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Plan de uso sustentable de los suelos de Tabasco Vol. II

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... In 1940, 49.1% of Tabasco www.elsevier.com/locate/apsoil Applied Soil Ecology 31 (2006 [169][170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178] was used as forestland and only 20.7% as grassland (Palma López and Triano Sánchez, 2002). Today only 13.6% of the area of Tabasco is covered by forestland, while 42.4% is grassland that is cultivated for cattle management. ...
... First efforts have been made to establish pasture-forestry land use systems in the region. Very few investigations about actual soil fertility under the influence of different pastures in comparison of forestland in Tabasco have been made (Palma López and Triano Sánchez, 2002). Furthermore, soil fertility often only is defined by chemical and physical parameters of the soil (Prado Wildner and da Veiga, 1993). ...
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Increasing deforestation in Mexico in the past 40 years has led to significant land use changes. It is important to establish land use systems that allow for the necessities of an increasing population and the conservation of soil fertility in the long term. In this study, we investigated the influence of different land use forms on soil fertility in Tabasco, SE Mexico. We chose two different commonly used pastures (Cynodon plectostachyus and Brachiaria decumbens) and a succession forest. We characterised soil fertility by physico-chemical parameters (texture, density, pH, P, Corg., Ntot., cation exchange capacity (CEC)) as well as by biological parameters, such as litter decomposition, microbial biomass and earthworm community. To estimate litter decomposition we used leaves of Gliricidia sepium, a common fodder tree in the region. The three land use systems had very similar soil chemical characteristics. All three can be characterised as acidic (pH between 4.1 and 5.3) with a high content of organic matter and total nitrogen. However, the three land use systems differed significantly with respect to their soil biological characteristics. Earthworm density as well as litter decomposition were significantly lower under B. decumbens than in the other soils. In all land use systems, the participation of macrofauna and mesofauna accelerated litter decomposition rate significantly as compared with decomposition with microfauna and microflora alone.We extracted two components of the pool of data by main component analysis. The acidity component explained mainly the microbial litter decomposition rate. The rate of litter decomposition – with participation of soil meso- and macrofauna – could be explained by the humus component. We assume that biological parameters were more suitable to characterise differences between the different land use systems. The use of C. plectostachyus and succession forest showed a positive effect on soil fertility.
... In 1940, 49.1% of Tabasco www.elsevier.com/locate/apsoil Applied Soil Ecology 31 (2006 [169][170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178] was used as forestland and only 20.7% as grassland (Palma López and Triano Sánchez, 2002). Today only 13.6% of the area of Tabasco is covered by forestland, while 42.4% is grassland that is cultivated for cattle management. ...
... First efforts have been made to establish pasture-forestry land use systems in the region. Very few investigations about actual soil fertility under the influence of different pastures in comparison of forestland in Tabasco have been made (Palma López and Triano Sánchez, 2002). Furthermore, soil fertility often only is defined by chemical and physical parameters of the soil (Prado Wildner and da Veiga, 1993). ...
... In 1940, 49.1% of Tabasco www.elsevier.com/locate/apsoil Applied Soil Ecology 31 (2006 [169][170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178] was used as forestland and only 20.7% as grassland (Palma López and Triano Sánchez, 2002). Today only 13.6% of the area of Tabasco is covered by forestland, while 42.4% is grassland that is cultivated for cattle management. ...
... First efforts have been made to establish pasture-forestry land use systems in the region. Very few investigations about actual soil fertility under the influence of different pastures in comparison of forestland in Tabasco have been made (Palma López and Triano Sánchez, 2002). Furthermore, soil fertility often only is defined by chemical and physical parameters of the soil (Prado Wildner and da Veiga, 1993). ...
... En cada pastizal, con la ayuda de fotomapas (INEGI, 1986) y visitas de campo, se ubicaron tres parcelas de 1 600 m 2 (40 x 40 m) cada una, considerando que fueran lo más alejadas y similares entre sí, para que pudieran representar lo más posible repeticiones estadísticas independientes. Las parcelas presentaron relieve y tipo de suelo similar (Fluvisol y Luvisol, Palma- López & Triano, 2002), y se ubicaron entre sí a una distancia mínima de 300 m y máxima de 1 500 m. Con el apoyo de los dueños de las tierras se realizó la exclusión del ganado de estas áreas de pastoreo durante tres meses para permitir que el pasto se recuperara y creciera a su máxima altura, permitiendo su floración y fructificación. ...
