ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050

Abstract and Figures

Purpose: Myopia is a common cause of vision loss, with uncorrected myopia the leading cause of distance vision impairment globally. Individual studies show variations in the prevalence of myopia and high myopia between regions and ethnic groups, and there continues to be uncertainty regarding increasing prevalence of myopia. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of myopia and high myopia and estimated temporal trends from 2000 to 2050 using data published since 1995. The primary data were gathered into 5-year age groups from 0 to ≥100, in urban or rural populations in each country, standardized to definitions of myopia of -0.50 diopter (D) or less and of high myopia of -5.00 D or less, projected to the year 2010, then meta-analyzed within Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions. Any urban or rural age group that lacked data in a GBD region took data from the most similar region. The prevalence data were combined with urbanization data and population data from United Nations Population Department (UNPD) to estimate the prevalence of myopia and high myopia in each country of the world. These estimates were combined with myopia change estimates over time derived from regression analysis of published evidence to project to each decade from 2000 through 2050. Results: We included data from 145 studies covering 2.1 million participants. We estimated 1406 million people with myopia (22.9% of the world population; 95% confidence interval [CI], 932-1932 million [15.2%-31.5%]) and 163 million people with high myopia (2.7% of the world population; 95% CI, 86-387 million [1.4%-6.3%]) in 2000. We predict by 2050 there will be 4758 million people with myopia (49.8% of the world population; 3620-6056 million [95% CI, 43.4%-55.7%]) and 938 million people with high myopia (9.8% of the world population; 479-2104 million [95% CI, 5.7%-19.4%]). Conclusions: Myopia and high myopia estimates from 2000 to 2050 suggest significant increases in prevalences globally, with implications for planning services, including managing and preventing myopia-related ocular complications and vision loss among almost 1 billion people with high myopia.
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Global Prevalence of Myopia and High
Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000
through 2050
Brien A. Holden, PhD, DSc,
1,2
Timothy R. Fricke, MSc,
1
David A. Wilson, PhD,
1,2,3
Monica Jong, PhD,
1
Kovin S. Naidoo, PhD,
1,2,3
Padmaja Sankaridurg, PhD,
1,2
Tien Y. Wong, MD,
4
Thomas J. Naduvilath, PhD,
1
Serge Resnikoff, MD
1,2
Purpose: Myopia is a common cause of vision loss, with uncorrected myopia the leading cause of distance
vision impairment globally. Individual studies show variations in the prevalence of myopia and high myopia be-
tween regions and ethnic groups, and there continues to be uncertainty regarding increasing prevalence of
myopia.
Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of myopia and high
myopia and estimated temporal trends from 2000 to 2050 using data published since 1995. The primary data
were gathered into 5-year age groups from 0 to 100, in urban or rural populations in each country, standardized
to denitions of myopia of 0.50 diopter (D) or less and of high myopia of 5.00 D or less, projected to the year
2010, then meta-analyzed within Global Burden of Disease (GBD) regions. Any urban or rural age group that
lacked data in a GBD region took data from the most similar region. The prevalence data were combined with
urbanization data and population data from United Nations Population Department (UNPD) to estimate the
prevalence of myopia and high myopia in each country of the world. These estimates were combined with myopia
change estimates over time derived from regression analysis of published evidence to project to each decade
from 2000 through 2050.
Results: We included data from 145 studies covering 2.1 million participants. We estimated 1406 million
people with myopia (22.9% of the world population; 95% condence interval [CI], 932e1932 million [15.2%e
31.5%]) and 163 million people with high myopia (2.7% of the world population; 95% CI, 86e387 million [1.4%e
6.3%]) in 2000. We predict by 2050 there will be 4758 million people with myopia (49.8% of the world population;
3620e6056 million [95% CI, 43.4%e55.7%]) and 938 million people with high myopia (9.8% of the world pop-
ulation; 479e2104 million [95% CI, 5.7%e19.4%]).
