Conference Paper

Prebiotic Konjac Glucomannan Hydrolysate Reduces Streptococcus mutans in Oral Biofilms

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The environmental conditions that contribute to poor oral health can be altered by changing the nutrient source of bacteria using prebiotics, which are fermentable carbohydrates whose metabolism produce a favorable shift in the balance of bacteria in the oral microbiome. Objectives: The objective of this investigation was to test the prebiotic potential of Konjac glucomannan hydrolysate (GMH) to produce a decrease in the number of cariogenic bacteria, such as Streptococcus mutans, while increasing the number of probiotic bacteria such as lactobacilli under different environmental conditions. Methods: The effect of GMH was tested on the in vitro multi-species, HA disc biofilm model. Biofilms were grown under different conditions and the relative presence of lactobacilli and S. mutans were tested both by conventional plating and also by extracting bacterial genomic DNA and quantifying using qPCR. Results: Both S. mutans and L. acidophilus were able to metabolize GMH when cultured separately in planktonic culture. However, in the biofilm model, presence of GMH resulted in an increase in lactobacilli and a decrease in S. mutans. The prebiotic effect of GMH was not influenced by the presence of glucose; however, the effect was impeded by the presence of sucrose. We observed a reduction of this effect under anaerobic conditions and in the presence of TCA cycle inhibitor. Conclusions: Using the in vitro multi-species biofilm model, we have demonstrated that the presence of GMH can reduce the number of cariogenic S. mutans and enhance the number of lactobacilli under aerobic conditions. This effect was also dependent on a functional TCA cycle. Mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon may lead to development of prebiotic for optimizing the oral ecology.