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Resumen Introducción: Debido a su extensión actual, la biomasa radicular de los pastizales tropicales es de vital importancia para el almacenamiento del carbono terrestre, pero su estimación ha sido principalmente indirecta y con un rango muy amplio de valores. Objetivo: Documentar a nivel nacional y mundial, y comparar las existencias de carbono radicular extraídas en forma directa, de dos pastizales de tipo de crecimiento y origen distinto. Método: Se midió la biomasa y carbono total de dos pastizales con mas de 40 años de uso, uno nativo de América y de crecimiento estolonífero (Paspalum notatum Flugge) y otro introducido de África y de crecimiento en macollos (Urochloa decumbens Stapf). El estudio se realizó entre los meses de agosto y octubre. Se seleccionaron 3 parcelas de 1600 m2 por pastizal, con 10 subcuadros (4 m2 c/u) en cada parcela para determinar la composición florística, biomasa y C aéreo. La biomasa y C radical se estimó mediante extracción directa en tres trincheras (1.50 m x 0.50 m x 1.0 m) por parcela. El contenido de carbono orgánico se determinó con el método por ignición a una temperatura promedio de 550 °C durante 3 horas. Para el análisis estadístico se usó un ANOVA de dos factores donde un factor lo constituyó los tratamientos que fueron el tipo de pastizal (2) y el otro factor lo constituyó las parcelas (3) de cada pastizal. Resultados: La composición florística de los dos tipos de pastos fue diferente debido a su historia de manejo. En promedio se estimó 28.25 Mg C/ha total para la localidad. El pastizal nativo y de crecimiento estolonífero P. notatum produce casi tres veces mas biomasa (42.5 Mg C/ha) que el introducido y de crecimiento en macollos U. decumbens (14 Mg C/ha) debido al almacén radicular (38.5 vs. 11.46 Mg C/ha). El 74.5 % del carbono en P. notatum se localizó en la parte radical y el 25.5 % en la parte aérea, mientras que en U. decumbens el 56.5 % y 43.5 %, respectivamente. Conclusión: La mejor adaptación del pasto nativo así como la morfología de su sistema radicular pueden explicar esta diferencia. El 96 % de la biomasa y C radical se encuentra en los primeros 0.50 m de profundidad. Debido a la contribución de su porción radicular, los pastizales tropicales pueden constituir importantes reservorios de carbono terrestre considerando su extensión hoy en día.
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Some oil palm production zones have periods of low rainfall, eliciting to water stress and impacting yields. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the supplementary irrigation application during the dry season, on the water use and the transpiration of oil palm trees, and on morphological changes that occur during the different phenological stages. The monitored site was an oil palm plantation in Jalapa, Tabasco, Mexico (17° 38 N; 92° 56 W; altitude 20 m). There, the plant density is 143 palms ha ⁻¹ . Two areas of palm trees with ages of 6 and 11 years were located. The soil type was classified as Gleysol. A weather station was placed in a pasture adjacent (1 km) to the plantation. The variables, evaluated from April 1 to June 23, 2017, included the structural characteristics of the plantation, sap flow, transpiration, and the morphological changes at the different phenological stages, which were assessed based on the BBCH scale. The results showed that the water use per palm tree (102–140 kg day ⁻¹ ) and the transpiration (1.59–2.11 mm day ⁻¹ ) were not significantly different among palm trees ages. The application of irrigation during the dry season maintained transpiration in palms of both ages and favoured inflorescence development and fruit formation by shortening the number of days it took the palm plants to reach fruit formation stage (stages 503-700), but increased the number of days required by the bunches to reach maturation (stages 709 to harvest). This study conducted during few months needs to be confirmed by longer term monitoring.