Conclusions: Myopia and high myopia estimates from 2000 to 2050 suggest signicant increases in prev-
alences globally, with implications for planning services, including managing and preventing myopia-related
ocular complications and vision loss among almost 1 billion people with high myopia. Ophthalmology 2016;-
:1e7ª2016 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-
ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Supplemental material is available at www.aaojournal.org.
In 2010, it was estimated that uncorrected refractive error
was the most common cause of distance vision impairment,
affecting 108 million persons, and the second most common
cause of blindness globally.
1
The economic burden of
uncorrected distance refractive error, largely caused by
myopia, was estimated to be US$202 billion per annum.
2
There is a substantive economic argument for eliminating
uncorrected myopia and other refractive errors.
3
However, myopia brings further vision challenges
because high myopia increases the risk of pathologic ocular
changes such as cataract, glaucoma, retinal detachment,
and myopic macular degeneration, all of which can cause
irreversible vision loss.
4
In some communities with a
high prevalence of myopia, myopic macular degeneration
has been found to be the most frequent cause of
irreversible blindness.
5
Myopic macular degeneration has
been found to cause 12.2% of vision impairment in Japan
(approximately 200 000 people).
6
There remain 2 major gaps in the literature. First, indi-
vidual studies suggest wide variation in the prevalence of
myopia between different regions and ethnic groups.
7
For
example, the prevalence of myopia is more than 2 times
higher among East Asians than similarly aged white
persons.
8
Second, the prevalence of myopia in different
countries seems to be increasing, and most dramatically
among younger people in East Asia.
8
The combination
12016 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Published by Elsevier Inc.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.01.006
ISSN 0161-6420/16
of vision impairment from uncorrected myopia and
irreversible vision loss from myopia-related complications
make accurate global estimates of the prevalence and tem-
poral trends critical for planning care and services. How-
ever, there are no precise estimates of the global prevalence
of myopia or for projected temporal changes over the next
few decades.
Methods
Studies, Databases, and Data Organization
We performed a systematic search and review of the prevalence of
myopia and high myopia using data published since 1995, sum-
marized in Figure 1. We searched PubMed (National Library of
Medicine) on January 10, 2015, for publications using the
following MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms: myopia
AND prevalence and refractive error AND prevalence. The
search was restricted to articles published after January 1, 1995,
and was performed on all available articles regardless of the
original language of publication. The search yielded 1656 and
2632 articles relating to myopia and refractive error, respectively.
The abstract of each publication was reviewed and articles that
were population-based surveys were included. Surveys were
excluded if they did not specify the number of eligible participants
or participation rate, or if data were from a specic population that
could not be generalized to the population as a whole. We rejected
8 articles that did not specify a denition of myopia. To cover
regions without data, some additional articles were sourced through
key informant advice and from reference lists of articles found
through PubMed. A full list of the 145 studies is included in
Appendix 1 (available at www.aaojournal.org).
Country-specic population data for each decade from 2000
through 2050, in 5-year age groups from 0 to 100, were drawn
mostly from the United Nations World Population Prospects.
9
Population data from the United States Census Bureau were used
for a small number of low-population states omitted from the
available United Nations data.
10
Studies have suggested that myopia rates differ in urban
compared with rural communities that are otherwise similar.
11,12
We therefore obtained separate urban and rural myopia preva-
lences where possible and disaggregated country-level populations
into urban and rural numbers sourced from the United Nations
World Urbanization Prospects.
13
Countries were grouped into the 21 Global Burden of Disease
(GBD) regions.
1
The country-specic urban and rural population
data were combined with the corresponding prevalence data in
each 5-year age group to calculate the number of people with
Figure 1. Flow diagram summarizing the systematic search and review process for identifying myopia prevalence evidence globally. MeSH ¼medical subject
headings.
Ophthalmology Volume -, Number -, Month 2016
2
myopia. The numbers of people with myopia in each age group in
rural and urban areas of each country then were aggregated to
obtain regional totals.
