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International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2014

790

ISSN: 2278 – 1323 All Rights Reserved © 2014 IJARCET

Abstract— To design a substitutin box (S-BOX) using

both encryption and decryption. From that, the proposed

system can achieve a higher throughput and higher energy

efficiency. The S-BOX is designed by using Advanced

Encryption Standard (AES). The AES is a symmetric key

standard for encryption and decryption of blocks of data. In

encryption, the AES accepts a plaintext input, which is

limited to 128 bits, and a key that can be specified to be 128

bits to generate the Cipher text. In decryption, the cipher

text is converted to original one. By using this AES

technique the original text is highly secured and the

information is not broken by the intruder. From that, the

design of S-BOX is used to protect the message and also

achieve a high throughput , high energy efficiency and

occupy less area.

Keywords— Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Substitution

Byte, Cryptography.

I.INTRODUCTION

Cryptography is a technique which is used to protect the

information. In 1997 the National Institute of Standards and

Technology (NIST), a branch of the US government, started a

process to identify a replacement for the Data Encryption

Standard (DES). It was generally recognized that DES was

not secure because of advances in computer processing

power. The goal of NIST was to define a replacement for DES

that could be used for non-military information security

applications by US government agencies. Of course, it was

recognized that commercial and other non-government users

would benefit from the work of NIST and that the work

would be generally adopted as a commercial standard. The

NIST invited cryptography and data security specialists from

around the world to participate in the discussion and

selection process. Five encryption algorithms were adopted

for study. Through a process of consensus the encryption

algorithm proposed by the Belgium cryptographers Joan

Daeman and Vincent Rijmen was selected. Prior to selection

Daeman and Rijmen used the name Rijndael(derived from

their names) for the algorithm. After adoption the encryption

algorithm was given the name Advanced Encryption

Standard (AES) which is in common use today.

In 2001, the National Institute of standards and

Technology (NIST) found the Advanced Encryption

Standard (AES) Technique. It can be implemented in

hardware. There are a lot of disadvantages in DES

Technique. It is insecure and the message is easily broken by

the intruder. AES Technique has been widely used in a

.

variety of applications such as secure communication systems

and high throughput data servers.

The AES encryption algorithm is a block cipher that uses

an encryption key and a several rounds of encryption. A

cipher key is an encryption algorithm that works on a single

block of data at a time. In the case of standard encryption

technique the data is 128 bits, or 16 bytes, in length. The term

―rounds‖ refers to the way in which the encryption algorithm

mixes the data re-encrypting it ten to fourteen times

depending on the length of the key.

AES encryption uses a single key as a part of the

encryption process. The key can be 128 bits (16 bytes), 192

bits (24 bytes) or 256 bits (32 bytes) in length. The term

128-bit encryption refers to the use of a 128-bit encryption

key. With AES both the encryption and the decryption are

performed using the same key. This is called a symmetric

encryption algorithm. Encryption algorithm uses two

different keys that is public and a private key. Both are

called asymmetric encryption algorithm key technique. An

encryption key is simply a binary string of data used in the

encryption process. Because the same encryption key is used

to encrypt and decrypt data, it is important to keep the

encryption key as a secret and to use the keys that are hard to

guess. Some keys are generated by software used for this

specific task. Another method is to derive a key from a pass

phrase. Good encryption systems never use a pass phrase

alone as an encryption key.

The previous techniques used in the encryption are

parallel mix column and one target one process. The parallel

mix column occupies more area and delay. The one term

process also occupies more area and delay. So the complex

parallelism is introduced.. By using this technique , a higher

energy efficiency is achieved and also delay reduction is

possible. This technique is applied for so many applications

like military purpose, computer password and so on.

The reminder of this paper is organized as follows: section

2 explains the basic types of encryption. The encryption

types involve the brief explanation about four techniques

which we have given in the abstract. Section 3 presents the

complex parallelism. The section also explains the cyclic

loop of this mechanism. Section 4 discuss the simulation

results of one target one process, parallel mix column and

Complex parallelism.

ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION IN

COMPLEX PARALLELISM

H.Anusuya Baby1, Christo Ananth2

1(ECE, Francis Xavier Engineering College/ Anna University , India)

2(ECE, Francis Xavier Engineering College/ Anna University , India)

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2014

791

ISSN: 2278 – 1323 All Rights Reserved © 2014 IJARCET

II.TECHNIQUES INVOLVE IN ENCRYPTION

AES is a symmetric encryption algorithm, and it takes

a 128-bit data as a input and performs several rounds of

transformations to generate output cipher text. It is a

computer security standard issued by NIST for protecting the

electronic data. The basic processing unit used in this AES

algorithm is byte. AES is used to encrypt/decrypt data blocks

of 128-bits and it can be implemented in both hardware and

software. AES acts as a block cipher which operates on fixed

length group of bits of data. AES is a stream cipher which

means the plain text bits are encrypted one and set of

transformations have been applied to the bits. It may vary

during encryption process. The plain text input and cipher

output are the blocks of 128 bits. The number of rounds

depend on key size. Each 128-bit is processed in a

permutation and rotation operation. There are different

techniques involved in this encryption.

