, as many
students do, at least in Scandinavia. Do they
possess the necessary skills to meet new challenges
and create sustainable solutions? How are we
preparing the students?
Students have a natural inclination to learn and
actively integrate knowledge into a coherent
knowledge base. Specifically in higher education,
students may choose a subject or major based on
interest or curiosity, personal goals, or ambitions.
Hence, the possibilities for learning and teaching
students, based around their own interest are
present. However, some students may find
themselves at their university or college learning
passively without passion and meaning. They lack
agency and authenticity, and are often alienated or
helpless learners. What motivational and
psychological functions prompt such processes?
How could teachers inspire students to reach their
highest potential for human functioning?
Learning may be defined differently and implies
several aspects. The spectrum of learning
perspectives ranges from socially constructed to
biological embedded. For example, Wren and Wren
[1] asserts that learning is not dependent on
teaching, while the opposite is true. Furthermore,
education may be historically, cultural, and context
dependent. This shows the complexity of learning
in an educational context. One way to contrast
learning is on active and passive learning [2]. While
the latter refers to passively receiving information,
the former require the learner to interact with the
material, either analyzing, comparing, making
inferences, or evaluating critically. Though the
active/passive dichotomy can be paralleled with
learner-centered and teacher-centered education,
the former may be a consequence of learner-
centered vs. teacher-centered education. Learner-
centered education, as opposed to teacher-centered
education, has previously characterized as a
perspective on learning where the main focus is on
the learner and learning process not on the teacher,
where students take responsibility, and finally
where formative assessment is implemented for
learning and not as means for teaching for tests [3-
5]. Barr and Tagg [3] argue for a paradigm shift,
from instruction to learning. The authors list a
number of measures to be taken in order to shift
from the instruction paradigm to learning paradigm
(e.g. improve instruction vs. improve learning).
Similarly, Gibbs [4] highlights the importance of
International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE) , Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2015
Copyright © 2015, Infonomics Society
shifting the main focus from teaching to learning;
from the classroom to learning environment; from
the individual teachers to focus on leadership and
teams, amongst other. Most importantly, there
should be a shift from an atheoretical focus to
conceptualized and theorized focus [4]. Albeit,
learner-centered education has been investigated
within the constructivist paradigm of learning, a
lack of theoretical framework has been missing for
both testing and implementation.
The motivational theory Self-Determination
Theory (SDT) has through decades of
investigations endeavored such issues [6, 7].
Research guided by SDT has addressed which
factors affects motivation, and which effect this has
on learning (social climate motivation
consequences). Can active learner-centered
education be explained from a SDT point of view?
And how can we implement learner-centered
education in a Self-Determination Theory
In higher education, a traditional large-group
lecture is often the chosen learning method when
introducing a subject or teaching students in higher
education [8]. Contradictory to research, the
argument rest on assumptions of effective
transmitting knowledge, lower economical costs,
and previous tradition and expectations from both
teachers and students [8]. A traditional lecture
depends on both attention and interest from the
students. Why should students in higher education
be active? Do students´ learning benefit from a
learner-centered education?
This article will address these abovementioned
questions in turn. Firstly, Self-Determination
Theory is presented as a theoretical framework in
order to systemize learner-centered education as a
learning perspective. Secondly, a string of argument
will be presented as to why higher education should
encourage active learner-centered education. Lastly,
practical pedagogical implications will be
presented. This last point has been lacking in many
discussions on implementing learner-centered
2. Self-Determination Theory
Self-Determination (SDT) is an organismic
dialectic theory on motivation that assumes
satisfaction of three basic universal psychological
needs for psychological well-being [6, 7].
Specifically, autonomy refers to feeling volition,
choice in one´s behavior while having an internal
perceived locus of causality. Competence refers to
feeling efficacious in the interaction with the
environment. Lastly, relatedness is the feeling of
being cared for, belonging, and cared for by others.