Denitions
The denitions of myopia and high myopia vary across the selected
prevalence studies. Of the 145 articles included in this study, the
most common denition of myopia was spherical equivalent
of 0.50 diopter (D) or less (58.7%), with 29.0% using less
than 0.50 D, 5.0% using 1.00 D or less or less than 1.00 D
(all studies of adults), 2.9% using 0.75 D or less or less
than 0.75 D, and 3.6% using 0.25 D or less or less than 0.25
D. Only 59 studies dened and measured high myopia, with 30.5%
dening it as 6.00 D or less, 30.5% dening it as less than 6.00
D, 35.6% dening it as 5.00 D or less or less than 5.00 D, 1.7%
dening it as 8.00 D or less, and 1.7% dening it as 3.00 D or
less.
We standardized to a spherical equivalent of 0.50 D or less for
myopia because it was the most commonly used denition in
published prevalence studies, is beyond refraction measurement
error, and captures children at the start of their progression. We
standardized to a spherical equivalent of 5.00 D or less for
high myopia because it is used commonly, identies people at
higher risk of pathologic myopia, and if uncorrected, causes
vision impairment at least equivalent to the World Health
Organizationedened blindness.
14
The relationship between prevalence and denition was
analyzed using all articles providing prevalence at 2 or more cut-
offs for myopia or high myopia. All prevalence data were stan-
dardized to myopia and high myopia denitions of 0.50 D or less
and 5.00 D or less, respectively, using linear regressions specic
to regional and dioptric level (see Supplemental Material, part 1,
available at www.aaojournal.org).
Meta-analysis and Extrapolation
Meta-analysis of the prevalence of myopia and high myopia within
each age group of each GBD region, using the standardized
myopia denitions and a standardized time point of 2010, was
performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software version 3
(Biostat, Englewood, NJ). A logit random effects model was used
to combine studies within each age group and region. The logit
prevalence was dened as log(p/(1 ep)), where pis the prevalence
within each age group. The study-to-study variance (
s
2
) was not
assumed to be the same for all age groups within the region,
indicating that this value was computed within age groups and was
not pooled across age groups. The inverse of the variance was used
to compute relative weights. The logit prevalence and its standard
error were used to compute the 95% condence limits, which
then was transformed to the estimated prevalence and its corre-
sponding limits using the formula E
ˇ
(logit prevalence)/(E
ˇ
(logit
prevalence) þ1), where E¼Eulers number.
Age-specic regional meta-analysis results were extrapolated to
GBD regions lacking data in any specic age or urbanization
group, with extrapolations based on regional similarities in ur-
banization, Human Development Index (HDI), racial proles,
culture, education systems, health systems, and other similarities.
15
Data gaps within regions also were lled via nearest neighbor
linear interpolation between age groups up to a maximum of 20
years between groups.
Projections across Decades
Longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional studies have shown
increasing prevalence of myopia.
16e21
We analyzed change
in myopia prevalence over time against prevalence of myopia
(R
2
¼0.86), rate of urbanization (R
2
¼0.07), and change in HDI
(R
2
¼0.69). The relationship between change in myopia over time
and prevalence of myopia was the strongest, following the formula:
Percentage annual prevalence change
¼12:456 E
ˇ
ð0:04 prevalenceÞ0:22813;
where E¼Eulers number. There were 2 exceptions to using
this percentage annual change formula. First, because there were
no data for prevalence less than 28.3%, we took the conservative
approach of using a constant 3.8% change/year for all prevalences
less than 28.3%. Second, Vitale et al
16
provide a clear indication
that the effect decreases at ages younger than 20 years. Fitting a
2-part linear function to their data suggested adjusting the calcu-
lated annual change in myopia gure by a factor of 0.5 in the 10- to
19-year-old age groups, 0.25 in the 5- to 9-year-old age group, and
0 in the 0- to 4-year-old age group. The prevalence of myopia in
each decade was calculated by adjusting the prevalence gure by a
cumulative change equal to Prevalence (1 þ(Percentage annual
change)
ˇ
(number of years)).
