Increasingly, non-traditional threats to maritime security are linked to the issue of resource scarcity. An overriding challenge is to address the 'fish wars' cycle which influences or threatens maritime security, competition, conflict and sustainability. In the absence of effective maritime governance, state and non-state actors can engage in illicit activities. The challenges facing countries in terms of resource scarcity and maritime security, as well as the approaches being taken to address these challenges, are discussed. Recommendations are provided regarding strengthening fisheries governance, addressing the root causes of resource scarcity, addressing lack of political will, engagement with the private sector, and building capacity.