Satisfaction of the basic needs for autonomy,
competence, and relatedness are necessary for
intrinsic motivation and growth. Thwarting of the
needs is associated to hinder growth and foster
psychological ill-being. A student that is
performing a learning activity out of choice and
interest, fully endorsed, receiving effectance
relevant feedback, from a supportive teacher is
theorized to satisfy his/her psychological needs.
In higher education however, not all learning
activities, subjects or classes may be intrinsically
motivated. According to SDT, the degree of self-
determined motivation is important for the quality
of that learning activity. SDT distinguishes between
three classes of motivation in terms of how
internalized the behavior is, and how self-
determined it is (Figure 1) [9]. Controlled
motivation is the least self-determined class of
motivation, and consists of external regulation and
introjected regulation. Controlled motivation refers
to behaviors that are performed in order to obtain a
reward or avoid a punishment (external regulation),
or performed to avoid guilt or attain self-worth
(introjected regulation. Controlled motivation is
associated with pressure, coercion, and tension and
is assumed to be negative related to well-being,
performance, and satisfaction.
Autonomous motivation, on the contrary, is a
self-determined type of motivation and is associated
with high quality functioning, performance, and
well-being. Autonomous motivated students
endorse and value the behavior or goal because is
personally important (identified regulation), or has
full internalized it into congruence with the self and
value system (integrated regulation). Intrinsic
motivation is the prototype of self-determined
motivation and refers to doing a behavior out of the
inherent interest and fun of the activity. It is
important to note that the internalization process is
not stepwise or age-  
motivation may fluctuate from intrinsic motivation
to external regulation without going through the
integrated, identified, and introjected. Similarly,
initial disinterest in a subject may become highly
autonomously motivated under the right conditions.
Several investigations have found support for
s basic tenets in a pedagogical context. In a
study by Jeno and Diseth [10] the authors found in
a study among upper-secondary support for a SDT-
based path-analysis. Specifically, students that
where autonomous motivated for learning and
perceived themselves as competent to learn, had a
positive relation with perceived school
performance, conversely, controlled motivated
students had a negative relation to perceived school
performance. These relations have been found both
in correlational and experimental studies, across all
school ages [6, 11].
2.1. Social climate
Learning in higher education is not solely
     
International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE) , Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2015
Copyright © 2015, Infonomics Society
also to the extent that the teachers able to support or
hinder learning and motivation. In some instances,
an unmotivated student may be inspired and
encouraged by a teacher or lesson. Similarly, an
uninspiring teacher or lesson may discourage a
student toward learning.
According to SDT´s dialectical framework,
      
context and climate. Hence, a classroom situation
or learning activity may be perceived differently by
the students and thus have different functional
significance, informational, controlling or
amotivating, respectively [9, 12]. An informational
aspect conveys autonomy support, that is, it
provides the student with feeling of autonomy,
enhances competence, and encourages self-
determined motivation. A functional significance is
controlling when the event pressures the students
and controls toward a specific learning activity.
Lastly, an amotivational functional significance
conveys incompetence and helplessness with lack
of autonomy and relatedness. In examples, an
informational teacher would facilitate the learning
process by providing the students with choice,
provide the students with positive effectance
relevant feedback that is directed towards their
personal goals, while trying to understand student
internal frame of reference.
Both experimental studies and correlational
studies have found support for supporting
autonomy in an informational aspect, while the
opposite is true for the controlling aspect. In a study
with a college sample, students who perceived their
instructor as informative and autonomy supportive
not only became more adjusted in that course and
performed at a higher level, they became more
autonomous motivated across the course [13].
Similar results have been found for secondary
students, upper secondary students, and college
students [10, 14, 15].
In sum then, students benefits when in an
informative and autonomy supportive environment.
    
needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness,
leads the students to become autonomously
motivated, and finally, perform better at school and
have higher well-being.