Three studies showed a similar increase in prevalence of high
myopia over time. Given the sparse data, we used a simple average
annual prevalence change from these studies (3.26% per
year).
16e18
Additionally, because the evidence trended to less
annual change as prevalence increased between 15% and 30% and
there was no annual change data for high myopia prevalence of
30% or more, we generated a logarithmic decay function that
reduced to 0 when the prevalence reached 100%. This formula was
used when the prevalence of high myopia was more than 30%:
Annual change ¼2:237 lnðprevalenceÞþ10:283;
where ln ¼natural log. Data from Vitale et al
16
again suggested
that the annual change in high myopia prevalence would be less in
age groups younger than 20 years. Using a similar process as in the
myopia case, the annual change in high myopia prevalence was
adjusted by a factor of 0.4 in the 15- to 19-year-old age group,
0.3 in the 10- to 14-year-old age group, 0.2 in the 5- to 9-year-old
age group, and 0.1 in the 0- to 4-year-old age group. The changing
proportion of people living in urban versus rural situations in each
decade was sourced from the United Nations.
13
Condence Intervals
In addition to the 95% condence limits calculated in the meta-
analysis of prevalence data, uncertainty in future population pro-
jections was represented by the high- and low-fertility population
projections from the United Nations.
13
Control Factors
Published evidence indicates that myopia is common and increasing
over time, with apparent effects of race, location, and generation.
Racial effects were controlled by using studies as broadly repre-
sentative of a countrys population as possible and extrapolating
within GBD regions. Location effects were controlled by dis-
aggregating urban and rural populations and prevalence and
extrapolating based on HDI and GBD region. Generational
shifts were accommodated through our change over time method-
ology and were facilitated by maintaining 5-year age groups through
to 100.
Results
A summary of the original data from all 145 studies is given in
Appendix 2 (available at www.aaojournal.org). Figure 2 shows our
estimates of the total number of people with myopia globally. In
Holden et al Global Myopia Trends 2000e2050
3
2000, this was 1406 million (22.9% of the global population;
uncertainty interval, 932e1932 million [15.2%e31.5%]),
increasing to 1950 million in 2010 (28.3% of the global
population; 1422e2543 million [20.6%e36.9%]). This is
projected to increase to 2620 million in 2020 (34.0% of the
global population; uncertainty interval, 1976e3366 million
[26.2%e42.6%]), to 3361 million by 2030 (39.9% of the global
population; uncertainty interval, 2578e4217 million [32.3%e
47.5%]), to 4089 million by 2040 (45.2% of the global
population; uncertainty interval, 3145e5128 million [38.1%e
52.1%]), and to 4758 million by 2050 (49.8% of the global
population; uncertainty interval, 3620e6056 million [43.4%e
55.7%]).
Regional differences are evident throughout the projection
period, as shown in Table 1. The high-income countries of Asia-
Pacic begin with a signicantly higher prevalence of myopia
than any other region. East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the high-
income countries of North America close the gap to some extent
by 2050 because of a combination of ceiling effects in some age
groups, prevalence distribution across age groups, and changing
age demographics.
Figure 2 shows our estimates of the total number of people with
high myopia globally. This was 163 million in 2000 (2.7% of the
global population; uncertainty interval, 86e387 million [1.4%e
6.3%]), increasing to 277 million in 2010 (4.0% of the global
population; uncertainty interval, 153e589 million [2.2%e8.6%]).
This is projected to increase to 399 million in 2020 (5.2% of the
global population; uncertainty interval, 233e815 million [3.1%e
10.3%]), to 517 million by 2030 (6.1% of the global population;
uncertainty interval, 298e1082 million [3.7%e12.2%]), to 696
million by 2040 (7.7% of the global population; uncertainty
interval, 381e1518 million [4.6%e15.4%]), and to 938 million
by 2050 (9.8% of the global population; uncertainty interval,
479e2105 [5.7%e19.4%]). Regional differences are evident
throughout the projection period, as shown in Table 1.
