Study of impact on noyyal river and orathupalayam dam due to effluent discharge by the textile dyeing industries in tiruppur, TAMIL NADU and its remediation measures

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The Noyyal river is a tributary of the river Cuavery. Tiruppur town is located on the bank of Noyyal river. There 729 bleaching and dying units are in operation in Tiruppur area. These units generate 96.1 million L/day (MLD) of wastewater. Initially, they discharged untreated effluent into the river. After the Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) directions they installed 8 common effluent treatment plants (CETP) consisting of physical, chemical and biological treatment process. Even then, the treated effluent from the CETPs did not meet the total dissolved solid (TDS) and chloride standards. The discharge of high TDS and chloride effluent into Noyyal river had significantly affected the river water quality, groundwater quality as well as the Orathupalayam dam which is constructed across Noyyal river at 32 km down stream of Tiruppur. In year 2006, the "Hon'ble High Court of Madras and TNPCB directed the bleaching and dyeing units to install zero liquid discharge (ZLD) plant consisting of RO plant and reject management system. At present there are 17 CETPs with ZLD plant are in operation. The treated effluent is reused by the member units. The RO reject is concentrated in multiple effect evaporator (MEE) / mechanical vacuum re-compressor (MVR) and then solar evaporated. Thus the discharge into the river is now stopped. Orthuapalayam dam is partly desilted. However, the damage caused to the groundwater and soil in the river basin is yet to be restored.

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This study performs the multiscale decomposition of six water quality parameters from Elunuthimangalam station in Noyyal River, a water quality hotspot in Southern India, using the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise method. Then, the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) obtained are subjected to normalized Hilbert transform-direct quadrature-coupled framework for their time–frequency characterization. The time–frequency–amplitude spectra revealed that the dominant frequency is dynamic in characteristics and the marginal spectra successfully captured the significant high anthropogenic interventions in the form of pollutant disposals in the study area. Then, an in-depth examination of the association of different water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total hardness (TH) with electrical conductivity (EC) is done through a running correlation method, namely time-dependent intrinsic correlation (TDIC) in which the sliding window size is adaptively fixed based on instantaneous frequencies estimated by HT. The TDIC analysis revealed that with the exception of TH, the association of water quality parameters with EC in different time scales is not alike in both nature and strength. Also the well-debated DO–temperature and DO–BOD relationships displayed diverse correlation properties in different time scales and over the time domain.
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