Figure 1. Internalization process
3. Discussion
The main goal of the current discussion is to
highlight the importance of having a clear
theoretical stand when implementing pedagogical
practices. Specifically, when implementing learner-
centered education, previous suggesting has lacked
a theoretical empirical drivel framework. Learning
in higher education encompasses an array of
processes. Different scholars have argued for a shift
from passive instruction teaching, to active learner
education. However, a lack of theoretical
positioning implies an un-coherent methodology on
how to facilitate such active learning. Based on the
abovementioned theoretical framework, SDT offers
clear theoretical and empirical assumptions for
learning. SDT´s organismic perspective assumes
that students are active and intrinsically curious and
explorative individuals. Students that are
intrinsically motivated for learning in a course or
subject are guided by their intrinsic motivations.
A second aim of the present article is why
higher education should encourage active learners.
As mentioned at the beginning, it might a myth that
traditional methods are more effective and
economical effective. For example, Benware and
Deci [16] found in an experimental study that
students who where told to learn a material to teach
other student (active learning) did not differ
significantly in rote learning compared to students
who learned to perform at a high standard (passive
learning), however the active-condition performed
International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE) , Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2015
Copyright © 2015, Infonomics Society
better than the passive-condition in conceptual
learning and rated higher intrinsic motivation.
Prince [17] performed a study investigating the
efficiency of active learning. The results shows
that the introduction of active learning in class not
only leads to retaining and understanding
knowledge, it increased engagement for learning. In
a similar vein, collaborative learning, which could
be characterized as active learning, show strong
effect sizes (0.44-0.70) compared to learning
individually [17]. According to Prince [17], active
learning may be as simple as comparing notes
during class with peers. Mostrom and Blumberg [5]
argues that, though learner-centered education may
increase achievement compared to teacher-centered
education, it is important to distinguish between
higher performance mean due to inflation and due
to gaining knowledge. The latter is a desirable for
learning and education.
Active learning may be beneficial because they
are engaged with the material and more involved
with the learning process. Autonomous and
intrinsic motivated students are guided by interest,
seeking optimal challenges, enjoyment, and
importantly, choice. When the behavior is regulated
by the Self, the student has internalized the
behavior and made it a part of their own value
system and regulation from teachers is not needed.
This is an important point for future student that are
required to think creatively, critically, and outside-
the-box. SDT´s dialectical perspective argues that
     
perception of motivators. As mentioned earlier,
according to SDT and environment could either be
informative, controlling, or amotivating. In which
case, SDT propose different outcomes in terms of
learning and behavioral consequences. According
to Ryan and Deci [9], teachers support may prompt
and sustain the internalization process. This is
because teacher can relate to students at a personal
and affectionate level.
4. Practical implications for higher
The last goal of the article is to offer practical
implications for implementing active learner-
centered education. Based on the theoretical
framework and research presented, this section will
provide practical implication for educators in higher
education and how to facilitate learning and support
motivation at different levels (Figure 2).
Institutional-level: Ryan and Weinstein [12]
asserts that different ambitions of outcomes in
regard to teaching and learning may have different
motivational consequences. In example, a
University may receive more or less funding
depending on test-scores and examination rates.
       -
     
academic achievements and psychological well-
being [12, 18]. Several explanations are put forth.
Firstly, rewarding or punishing competence
pressures both students and teachers, and thus
thwarts the need for autonomy and competence.
Secondly, never reaching standard, while
continually being punished may lead to a
amotivation functional significant aspect and in the
long run higher dropout rates.
It is important that leaders at the institutional-
level have an informative aspect on teaching and
education. According to Pelletier and Sharp [19],
teachers autonomous motivation for teaching may
be influenced by leaders relative provision of
autonomy support or neglect. Both time constraints
and curriculum constrains may be perceived as
controlling and thus not supporting of autonomy.
The may in turn inhibit teachers autonomy and
finally autonomous motivation for teaching.
Pelletier and Sharp [19] asserts that autonomous
 
own autonomous motivation for learning.
Teacher-culture: What type of educational
perspective do you as a teacher have? What are
your views on cognition, motivation,
developmental and social factors, and individual
differences [20]? Is your view on intelligence,
motivation, and learning as fixed, mechanic and
could direct by external contingencies? Or is your
perspective on intelligence, motivation, and
learning, as a natural and an inherent propensity
towards growth and integrating that needs support
and nutriment for healthy functioning. If your
perspective is on the latter, an organismic or liberal
perspective on education, you are likely to view
learning as an active process that may be fostered
by a learner-centered education. Another important
point for teacher culture is on fellow teacher
     
autonomy, competence, and relatedness is
important for a structural organizational change
along with leaders support.