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Nickel hyperaccumulation in Blepharidium guatemalense Standl. (Rubiaceae) was found in the tropical forests of south-eastern Mexico. This study aimed to document the geographic extent of nickel hyperaccumulation in this species, to understand its process of hyperaccumulation and to explore nickel distribution within the tissues of this plant. Rhizosphere soils and plant tissues were collected in Mexico and analyzed for physical-chemical parameters. Non-destructive elemental screening of herbarium specimens was performed with a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Elemental distribution maps of nickel and other elements in plant tissues were obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy. Blepharidium guatemalense is distributed throughout Chiapas, Tabasco and Campeche, reaching the maximum nickel concentration in leaves (4.3 wt%) followed by roots and seeds (2.0 wt%) and bark (1.8 wt%). Simultaneous hyperaccumulation of cobalt and nickel was found in 15% of the herbarium specimens. Phloem has the highest nickel-enriched tissue from all parts of the plant (from roots to leaves). A high total nickel (mean of 610 µg g-1) was found in rhizosphere soils even though no evidence of ophiolite emplacement in that area has been reported. Blepharidium guatemalense has uncommon re-distribution mechanisms via phloem. It represents the first hypernickelophore (>1 wt% Ni) to be reported as growing in soils that are neither ultramafic nor enriched by anthropogenic pollutants. Keywords: hypernickelophore; XRF scanning; Rubiaceae; biogeochemistry; ionomics; agromining.
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Se recopilaron los archivos de estudios de suelos existentes de trabajos realizados en Tabasco, México, del año 2007 hasta 2013. Con el apoyo del software ArcGis versión 9.3 se diseñaron mapas con escalas diferentes hasta uniformizar a 1:250 000. Se compilaron 153 perfiles de suelos geo referenciados con análisis físico-químicos, conformando con ello la base de datos de suelos. Se realizó la clasificación de suelos de acuerdo con la WRB versión 2014. Se determinaron 19 Grupos de suelos en Tabasco, dominan los Gleysols, Histosols, Fluvisols, Acrisols, Leptosols y Vertisols. Se identificaron suelos con unidades cartográficas muy pequeñas, que no se habían reportado en años anteriores, tales como: Calcisols, Lixisols, Nitisols, Phaeozems y Tecnosols.
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The soil is a store of carbon (C) very important in the mitigation of the greenhouse gases, due to the fact that it protects physically the organic matter (OM). For it, a study was realized in a Rain Technificated District in the South part of the Tabasco State, to quantify the C associated with soils under several uses. A supervised classification of satellite images was realized to identify the more frequent uses and soil classes, soil samples at 0-15 cm y 15-30 cm depth were obtained. The results indicated that the more frequent uses were: grassland, eucalyptus, cocoa and citric plantations and small areas of rice and pineapple. The predominant soils in the study area were the Eutric Vertisols (VReu), Distric Plintosols (PTdy), Plintic Acrisols (ACpl), Humic Acrisols (AChu) and Gleyic Acrisols (ACgl), these soils differ in the genetic origin of the parent material, age and environmental exposition; its characteristics together with the contribution of organic residues of each soil use, regulated the accumulation in the organic matter (OM) and C in both depths. The major OM and C accumulation were registered in the surface and decreased to 36% at 15 cm depth. The soil uses that accumulated OM and C were pineapple, citric, eucalyptus and grassland; the less account were registered in rice, sugarcane and cocoa. The major OM and C accumulation were registered in crops established on PTdy and ACpl, these soils present acidity that closely affect the OM decomposition. The VReu and ACgl present high clay content and, acidity around five; these conditions facilitate the OM decomposition and does not allow OC accumulation in the soil profile.
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The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography showed that at least 22 PAHs, including all of the most abundant PAH components present in anthracene oil, underwent 70 to 100% disappearance during 27 days of incubation with nutrient nitrogen-limited cultures of this fungus. Because phenanthrene is the most abundant PAH present in anthracene oil, this PAH was selected for further study. In experiments in which [14C]phenanthrene was incubated with cultures of P. chrysosporium containing anthracene oil for 27 days, it was shown that 7.7% of the recovered radiolabeled carbon originally present in [14C]phenanthrene was metabolized to 14CO2 and 25.2% was recovered from the aqueous fraction, while 56.1 and 11.0% were recovered from the methylene chloride and particulate fractions, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography of the 14C-labeled material present in the methylene chloride fraction revealed that most (91.9%) of this material was composed of polar metabolites of [14C]phenanthrene. These results suggest that this microorganism may be useful for the decontamination of sites in the environment contaminated with PAHs.