Figure 3 shows the distribution of people with myopia and
prevalence of myopia across age groups. In 2000, the greatest
numbers of people with myopia were between 10 and 39 years
of age. However, our projections suggest that through both
cohort and age effects this distribution will spread by 2050, with
large numbers of people with myopia from 10 years of age all
the way through to 79 years of age.
Figure 2. Graph showing the number of people estimated to have myopia and high myopia for each decade from 2000 through 2050. Error bars represent
the 95% condence intervals.
Table 1. Prevalence of Myopia Estimated for Each Global Burden
of Disease Region between 2000 and 2050
Region
Prevalence (%) in Each Decade
2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050
Andean Latin America 15.2 20.5 28.1 36.2 44.0 50.7
Asia-Pacic, high income 46.1 48.8 53.4 58.0 62.5 66.4
Australasia 19.7 27.3 36.0 43.8 50.2 55.1
Caribbean 15.7 21.0 29.0 37.4 45.0 51.7
Central Africa 5.1 7.0 9.8 14.1 20.4 27.9
Central Asia 11.2 17.0 24.3 32.9 41.1 47.4
Central Europe 20.5 27.1 34.6 41.8 48.9 54.1
Central Latin America 22.1 27.3 34.2 41.6 48.9 54.9
East Africa 3.2 4.9 8.4 12.3 17.1 22.7
East Asia 38.8 47.0 51.6 56.9 61.4 65.3
Eastern Europe 18.0 25.0 32.2 38.9 45.9 50.4
North Africa and Middle East 14.6 23.3 30.5 38.8 46.3 52.2
North America, high income 28.3 34.5 42.1 48.5 54.0 58.4
Oceania 5.0 6.7 9.1 12.5 17.4 23.8
South Asia 14.4 20.2 28.6 38.0 46.2 53.0
Southeast Asia 33.8 39.3 46.1 52.4 57.6 62.0
Southern Africa 5.1 8.0 12.1 17.5 23.4 30.2
Southern Latin America 15.6 22.9 32.4 40.7 47.7 53.4
Tropical Latin America 14.5 20.1 27.7 35.9 43.9 50.7
West Africa 5.2 7.0 9.6 13.6 19.7 26.8
Western Europe 21.9 28.5 36.7 44.5 51.0 56.2
Global 22.9 28.3 33.9 39.9 45.2 49.8
Numbers and uncertainty are provided in the Supplemental Material
(available at www.aaojournal.org).
Ophthalmology Volume -, Number -, Month 2016
4
Discussion
Our study estimates that myopia and high myopia will show
a signicant increase in prevalence globally, affecting nearly
5 billion people and 1 billion people, respectively, by 2050.
These have important implications for planning compre-
hensive eye care services, including refractive services such
as spectacles and managing and preventing myopic-related
ocular complications and vision loss among people with
high myopia.
The increasing prevalence of high myopia has already
been noted in some regions. Vitale et al
16
found an 8-fold
increase in high myopia (7.90 D) over 30 years, from
0.2% to 1.6%.
16
The level of high myopia in Asian countries
is considerably higher. In the study of college freshman in
Taiwan by Wang et al,
19
high myopia increased from 26%
of all myopia in 1988 to 40% of myopia in 2005. Lin
et al
17
found that 21% of 18-year-old Taiwanese students
in 2000 had high myopia (<6.00 D) compared with 10.9%
in 1983.
The projected increases in myopia and high myopia are
widely considered to be driven by environmental factors
(nurture), principally lifestyle changes resulting from
a combination of decreased time outdoors and increased
near work activities, among other factors.