Pre-lesson: What are your goals for this
particular lesson is it part of a long term goal or
philosophy of education? Teachers may identify
students      
around their interest in order to support their
intrinsic motivation. For controlled motivated
students, teachers are encouraged to reflect on how
the lesson could be more valuable for the students.
How those this subject relate to their education and
aims for their degree and education?
During the lesson: There are several measures
that can be taken to increase autonomous
motivation [6, 9]. For example, teachers can
provide students with moderately challenging tasks.
When facing uninteresting tasks or over/under
challenging activities, teacher are recommended to
acknowledge students negative affects and provide
them with an informative rational as to why the task
International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE) , Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2015
Copyright © 2015, Infonomics Society
or activity is important. Students may then
internalize and integrate the behavior in their value
system and move from controlled to autonomous
Post-lesson: What did you do during your
teaching lesson? Can you imagine how your
students perceived your lesson? Reflection
afterwards a lesson is highly important in order to
evaluate and critically assess which parts of the
lesson went well and which parts could be
improved. A possible solution to receive feedback
is to use electronic student polls and ask them to
assess on a scale if they learned during the lesson.
Furthermore, you could ask control question from
reading assignments and from the lesson in order to
assess if the students have understood the lecture.
Figure 2. Practical framework for active students
5. Conclusion
In sum then, learner-centered higher education
is recommended for active students. Active
students, as opposed to passive students, are more
engaged and interested in their learning. As
mentioned above, a learner-centered education is an
important step towards increasing active student.
This change should be driven by a holistic-
dialectical, empirical driven theory. Self-
Determination Theory offers an organismic and
dialectical perspective on human motivation and
personality with testable hypothesis that makes
clear prediction of antecedents of motivation and
learning, and outcomes and consequences of
different types of motivation. Teachers are
recommended to support autonomy, competence
and relatedness for students to develop an
autonomous motivation for learning. However, all
aspects of learning and education must be
considered for effective change.
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International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTIE) , Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2015
Copyright © 2015, Infonomics Society
... The SDT has been supported in a range of educational contexts including school-level (Owen et al., 2014;Taylor et al., 2014), further education (Goldman et al., 2017), and higher education (Beachboard et al., 2011;Jeno, 2015) students, with particular focus on healthcare students (Orsini et al., 2015) and physical education students (Standage et al., 2005;Vasconcellos et al., 2020). ...
... Second, although the recorded sample size exceeded a-priori power analyses (n = 109), the sample, consisting of postgraduate education students, is largely heterogeneous-coming from a limited number of teaching modules at a single UK-based university. However, SDT has been reported across multiple educational contexts (Owen et al., 2014;Taylor et al., 2014;Goldman et al., 2017;Beachboard et al., 2011;Jeno, 2015), and areas of study (Orsini et al., 2015;Standage et al., 2005;Vasconcellos et al., 2020), while noting that development of intrinsic motivation may differ by culture (Liu et al., 2020). Indeed, the size of a person's smile was associated with a level of their intrinsic motivation in cross-cultural samples (Cheng et al., 2020), however perception of facial expressions also differs cross-culturally (Jack et al., 2012). ...
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Academic motivation is recognised as a key factor for academic success and wellbeing. Highly motivated students actively engage with academic activities and maintain higher levels of wellbeing. Despite the importance of motivation in education, its relationship with engagement and wellbeing remains to be evaluated. Accordingly, this study explored the relationships between motivation, engagement, self-criticism and self-compassion among UK education postgraduate students. Of 120 postgraduate students approached, 109 completed three self-report scales regarding those constructs. Correlation, regression and moderation analyses were performed. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were positively associated with engagement, whereas amotivation was
... Every individual might attend to or interpret these stressors differently making emotion regulation strategies an urgent need (see Tabibnia and Radecki, 2018 for a review). Learning in higher education is not solely determined by individuals' personal characteristics, but also to the extent that the teachers able to support or hinder learning and motivation (Jeno, 2015). In the time of self-isolation, educational institutions and their instructors may bear an important responsibility for helping young learners adjust to both physical and psychological changes. ...