A. Substitution Byte:

It is a non- linear substitution byte. Each Byte is replaced

by another byte. This substitution Byte uses S-BOX for

generating the cipher text. This S-box involves two process.

First one is used to take the multiplicative inverse of finite

field of the matrix (i.e input data). Secondly, the Affine

Transformation is applied to the output of multiplicative

inverse. Area reduction is possible in this finite field and

finite field is used to create a compact field AES

implementation. In new technology, the S-Box can be

obtained from its truth table by using two level logic such as

sum of products and product of sum. If the above mentioned

technology is used , the primitive logic cells can be reduced

and also cell size can be optimized using synthesis tool. The

S- Box is computed from inverse of input to the original

input. The example of Affine Transformation is given by

Consider an example, 4X4 matrix is a input text and [s1

s2 s3 s4] is the inverse of the input . the remaining one [ 0

1 1 0 ] is a cipher key. The output is a [ z1 z2 z3 z4 ]. The

input is multiplied with inverse of input with a cipher key and

the output is obtained. The inverse input is the multiplicative

inverse of the given input matrix. The example of

Substitution Byte is given below.

Example of Substitution Byte input

Operation of Substitution Byte

B. Shift Row:

The technique used in this model is the transformation of

the row. Consider a 4x4 matrix, the first row of the matrix

remains unchanged. The second row , first bit is shifted to the

last one. Then the last one is shifted to the third place. Finally

the third row and forth row is finally rotated. The message is

shuffled. In otherwords, The row transformation can be

expressed as a reconstruction of the matrix using an key

expression for each element. The row expressions calculate

circular transformation .The example of shift row is given

below.

Example of Shift Row input

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2014

792

ISSN: 2278 – 1323 All Rights Reserved © 2014 IJARCET

Operation of Shift Row

C. Mix Column:

During this process, the matrix of the input column is

shuffled. From that, the message is unbroken. It is similar to

Substitution Byte. It uses the polynomial function. It is also

based on finite field multiplication. The Mix column is based

on the multiplication of two matrices and xor operation of

both input and cipher key.

Example of Mix Column input

Operation of Mix Column

D. Add Round Key:

The sender sends a message to the receiver using a

password (i.e key). The key is known by both sender and

receiver. The key is added to the input ( which is in the form

of cipher text ). The message is not hackable by any other

intruders and also the information is more shuffled and

secure.

III. ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM TECHNIQUES

The different types of technique involve in this encryption

and decryption. There are three techniques

A. One Target and One Process:

The input is fed to the add round key. so the key is mixed

with input (i.e cipher text). Then the output of the add round

key is shuffled with sub byte, shift row, mix column and add

round key. This process is repeated upto nine times.

Then the ouput is processed with key elongation process.

The output of key elongation is send to the final stage add

round key. Finally the cipher text is generated from the plain

text by using this OTOP technique.

B. Parallel Mix Columns:

The OTOP model is easily hackable by intruder. So the

efficiency of OTOP model is small. This process is similar

to the OTOP model. The input is fed to the add round key (i.e

cipher text). The output is fed to the sub byte and shift row.

The output of the shift row is added to the parallelizing mix

column for shuffling the message. Then the output is added to

the add round key. The process is repeated for nine times.

The key elongation process is applied to the final stage

output. The efficiency of parallel mix column is much higher

than OTOP model. The area reduction is possible in this

parallel mix column.

C. Complex Parallelism:

The input is fed to the four main blocks that is replacement

bye, row transformation, shuffle the column and xor

operation with key. The process is simulated upto nine times.

The process is optimized with complex parallelism and the

message is secure with cipher keys.

Fig 1: Complex Parallelism

First the input is fed to the xor operation with key. The

process involves in this stage is inserting a key to the input

data. Then we have to send the data to replacement byte.

Parallelizing the replacement byte is used to secure the

message. The message is much more shuffled by combining

the replacement byte. Then the next one is row

transformation. This is used to transfer or shift the data. Then

the next step is shuffle the column. It is used to shuffle the

input with key. this is done by polynomial function. Then the

last one is xor operation with key. The input is xored with

key. The process is repeated upto nine times for shuffling the

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2014

793

ISSN: 2278 – 1323 All Rights Reserved © 2014 IJARCET

message. Finally the original text is covered by cipher key

and the output of the data is cipher text(only with cipher

keys). The cipher text information is unbroken by any other

intruder. Finally the cipher text text input is given to the

reverse process of complex parallelism. The original

message is received by the S-box. Thus The information is

secured by using complex parallelism.

IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The information is encrypted by using complex

parallelism. The simulation results of OTOP model and

Parallel Mix Column are discussed below. Finally the

encrypted output of complex parallelism is also given below.

A. One Target One Process:

The input is a 128-bit. The plain text is given to the OTOP

encryption key. The cipher text is generated by using cipher

keys. The OTOP model involves the process of SubBytes,

Shift Row, Mix Column and Add Round key. All the above

process is used to perform the message shuffling purpose.

The permutation and rotation process are done by using the

key elongation process. The message is secure and the

information is shuffled for security purposes. The number of

LUTs are reduced by 0.8%. Then the number of occupied

slices are decreased by 0.9%. The gate count is increased in

this OTOP model.

Fig 2: Compilation of OTOP model

The figure 2 shows the compilation of OTOP model. The

area utilization is 81% in this OTOP model. The delay is

calculated in the comparison table for area efficiency.

B.Parallel Mix Column:

The input is a 128-bit. The plain text is given to the

Parallel Mix Column encryption key. The cipher text is

generated by using cipher keys. The Parallel Mix Column

model involves the process of SubBytes, Shift Row, Mix

Column and Add Round key. All the above process is used to

perform the cyclic rotation for rotating the input keys . The

key elongation process is done by using key rotation. The

message is safe and the information is shuffled for security

purposes. The number of LUTs are reduced by 0.9%. Then

the number of occupied slices are decreased by 0.9%. The

gate count is increased in this Parallel Mix Column model.

Fig 3: Compilation of Parallel Mix Column

The figure 3 shows the compilation of Mix Column. The

area utilization is 96% in this Parallel Mix Column. The path

route delay is calculated

F.Complex Parallelism:

Fig 4: Compilation of S-Box

The design of S-Box is used to the protect the message.

The figure 4 shows the compilation of substitution byte.

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2014

794

ISSN: 2278 – 1323 All Rights Reserved © 2014 IJARCET

The above figure shows the shuffling of message and also

elongating the key.

Fig 5: Encrypted data of Complex Parallelism

The figure 5 shows the proces of complex parallelism

encryption. It will show the complex parallelism process. The

process involves the operation of one task one processor,

Parallel Mix columns and complex parallelism.

Fig 7: Decrypted data of Complex Parallelism

It implements in 167 processor using complex parallelism

technique. The process is the combination of various

techniques like Substitution Byte, Shift Row Mix Column

and Add Round Key. The message is secure and the delay is

reduced by other methods. The figure 6 and 7 show the

compilation of complex parallelism. The delay of complex

parallelism is small compared to other techniques.

Fig 8: Compilation of Complex Parallelism

The above simulation results discuss the detailed

description of three models. The comparison table of area

and delay are discussed in the below section. Th e table 1

discusses the comparison of area with LUTs and route path.

The table 2 discusses the comparison of delay with path and

route delay.

TABLE 1: Comparison of Area

Encryption

Name

LUT

Route Path

OTOP model

21658

11

Parallel Mix

Column

21658

11

Complex

Parallelism

21634

5

The OTOP model occupies more LUT in the hardware

implementation. The number of gates in the OTOP model is

very high .The parallel mix column occupies less LUT

compare to OTOP model and high compare to complex

parallelism. The number of gates occupied in the hardware is

same as the OTOP model. The complex parallelism

technique occupies less LUTs for hardware implementation.

The number of paths in the complex parallelism are less

compared to the both previous model. The path delay and

International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology (IJARCET)

Volume 3 Issue 3, March 2014

795

ISSN: 2278 – 1323 All Rights Reserved © 2014 IJARCET

route delay is efficient in the complex parallelism compared

to the OTOP model and Parallel Mix Column.

TABLE 2: Comparison of Delay

Encryption

Name

Delay

Gate

Delay

Path Delay

OTOP

model

307.909ns

105.862ns

202.047ns

Parallel Mix

Column

232.742ns

116.830ns

115.912ns

Complex

Parallelism

232.245ns

116.683ns

115.562ns

VI. CONCLUSION

In this brief, cryptography AES technique is presented to

protect the information. To increase the efficiency, the

complex parallelism technique is used to involve the

processing of Substitution Byte, Shift Row, Mix Column and

Add Round Key. Using S- Box complex parallelism, the

original text is converted into cipher text. From that, we have

achieved a 96% energy efficiency in Complex Parallelism

Encryption technique and recovering the delay 232 ns. The

complex parallelism that merge with parallel mix column

and the one task one processor techniques are used. In future,

Complex Parallelism single loop technique is used for

recovering the original message.

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