22
Genetic
predisposition also seems to play a role, but cannot
explain the temporal trends observed over a short
period.
23
Among environmental factors, so-called high-
pressure educational systems, especially at very young ages
in countries such as Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, and China,
may be a causative lifestyle change, as may the excessive
use of near electronic devices.
22
Other proposed causes
include light levels,
24
which may be directly related to
time outdoors, with peripheral hyperopia in the myopic
eye (corrected and uncorrected) encouraging axial
growth,
25
and diet.
26
The global myopia in the year 2000
values in Figure 3, with the bulk of myopia in age groups
younger than 40 years, reects the signicant lifestyle
changes for children and young people over the past 10 to
25 years, especially in the large population centers of Asia.
Our projections, based on existing data, assume that these
lifestyle changes will continue to spread with increasing
urbanization and development. Accelerated changes, or
reversal of recent trends, would be expected to increase or
decrease future prevalence from our predictions, respec-
tively. Our projections indicate that by 2050, 50% and 10%
of the world will have myopia and high myopia, respec-
tively, a 2-fold increase in myopia prevalence (from 22% in
2000) and a 5-fold increase in high myopia prevalence (from
2% in 2000). Higher amounts of myopia have the potential
to cause vision impairment by myopic macular degeneration
or its comorbidities, cataract, retinal detachment, and glau-
coma,
27
the risk of which increase with any increase in
myopia. Based on our projections and assuming the
proportion of those with high myopia who go on to
experience vision loss resulting from pathologic myopia
remains the same, the number of people with vision loss
resulting from high myopia would increase 7-fold from
2000 to 2050, and myopia would become a leading cause of
permanent blindness worldwide. This is a conservative es-
timate; Figure 3 shows not only that will there be more
people with myopia by 2050, but also that they will also
be older and more susceptible to the pathologic effects of
myopia than in 2000.
Our study design has some potential limitations. The rst
is the paucity of prevalence data in many countries and age
groups, across representative geographic areas, racial
groupings, and HDIs. This problem was greater for high
myopia than myopia. The further the primary data are
extrapolated, the greater the uncertainty of the estimates
Figure 3. Graph showing the distribution of people estimated to have myopia across age groups in 2000 and 2050.
Holden et al Global Myopia Trends 2000e2050
5
becomes. Second, many countries and age groups across
representative geographic areas, racial groupings, and
HDIs lacked data on the change in myopia, especially
high myopia, over time. Local effects on changes in myopia
over time are potentially lost when annual changes are
extrapolated across regions. However, Vitale et al
16
noted
that the myopia and high myopia changes seen in African
Americans were very similar to those in European
Americans, suggesting that although environmental
changes are important, racial differences probably are not.
Third, projecting on the basis of current information has
the potential to miss varying changes over time. Fourth,
variations in the denition of myopia and high myopia in
the evidence base made it necessary to adjust each
prevalence we used to a standard denition, which
increases uncertainty. There are conicting data on the
effect of gender on myopia prevalence. For example, Wu
et al
28
found that girls in urban China were signicantly
more likely to have myopia than boys, whereas Hashemi
et al
29
found the opposite to be true. With these sorts of
conicts, it seems unlikely that there is a simple gender
effect on myopia development. There may be a more
complex gender effect, where differential access to,
encouragement to participate in, or choices with respect to
education, outdoor activities, light exposure, or a
combination thereof between boys and girls inuences the
development of myopia. We believed that this kind of
gender effect was beyond the scope of this study, so we
did not disaggregate based on gender. Also, we used a
logarithmic decay function to estimate the future
prevalence of myopia, and thus it is possible that future
prevalence may have been overestimated, especially for
regions where the current prevalences are moderate to
low. However, given that there is an element of
uncertainty associated with estimating future prevalences,
regardless of the model or function used to derive
estimates, drawbacks are likely to exist. More relevant is
the clear evidence for a rising global prevalence of
myopia, and thus these estimates simply indicate that if it
continues on its present course, the future burden of
myopia is likely to be substantial.