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Students, staff, and faculty in higher education are facing unprecedented challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent data revealed that a good number of academic activities and opportunities were disrupted as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its variants. While much uncertainty remains for the next academic year, how higher education institutions and their students might improve responses to the rapidly changing situation matters. This systematic review and framework proposal aim to update previous empirical work and examine the current evidence for the effectiveness of growth mindset interventions in young adults. To this end, a systematic search identified 20 empirical studies involving 5, 805 young adults. These studies examined growth mindset within ecologically valid educational contexts and various content areas. Generally, these findings showed that brief messages of growth mindset can improve underrepresented students' academic performance and facilitate other relevant psychological constructs. In addition, we argue, although growth mindset has been identified as a unitary concept, it is comprised of multiple interdependent skills, such as self-control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Understanding the nature of growth mindset may contribute to successful mindset implementation. Therefore, this article presents a practical framework to help educators in higher education rethink the multidimensionality of growth mindset and to provide their students with alternative routes to achieve their goals. Finally, additional articles were discussed to help evaluate growth mindset interventions in higher education.
... • This practice-based practitioner research also has a limitation where there could be student-teacher power dynamic issues that might impact the authenticity and quality of the generated data. • This study did not explore how students engaged with the learning materials and facilities provided by industry [48]. Therefore, a comparison cannot be made between the previous course curriculum and the redesigned curriculum. ...
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The continuous increase in tuition fees in high education in many countries requires justification by the university authorities. One of the key factors of student recruitment is values for money and quality learning experiences including hands-on industry training that can guarantee immediate employment for the graduates. This article describes redesigning the curriculum of a cloud computing undergraduate module in collaboration with the Amazon Web Services (AWS) Academy. Industry-based practical hands-on labs were incorporated into this module for engineering students to improve their practical knowledge and skills related to the Internet of Things. Through an innovative approach, this practitioner research introduces best practices from the industries and hands-on labs in cloud computing. In this approach, academic theories were incorporated in cloud computing with their applications through industry attachment. It enables students to have both the theoretical and practical knowledge and skills for ensuring their careers in the field of cloud computing. This study found that students tend to be more engaged and learn better when theoretical knowledge and understanding are combined with real-world applications through the attachment with the industry.
... Due to the fact that the chalk-and-board and lecture-based approaches have been used in most Thai EFL classrooms, students are bored and demotivated from learning English (Watanapokakul 2011). For this reason, they may soon become passive learners that learn things without passion and meaning (Jeno 2015). This partly hinders the effectiveness of their learning in that language learning is a skill that requires active participation in practicing the language in real life or close-to-real-life situations in pairs or groups as long as the opportunity is available (Dhanasobhon 2006). ...
This study investigates the effects of active learning pedagogy on university students' motivation. The design of this study is of a quasi-experimental nature, examining whether students' motivation changes as a result of active learning classes. In-class activities that promote motivation were used during the experiment. Pre- and post-motivation questionnaires were administered to thirty-eight participants that were enrolled as freshmen in a foundation course. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four of the participants for in-depth analysis. The findings revealed that after the end of the semester, the participants were found to have significantly increased their motivation in language learning.
... Although recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses find positive effects on learning outcomes from using m-learning tools in education (Cárdenas-Robledo & Peña-Ayala, 2018;Schmid et al., 2014;Wu et al., 2012), some argue that technology in itself does not Ryan and Deci (2000a) and Jeno (2015). ...