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... Very little evidence exists to promote the prevention or treatment of vaginal disease with prebiotic carbohydrates (topically) in formulations such as pessaries, creams or douches and any relevant dose-dependent issues. However, recent reports have promoted prebiotic applications in ecosystems other than the gut ( Gibson and Roberfroid 1995;Roberfroid 2007) and include oral hygiene ( Tester and Al-Ghazzewi 2011;Maitra et al. 2013), skin care (Al-Ghazzewi and Tester 2010) and vaginal health ( Sutherland et al. 2008;Tester et al. 2012). Perhaps these topical applications of prebiotics could more properly be defined as epibiotic prebiotics or epibiotics. ...
... acidophilus LAFTI L10 (L10), Bifidobacterium lactis LAFTI B94 (B94) or Lactobacillus casei L26 LAFTI (L26) in vivo ( Su et al. 2007). Ritchie and Romanuk (2012) reported that synbiotics have beneficial effects in the treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases, although, others have claimed the function extends beyond the gut by inducing systemic effects on for example the skin ( Ouwehand et al. 2002;Suzuki et al. 2010), mouth where they protect against dental caries ( Maitra et al. 2013) and vagina ( Sutherland et al. 2008). In the vaginal ecosystem, it is presumed that synbiotics have the capacity to optimize, maintain and restore the natural microbiota of the vagina. ...
Treatment of vaginal infection requires different drugs although the recurrence rate post treatment remains high due to adverse effects on the beneficial microbiota. Thus, there are clear clinical advantages for the use of biotherapeutic agents (prebiotics and/or probiotics) for treating these infections. Pre- and probiotic beneficial effects can be delivered topically or systemically. In general, both approaches have the potential to optimise, maintain and restore the ecology of the vaginal ecosystem. Specific carbohydrates provide a therapeutic approach for controlling infections by stimulating the growth of the indigenous lactobacilli but inhibiting the growth and adhesion of pathogens to the vaginal epithelial cells. Overall, little evidence exists to promote the prevention or treatment of vaginal disease with prebiotic carbohydrates in formulations such as pessaries, creams or douches. However, recent reports have promoted prebiotic applications in ecosystems other than the gut and include the mouth, skin and vagina. This review focuses on the utilisation of pre- and probiotics for vaginal health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Acetate can be converted to acetyl-CoA, a substrate to synthesize fatty acids in hepatocytes 24 other effects include infection control on the skin 25 and optimizing healthy oral microflora. 26 There are clinical trials on the impact of prebiotics dietary fibers on the absorption of minerals, such as calcium, but the results are conflicting. 5 When used in combinations, prebiotics are probiotics that are known to be very beneficial for human health. ...
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Although antibiotics have proven beneficial against various diseases and improve human beings’ overall health, excessive use of antibiotics may lead to an imbalance between the beneficial and harmful microorganisms, making our body more susceptible to infections. Antibiotic resistance is the second major concern. Prebiotic supplementation has gained interest in recent years to improve gastrointestinal health and immune function. Probiotic, prebiotics, and a combination of the two have evolved as good alternatives to antibiotics in case of gut health. Many potential prebiotics has been assessed, but only a few, including inulin, GOS, and FOS, have been validated utilizing human studies, while some are under trials for their beneficial effects on human health. So, the review aims to briefly explore the concept of prebiotics, their interaction with probiotics, and their effects on human health.
... Enthusiasm for probiotics as practical nutrition segments offers the ability to control the gut microbiota (Shanahan et al., 2009). Current studies have, however, advanced prebiotic applications in conditions other than the gut (Gibson and Roberfroid 1995;Roberfroid 2007) and include oral cleanliness (Tester and Al-Ghazzewi 2011;Maitra et al., 2013), safe skin (Al-Ghazzewi and Tester 2010), and vaginal wellbeing (Sutherland et al., 2008;Tester et al., 2012). The lactic corrosive microscopic organisms use vaginal glycogen under the hormonal influence to manufacture lactic corrosives (Nasioudis et al., 2015), which are responsible for controlling the acidic (hostile to pathogenic) vaginal state (Turovskiy et al., 2011). ...
... Interactions between a host and a microbial community represents a symbiotic relationship which have been shown to be favourable with respect to 'prebiotic' carbohydrates in the: mouth to protect against dental caries (Maitra, Rollins, Tran, Al-Ghazzewi, & Tester, 2013); gut (Chen, Cheng, Wu, Liu, & Liu, 2008;Connolly, Lovegrove, & Tuohy, 2010;Van Zyl, Rose, Trollope, & Görgens, 2010); vagina (Tester et al., 2012) and; skin (Bateni et al., 2013). According to the most recent definition of a prebiotic (Roberfroid et al., 2010), it is 'a selectively fermented ingredient that results in specific changes, in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health'. ...
Carbohydrates may provide an alternative therapeutic approach for a number of digestive health disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this work was to characterise the tolerance and efficacy of low and high molecular weight konjac glucomannan hydrolysates within healthy volunteers and patients suffering from IBD and associated gut conditions. These conditions included constipation, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. For general tolerance, fourteen patients participated whilst for the digestive disorder trial, there were twenty. Scores of taste/texture of the product, bowel movement, stool consistency, diarrhoea, existence/absence of blood in the faeces, abdominal pains, flatulence, vomiting, fever, improvement of life style after use, willingness to use in the future and clinician's statements about each patient's conditions before and after use were recorded. The results showed that the hydrolysates were tolerated well for patients with diarrhoea and had a significant improvement on bowel movement, stool consistency, abdominal pain and flatulence after ten days. With respect to effects on IBD, there was a significant health benefit after fourteen days of consumption for bowel movement, stool consistency, diarrhoea, existence/absence of blood in the faeces, abdominal pain, flatulence and vomiting. Most patients declared an improvement of their life style after consuming the hydrolysates. The use of konjac glucomannan hydrolysates as a therapeutic agent or adjunct to standard treatments could prove a successful tool for the treatment of a range of disorders; although large scale studies are required to characterise further the role of the carbohydrates.
The impact of ingesting glucomannans on health are not only limited to colonic focussed fermentation into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which might have some local health benefits, but also towards helping to treat disease states and enhance the body's immune system, both within the gut and in/on other parts of the body. The local and systemic role of hydrolysed glucomannans, especially konjac glucomannans in the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin and vagina are highlighted. Therapeutic applications are discussed.
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