Because of the relatively common nature of myopia,
even population studies with relatively small sample sizes
can offer useful information provided the samples are
representative. Other strengths include the large number of
good-quality studies that have been performed in the regions
that have both the highest prevalence of myopia and the
largest populations (for example, East Asia, Asia-Pacic
high income, and South Asia), our clear denitions and
methods of standardizing source data, our analysis of the
change in myopia over time, and our methods of calculating
projected change.
We have not taken into account the effect of myopia control
interventions that may take place between now and 2050.
These would aim to reduce substantially the prevalence of high
myopia. Interventions that sufciently slow or delay myopia
have the potential to prevent an individual developing high
myopia, provided treatment is started early enough. Changes in
lifestyle, successive improvement, and the uptake of myopia
control could substantially reduce the number of people with
myopia and high myopia. The uptake of myopia control,
however, requires a strong evidencebase and a concerted effort
by government, education, and health systems.
In conclusion, our systematic review, meta-analysis, and
projections provide myopia and high myopia predictions
through 2050 and their distribution between GBD regions.
Our estimates and projections assimilate local, individual
studies into an improved global understanding of myopia
epidemiologic factors. Our methodology provides a basis
for validation of projections against new evidence as it
is published. If correct, our projections have signicant
implications for planning comprehensive eye care services
globally, which would need to cater to close to 1 billion
people with high myopia by 2050, 7.5 times more than in
2000. The benets of a multifaceted myopia control system
to buffer this scenario would be substantial.
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Footnotes and Financial Disclosures
Originally received: June 3, 2015.
Final revision: December 15, 2015.
Accepted: January 5, 2016.
Available online: ---.
1
Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia.
2
School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South
Wales, Sydney, Australia.
3
African Vision Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban,
South Africa.
4
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center, Duke-
NUS Medical School, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.
Financial Disclosure(s):
The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials
discussed in this article.
Supported by the Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia.
Author Contributions:
Conception and design: Holden, Fricke, Wilson
Analysis and interpretation: Holden, Jong, Naidoo, Sankaridurg, Wong,
Naduvilath, Resnikoff
Data collection: Fricke, Wilson
Obtained funding: none
Overall responsibility: Holden, Fricke, Wilson, Naduvilath
Abbreviations and Acronyms:
D¼diopter; GBD ¼Global Burden of Disease; HDI ¼Human Devel-
opment Index.
Correspondence:
Kovin S. Naidoo, PhD, Brien Holden Vision Institute, University of New
South Wales, Gate 14 Barker Street, Rupert Myers Building, 4th Floor,
Kensington, New South Wales 2052, Australia. E-mail: k.naidoo@
brienholdenvision.org.
Holden et al Global Myopia Trends 2000e2050
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... Pathological myopia can also be defined as an entity in which chorioretinal atrophy is equal to or more severe than diffuse atrophy [7,8]. In Western Europe, according to some authors, the percentage of myopic people in 2020 will be around 30-35% [9]. The increase in the number of patients with high myopia [9] leads to an increase in cataracts [10], glaucoma, retinal detachment [11], or pathologic myopia [7]. ...
... In Western Europe, according to some authors, the percentage of myopic people in 2020 will be around 30-35% [9]. The increase in the number of patients with high myopia [9] leads to an increase in cataracts [10], glaucoma, retinal detachment [11], or pathologic myopia [7]. ...
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Pathological Myopia is a major cause of severe vision loss worldwide. The mechanisms for vision loss include cataract, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and above all, degeneration of the macula within the posterior staphyloma. Pathological Myopia is one of the only current books to specifically address this disease and discusses recent developments in imaging technologies and various approaches to treatments, such as laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy, pharmaco-therapeutic injections in the vitreous, and surgery. Complete with high-quality color images, this book is written and edited by leaders in the field and is geared towards ophthalmologists, including residents and fellows in training, glaucoma and cataract specialists, and vitreoretinal macula experts. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. All rights reserved.