Perceived novelty in mobile applications is an inevitable aspect of today´s technologies. Studies suggest that this perceived novelty effect increases motivation but wanes once the user becomes accustomed to the product. Using a Self-Determination Theory approach, the present study investigates how different tools relate to students´ motivation, basic psychological needs, and achievement, over and above the effect of perceived novelty. The results from a randomized controlled experiment show that a mobile-learning tool and a digital version of a textbook are perceived as more novel than a traditional textbook. However, only the mobile-learning tool enhances the students´ basic psychological needs. Additionally, using path-analysis, we find that the mobile-learning tool, need-satisfaction within the mobile-learning tool, and autonomous motivation account for achievement and internalization, over and above the effect of novelty. We argue that this finding is due to the inherent need-supportive elements within the mobile-learning tool that satisfy the basic psychological needs.
... A relatively unexplored research area within SDT has been on how different active-learning methods relate to students' autonomous motivation, perceived autonomy support, and needs satisfaction. However, Jeno (2015) argues that SDT could be employed to understand, test, and implement active-learning methods. Accordingly, Chang et al. (2017) argues that passive-learning environments are more susceptible to controlling teaching practices due to lack of responsibility on the part of students, lower interpersonal relations, and fewer possibilities for offering optimal challenges. ...
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We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest–posttest design. The results show that the students’ intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy support significantly increased going from lectures to TBL. The results further show that students’ engagement and perceived learning significantly increased. Finally, students’ amotivation decreased from pretest to posttest; however, students reported higher external regulation as a function of TBL. Path analysis shows that increases in intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, and external regulation positively predict increases in engagement, which in turn predict increases in perceived learning. We argue that the characteristics of TBL, as opposed to lectures, are likely to engage students and facilitate feelings of competence. TBL is an active-learning approach, as opposed to more passive learning in lectures, which might explain the increase in students’ perception of teachers as autonomy supportive. In contrast, the greater demands TBL puts on students might account for the increase in external regulation. Limitations and practical implications of the results are discussed.
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This study examines early-career scientists' cognition, affect, and behaviors before, during, and after a series of science communication training workshops drawing from the Risk Information Seeking and Processing (RISP) and Theory of Planned Behavior theoretical models. We find correlations between engagement (throughout the training), self-reported knowledge and intention to apply their science communication skills. We discuss implications of these findings for science communication training, in particular that science communication behaviors and investment in skill development appear to be more dependent on attitudes and motivations cultivated during the training, rather than their attitudes and motivations coming in.
This communication was to share the efforts made in developing the fully online courses in medicinal chemistry during the educational disruption due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the academic year 2020, the online course was implemented for the first time at the Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Thailand. Various online teaching strategies were integrated, raising the question of whether the developed online courses would deliver similar learning outcomes to the traditional classroom. At the end of each semester, the teaching assessment report was conducted and evaluated in 4 parts: part 1, evaluation of lecturer; part 2, student's self-evaluation; part 3, learning outcome development after studying the course; part 4, appropriateness of class environment and equipment. Overall, student responses toward parts 1-3 in the online class were as satisfactory as those in the previous on-site class. Lower scores toward part 4 were observed in the online class. In addition, student performance in terms of grade distributions between the on-site and online classes was different. On-site students earned the highest proportion of A grades, whereas online students earned a higher proportion of B+'s to F's. While the pandemic persists and the need for online courses remains, we hope that this communication will provide some educational insight and strategies to help in the ongoing efforts to adapt and establish more successful online courses. © 2021 American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.
