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Antiangiogenic and antioxidant properties of Calamansi Citrus microcarpa peel ethanolic extract



p>Angiogenesis or the development of blood vessels and oxidation or the radical transformation of cellular substances are two key processes that contribute to cancer progression. This study evaluated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant properties of different concentrations of calamansi (Citrusmicrocarpa)ethanolic peel extract. Preliminary quantification of active compound phenolic acid in 1 ml of 0.1% extract solution revealed 0.005% phenolic acid content. By chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay of 11-day duck embryo, 0.10 g/ ml to 0.30 g/ml extract revealed significantly lower numbers of blood vessels compared to the untreated control (p<0.05), in a concentration-dependent fashion, demonstrating antiangiogenic property of the extract. On the other hand, by 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 0.10% to 0.50% extract concentrations were tested against DPPH radical using ascorbic acid as positive control. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed significantly stronger inhibition of DPPH radical by the extract than by ascorbic acid (p < .05), demonstrating more powerful antioxidant property of the extract than ascorbic acid. Hence, the study proved that C. microcarpa peel extract exhibits both antiangiogenic and antioxidant properties. Development of anti-cancer therapy envisaged, antiangiogenic and antioxidant bioassays of the extract using tumor-positive animal models are recommended. Keywords: Pharmacology, antiangiogenic, antioxidant, CAM Assay, DPPH Assay, Citrus microcarpa, Philippines</p
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Since the industrial economic development, natural compounds have received much attention and study in recent years. Essential oils (EOs) that contain many volatile constituents and aromatic compounds have been around for a long time but are still considered today due to their natural characteristics and unique application. In this study, the leaves of Calamondin (Citrus microcarpa) shells were used to investigate the yield of essential oil extracted by the Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD). Calamondin essential oil is determined by the microwave assisted hydrodistillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. Extraction essential oil Calamondin with MAHD in optimal conditions for 45 min, 300W capacity and 1:3 shells/water ratio. The main components of volatile compounds in Calamondin essential oils include limonene (96.039%), β-myrcene (0.953%), 1R-α-pinene (0.266%), sabinene (0.55%), 1,6-cyclodecadiene (1.611%), Upsilon-eudesmol (0.207%), β-eudesmol (0.232%), α-eudesmol (0.185%). The oil produced by microwaves assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) method was found to have higher levels of compounds and significant economic values.
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