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential global economic productivity loss associated with the existing burden of visual impairment from uncorrected refractive error (URE). METHODS: Conservative assumptions and national population, epidemiological and economic data were used to estimate the purchasing power parity-adjusted gross domestic product (PPP-adjusted GDP) loss for all individuals with impaired vision and blindness, and for individuals with normal sight who provide them with informal care. FINDINGS: An estimated 158.1 million cases of visual impairment resulted from uncorrected or undercorrected refractive error in 2007; of these, 8.7 million were blind. We estimated the global economic productivity loss in international dollars (I$) associated with this burden at I$ 427.7 billion before, and I$ 268.8 billion after, adjustment for country-specific labour force participation and employment rates. With the same adjustment, but assuming no economic productivity for individuals aged > 50 years, we estimated the potential productivity loss at I$ 121.4 billion. CONCLUSION: Even under the most conservative assumptions, the total estimated productivity loss, in $I, associated with visual impairment from URE is approximately a thousand times greater than the global number of cases. The cost of scaling up existing refractive services to meet this burden is unknown, but if each affected individual were to be provided with appropriate eyeglasses for less than I$ 1000, a net economic gain may be attainable.
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Objective: To investigate the efficacy of different administration of 1% atropine gel on the myopia progression in adolescents with low myipia. Design: Prospective comparative case series. Participants: 150 cases (300 eyes) myopic children between 9 to 12 years old, who visited to optometry clinic in Ningbo Eye Hospital between January 2011 and April 2011, whose diopters were -0.50 to -1.50 DS. Methods: 150 cases were divided randomly into three groups (50 cases in each group). Control group: used 1% atropine gel one time every night. Group B: twice a week. Group C: one time every week. All the participants were followed up for two years with return visiting every three months. Main Outcome Measures: Visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure, the axial length of the eyes. Results: 133 children completed the two-year follow-up, in which 38 cases in the group A, 47 cases in the group B, and 48 cases in the group C. The dropout rate was 11.3%. After treatment, the myopia diopter progression in the group A, B, and C was (-0.33 ± 0.11) D, (-0.36 ± 0.13) D, and (-0.62 ± 0.30) D, respectively. The axial growth was (0.32 ± 0.08) mm, (0.33 ± 0.10) mm, and (0.48 ± 0.17) mm, respectively. The changes of the spherical diopter and axis length between group A and group B were not different significantly (all P > 0.05). Compared with group A and B, the visual acuity was declined, the diopter was increased, and the axis length got longer in the group C (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: Persistent use of 1% atropine eye gel can control effectively the myopia progression in adolescents with low myopia. There is no significant difference between the administration of every day and twice every week. Two times a week medication is more tolerance, which is more suitable for administration.
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To estimate the age-specific prevalence of myopia in Asia. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from their inception through September 2013 for population-based surveys reporting the prevalence of myopia in adults or children in Asia. We pooled the prevalence estimates for myopia by age groups and by year of birth using a random-effects model. We identified 50 eligible population-based studies including 215,672 subjects aged 0 to 96 years reporting the prevalence of myopia from 16 Asian countries or regions. Myopia was found to be most prevalent (96.5%; 95% confidence interval, 96.3 to 96.8) in Koreans aged 19 years. There was no significant linear age group effect on the prevalence of myopia in the whole Asian population but there was a U-shaped relationship between both age and year of birth and the prevalence of myopia. The prevalence of myopia was also higher in those older than 70 years (36.3%; 95% confidence interval, 27.6 to 45.0) compared with other age groups, which revealed nuclear cataract-myopia shifts in refraction. There is a large variation in the age-specific prevalence of myopia in Asia. A U-shaped relationship between age and the prevalence of myopia was found in the whole Asian population. The analysis is essential to guide future eye health care, intervention, and clinical management in Asia.