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Higher education has traditionally rested on teacher-centred education. Recently, there has been a shift towards learner-centred education. Innovative teaching tools, active teaching methods, and teachers that encourages a deep approach to learning, are examples of how to facilitate learner-centred education. Central to learner-centred education is increasing student motivation for learning. Moreover, recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that learner-centred education, compared to teacher-centred education, increase student achievement. Guided by the framework of Self-Determination Theory, this thesis investigates different antecedents for student motivation, and how in turn, autonomous motivation relates to achievement. It is hypothesised that the extent that the environment (i.e., teacher, innovative teaching tools, active teaching methods) promotes a sense of choice and volition in the learning activity, a sense of optimal challenge and feedback, and a sense of caring and nurture, will increase student autonomous motivation and achievement. Three independent studies were conducted and written up as three papers. Paper I is a national representative cross-sectional investigation of biology students ́ prospective achievements and dropout intentions. Results from a Structural Equation Model show support for the proposed hypotheses. Moreover, multi-group analyses show that there are significant differences for level (i.e., BA vs MA) for four paths, but are invariant across genders. Specifically, we found need-support, relatedness, and intrinsic aspiration to be positive predictors of perceived competence and autonomous motivation. Perceived competence and autonomous motivation are positive predictors of achievement and negative predictors of dropout intentions. Extrinsic aspiration is a negative predictor of achievement and a positive predictor of controlled motivation. Controlled motivation is a positive predictor of dropout intentions. Paper II concerns a randomised experiment testing the effect of a mobile-application tool to identify species. Students in the mobile-application condition, relative to students using a traditional textbook, scored higher on intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, and achievement. A path-analysis shows that the mobile-application positively predicts intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Intrinsic motivation in turn, positively predicts achievement. An indirect effect of the mobile-application to achievement through intrinsic motivation was found. Paper III is a quasi-experiment testing the effect of Team-Based Learning (TBL) relative to traditional lecture-classes. The study is a one-group pre-test/post-test design. Measurement after four weeks of lectures and then after four weeks of TBL shows that the students increased their intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, external regulation, perceived competence, engagement, autonomy-support, need-satisfaction, and perceived learning. The students decreased in amotivation from pre-test to post-test as a function of TBL. A path-analysis using the change scores shows that increases in intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and perceived competence positively predict engagement, which in turn, positively predicts perceived learning. In conclusion, the results show that active learning, compared to passive learning, is positively related to achievement. However, the findings also show that it is important to consider the underlying motivational processes that either support or thwart student autonomous motivation. That is, active learning promotes autonomous motivation and increases learning when the students ́ basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are supported. In accordance with Self-Determination Theory, a socio-context could be perceived as informational (need-supportive), controlling (need-thwarting), or amotivational (incompetence), thus teachers and institutions are recommended to consider the need-supportive vs need-thwarting elements within learner-centred approaches. The results from this thesis contribute to the knowledge on what increases student autonomous motivation and how active learning methods impact student motivation. Specifically, the use of a prominent meta- theory of motivation allows for an analysis of which factors facilitate motivation and what the consequences might be. The use of diverse student samples, study design, and statistical analyses provide strong support for the external validity of the thesis.
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This Master Thesis (in Dutch language) ‘De Student centraal bij Deltion Media & Vormgeving' is a graduation project within the framework of the Master Learning and Innovation. This research is a first step to discover to what extent the student has an influence on his own learning and selection process and which aspects according to the students, influence these processes. The main question of this research is as follows: How can Student Voice be used as an instrument of change, so that students as a leader of learning are acknowledged in their responsibility in the school organization and their learning process? The starting point for this research is the aspiration model of Quaglia & Corso, which uses the guiding principles of self-worth, engagement and purpose to make the student's voice 'visible'. The first-year students Deltion Media & Vormgeving (cohort 2016-2017) had a large share by analysing, interpreting and giving meaning to the data obtained as co-researchers. ‘De Student centraal bij Deltion Media & Vormgeving' was one of the four nominated graduate research projects for the ‘Paradeprijs 2017’, an award for the best research projects for the schools of Master of Educational Needs and Master in Learning and Innovation of Windesheim, University of Applied Sciences, Zwolle, The Netherlands. The result was an 'Honourable Mention' with the following jury report: “Nick Lumatalale conducted research into ‘De Student centraal bij Deltion Media & Vormgeving', a student voice survey at a vocational school. Student Voice is a current and international topic. In Nick's research, Student Voice is not only the subject of research, but students were also involved in the research in an innovative way. The research was carried out from a clear theoretical framework and practical recommendations also make this research useful in other contexts.”