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Increased industrial and agricultural activity this century has led to vast quantities of the earth's soil and groundwater resources becoming contaminated with hazardous chemicals. Bioremediation provides a technology based on the use of living organisms, usually bacteria and fungi, to remove pollutants from soil and water, preferably in situ. This approach, which is potentially more cost-effective than traditional techniques such as incineration of soils and carbon filtration of water, requires an understanding of how organisms transform chemicals, how they survive in polluted environments and how they should be employed in the field. This book examines these issues for many of the most serious and common environmental contaminants, resulting in a volume which presents the most recent position on the application of bioremediation to the cleanup of polluted soil and water.
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Natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) may alter the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The influence of DOM on the mobility of PAHs was studied in medium-scale soil column experiments under unsaturated flow conditions. Miscible displacement experiments were carried out with PAHs alone (anthracene, pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene), with DOM alone, and with a mixture of the PAHs and DOM. Two different sandy materials were used, a spodic B horizon and a commercially available seasand. The DOM transport could be explained by assuming total DOM consisting of two physicochemically different fractions: A mobile fraction, composed of the hydrophilic moieties of DOM, and an immobile fraction, composed of hydrophobic DOM moieties. The PAH mobility in the column experiments was controlled by both solid and liquid phase organic matter. The PAH breakthrough in the absence of DOM was significantly retarded in both the seasand and the spodic B material. The observed breakthrough times were considerably lower than those estimated from calculations using published Kd values, that resulted in an overestimation of PAH mobility. The addition of DOM resulted in reduced mobility of PAHs and reduced PAH effluent concentration, but more so in the spodic B soil material than in the seasand. The reduced mobility of PAHs in the presence of DOM can be explained by sorption of DOM-associated PAHs to the bulk soil, that is, co-sorption. Alternatively, the continuous sorption of DOM by the bulk phase results in an increase of sorption capacity for free PAHs, which will also lead to PAH retardation (cumulative sorption).
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Topics include: 1) sections on the greenhouse effects and global carbon geochemistry, acid rain, oil spills at sea, adverse effects of pesticides on human health, and extinction of species; 2) extensive case studies describing the ecological degradation caused by natural and anthropogenic stresses; and 3) natural disturbances that parallel man-made disturbances. After an introduction, there are sections on: air pollution, toxic elements, acidification, forest decline, oil pollution, eutrophication of freshwater, pesticides, harvesting of forests, loss of species richness, war, and effects of stress on ecosystem structure and function, concluding with a glossary and bibliography. -from Publisher
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A laboratory study of soil contamination by a synthetic “kerosene” is reported. Soil (Mediterranean red sandy clay) samples with different moisture contents (0.0, 0.8, 4.0, and 12%, w/w) were contaminated by vapors and/or liquid from a mixture containing 5 kerosene components (m-xylene, pseudo-cumene, t-butylbenzene, n-decane and n-dodecane). The contribution of the different kerosene components to the adsorption, volatilization and transport processes is described. Vapor adsorption was found to be dependent on the vapor concentration of each component (except for the n-decane), and on the soil moisture content. The sorption coefficients of the kerosene components decreased with increasing temperature but showed only a very slight variability between 20 and 34°C, in air-dried soil. The volatilization from soil was high: more than 90% of the aromatic components were desorbed in less than 2 h. The transport of the kerosene, in liquid and vapor phases, through the soil columns, was studied using amounts of kerosene which were less (1 mL) or more (10 mL) than the retention capacity of the soil columns. The increase in the moisture content of the soil increased the rate and the depth of kerosene downward penetration. It stopped however, the vapor movement (at 4%) and the upward liquid movement (at 12%). Among the properties of the kerosene components, volatility seems to be the prime factor which determines kerosene movement once liquid phase movement has ceased.
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