Language Planning

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language policy;monolingualism;multilingualism;regional language systems;linguistic demographics

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The study aims at investigating the exceptional use of companies and products‟ names to refer to things that are new or unfamiliar. This usually happens when people from different cultures, countries or cities come into contact with each other in different social situations. This contact leads people of one culture to exchange words, concepts and even products with various other cultures and nations for different purposes. This linguistic exchange is known as „borrowing‟ and the words being borrowed are „loanwords‟. Brand loanwords are regarded as a special case of interest as they are used colloquially and/or formally by people in Iraq and they vary enormously from scientific words to social words, from nouns to verbs, words used especially by the older generation and those used only by the young one, words used by the upper class and those used by the lower class, etc. However, any of such words could be a brand name that stands for a company or a product. This manuscript is divided into four sections: introduction, method, results and discussion.
To what extent can similarity and difference in the cartographic style of state topographic maps be explained within the context of the cartographic language paradigm? This paper explores the suitability of this approach as a hermeneutic for stylistic diversity, the persistence of nationally-specific conventions and problems of symbol standardisation. After reviewing earlier treatments of map language as analogy and metaphor in cartographic theory, we consider the construction of cartographic meaning and its role within a semiological system and suggest how variations in denotation and connotation allow a deeper understanding of the cultural significance of state topographic map symbologies. In treating topographic cartography as a natural visual language for communicating place, a new paradigm is proposed through which problems of international collaboration concerning the portrayal of transnational landscapes (especially at larger map scales) may be approached and potentially overcome.
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