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A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that students’ motivation may be described in terms of perceived autonomy support from their teacher, their basic need satisfaction, self-regulation and perceived competence. The present study investigated these aspects of motivation among 316 upper secondary school students. A path analysis showed that students' perceived autonomy support predicted their need satisfaction, which in turn predicted autonomous self- regulation, perceived competence and perceived school performance. The relation between basic need satisfaction and perceived school performance was fully mediated by autonomous self-regulation. Finally, the students' perceived autonomy support was partly accounted for at class-level, indicating that the students in the same class to some extent had similar experience of autonomy support. In conclusion, the present findings supported a motivational model in accordance with self-determination theory.
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When the grade distribution within a course shifts towards higher grades, it may be due to grade inflation or grade improvement. If the positive shift is accompanied by an increase in achievement or learning, it should be considered grade improvement, not grade inflation. Effective learning-centered teaching is designed to promote student learning due to increased responsibility for learning, engagement with course material, and opportunity for formative assessments prior to summative assessments of course learning outcomes, which leads to improved grades. We suggest ways that faculty members practicing learning-centered teaching can collect and analyze data to support increased learning and grade improvement.
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Few faculty members in academic medical centers are formally prepared for their roles as teachers. This work is an introductory text designed to provide medical teachers with the core concepts of effective teaching practice and information about innovations for curriculum design, delivery and assessment. It offers brief, focused chapters with content that is assimilated easily by the reader. The topics are relevant to basic science and clinical teachers and the work does not presume readers possess prerequisite knowledge of education theory or instructional design. The authors emphasize the application of concepts to teaching practice. Topics include: Facilitating Student Learning; Teaching Large Groups; Teaching in Small Groups; Flipping the Classroom; Problem-Based Learning; Team-Based Learning; Teaching Clinical Skills; Teaching with Simulation; Teaching with Practicals and Labs; Teaching with Technological Tools; Teaching to Develop Scientific Engagement in Medical Students; Designing a Course; Establishing and Teaching Elective Courses; Designing Global Health Experiences; Assessing Student Performance; Documenting the Trajectory of Your Teaching and Teaching as Scholarship. This is a complete revision of the first edition of this work with new chapters and up to date information. Similar to the first edition, chapters were written by leaders in medical education and research who draw upon extensive professional experience and the literature on best practices in education. Although designed for teachers, the work reflects a learner-centered perspective and emphasizes outcomes for student learning. The book is accessible and visually interesting and the work contains information that is current, but not time-sensitive. Each chapter concludes with references, many include recommendations for additional reading, and the work includes an appendix with resources for medical education. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
This paper is offered as a conceptual map to help 'learning development' to distinguish its various activities and to locate these activities and approaches in relation to pedagogic theory and empirical evidence. It highlights variations in context that have profound implications for what 'learning development' might realistically focus on. The paper also examines parallel developments in 'educational development' over the past 30 years to see if that offers pointers to how 'learning development' might evolve.
The finding that extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation has been highly controversial since it first appeared (Deci, 1971). A meta-analysis published in this journal (Cameron & Pierce, 1994) concluded that the undermining effect was minimal and largely inconsequential for educational policy. However, a more recent meta-analysis (Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999) showed that the Cameron and Pierce meta-analysis was seriously flawed and that its conclusions were incorrect. This article briefly reviews the results of the more recent meta-analysis, which showed that tangible rewards do indeed have a substantial undermining effect. The meta-analysis provided strong support for cognitive evaluation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1980), which Cameron and Pierce had advocated abandoning. The results are briefly discussed in terms of their relevance for educational practice.
Using tests to compare nations, states, school districts, schools, teachers, and students has increasingly become a basis for educational reform around the globe. Although tests can be informative, high-stakes testing (HST) is an approach to reform that applies rewards and sanctions contingent on test outcomes. Results of HST reforms indicate a plethora of unintended negative consequences, leading some to suggest that HST corrupts educational practices in schools. Although there are many accounts of these negative results, SDT supplies the only systematic theory of motivation that explains these effects. In what follows we describe the motivational principles underlying the undermining effects of HST on teachers and learners alike.