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... Para Kager et al. (2016), a utilização conjunta da bicicleta e transporte público combina os aspectos positivos dos dois modos, gerando viagens rápidas e flexíveis. Por um lado, a bicicleta aumenta a acessibilidade porta-a-porta da viagem, enquanto os sistemas de transporte público promovem um aumento significativo na velocidade e alcance (sobretudo em sistemas de alta capacidade), o que torna esse uso integrado competitivo frente ao transporte motorizado individual. ...
... Por outro lado, observa-se uma complementariedade entre a bicicleta e o transporte público de maior velocidade (como metrô, linhas expressas de ônibus, BRT, etc.), em que se combina a maior acessibilidade da bicicleta com a maior mobilidade nos veículos de transporte público (Jäppinen et al.,2016;Hegger, 2007). Kager et al. (2016) distinguem três segmentos em uma viagem integrada bicicleta-transporte público: (a) um segmento de acesso, entre a origem da viagem e a estação de transporte público; (b) um segmento principal, realizado por transporte público, entre os pontos de embarque e desembarque do sistema; e (c) um segmento de difusão, entre a estação de desembarque e o destino final. Nos segmentos de acesso e difusão, haveria competição entre a bicicleta e as linhas alimentadoras de transporte público, enquanto o segmento principal seria operado por linhas de transporte público com maior velocidade e capacidade. ...
... A utilização da bicicleta na ponta da atividade só é possível quando esta é levada a bordo dos veículos de transporte público, ou através de sistemas de compartilhamento de bicicletas. Unindo as discussões apresentadas anteriormente, Costa (2019) introduz uma adaptação para países em desenvolvimento da estrutura das viagens integradas bicicletatransporte público proposta por Kager et al. (2016), conforme Figura 1. Distingue-se, assim, o uso da bicicleta em duas modalidades. A primeira constituindo o uso da bicicleta própria, que é submetido ao problema da assimetria, ocorrendo prioritariamente na ponta da viagem ligada ao domicílio, e cuja integração com o transporte público demanda a existência de estacionamentos de bicicleta na estação de acesso, ou o embarque da bicicleta junto ao transporte público, o que nem sempre é autorizado (Krizek e Stonebraker, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
The integrated use of bicycles and public transit has attracted the academic community’s interest due to its potential of improving urban accessibility. This advantage adds attractiveness to the public transport, benefiting the economically least favored social segments. Studies on this theme are well developed and more significant in the European and American contexts, which use data from traditional (household-based) surveys in the characterization of such phenomenon. Aiming to overcome the inherent limitations of conventional survey methods and the low occurrence of these trips in the Brazilian context, this work presents a method using big data from operational records of the public transit and bicycle-sharing systems to characterize integrated trips. By means of a case study focused in Fortaleza, the proposed method proves to be advantageous in the identification of the integrated trips, allowing the analysis of a data set with large representability, hardly obtainable by traditional methods.
... Cycling is typically considered to be an attractive transport option for distances up to 5 km for utilitarian trips, making it primarily suitable for intra-city trips (Chillón et al. 2016;Kager et al. 2016;McNeil 2011). For this reason, urban cycling environments tend to be conceptualized and studied at a neighbourhood-or city-wide scale (Muhs and Clifton prominence of bikesharing in many Chinese cities have made the combination of transit and bikesharing a topic of especial interest for researchers (e.g. ...
... Similarly, only a minority of respondents with a driving license but no car available stated that they would prefer to travel by car than by bike-train. These results lend strong empirical support to the idea that bike-train travel can provide a more attractive alternative to the private vehicle for interurban travel (Martens 2004;Kager et al. 2016), at least in a context with high-quality rail infrastructure services and cycling facilities like the Randstad. ...
... Secondly, our study focused only on regular bike-train trips between a fixed origin and destination. As previous research has suggested (Kager et al. 2016), one of the potential key advantages of the bike-train system is its flexibility, since it allows people choose between different stations and vary their cycling trip depending on their fluctuating daily mobility needs. Accordingly, it would be worthwhile for future research to investigate not only regular but also irregular bike-trips, as well as to explore the main factors shaping variability in bike-train travel. ...
Article
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The combined use of the bicycle and the train in the Netherlands has risen steadily over the past decade. However, little is yet known about the underlying processes driving the growth of bike–train use in the Netherlands. Are new bike–train trips replacing car trips, or are they primarily an extension of existing train travel and cycling practices? The present study investigates this question by exploring the main trajectories of bike–train uptake in the Randstad area. Following a mobility biographies approach, our study seeks to identify the triggers or “key events” which lead to the uptake of bike–train use, and explores their relationship with existing travel behaviour. To this end, we carried out an online survey aimed at people who started commuting regularly by bike–train. Our results show that trajectories of uptake are varied, with a similar proportion of respondents starting to commute by bike–train in order to replace cycling, driving and public transport. While in some cases people shifted to bike–train on their existing commuting trip, most respondents started travelling by bike–train following a change in work or residential location. Overall, our findings suggest that most people do not start commuting by bike–train out of particular preference, but merely because they consider it provides the best available option. Nevertheless, the large proportion of respondents with access to a car suggests that the bike–train system is able to provide an attractive alternative to car-based interurban mobility.
... Många städer står inför de utmaningar som en mobilitetsberoende livsstil innebär (Kager, Bertolini och te Brömmelstroet, 2016). De hållbara transportmedlen behöver ta en större andel av trafiken för att förbättra miljön, minska CO2 utsläpp, buller och negativa hälsoeffekter (Koglin och Rye, 2014;Banister, 2019;Raustorp och Koglin, 2019). ...
... med flera transportmedel, varje vecka (Olafsson, Nielsen och Carstensen, 2016) och en effektiv integrering av kollektivtrafik och cykling kan medverka till att begränsa trängsel samt skapa hälso-och miljömässiga samhällsvinster (Krizek och Stonebraker, 2010). Kombinationen av cykel och kollektivtrafikresor kan betraktas som ett distinkt transportmedel snarare än två separerade sådana (Kager, Bertolini och te Brömmelstroet, 2016). För att möjliggöra för den här typen av kombinerade cykel-och kollektivtrafikresor är det viktigt att cykelinfrastrukturen byggs ut och förbättras (Koglin, 2015;Ekblad, Svensson och Koglin, 2016;Alm och Koglin, 2020) Med anledning av detta genomfördes denna litteraturstudie för att sammanställa resultat från tidigare forskning kring kombinationen av cykel och kollektivtrafik i syfte att skapa ett hållbart transportsystem. ...
... Cykling som en enskild transportform är ett effektivt transportmedel för kortare distanser och möjliggör flexibilitet i schemaläggning och val av rutter, medan kollektivtrafik är effektivare för längre reseavstånd, på grund av högre hastighet. Dessutom erbjuder kollektivtrafiken mer resekomfort och möjligheten att använda restiden produktivt (Cheng och Liu, 2012;Heinen och Bohte, 2014;Kager, Bertolini och te Brömmelstroet, 2016;Shaheen och Chan, 2016). Genom att titta på hela resekedjan, särskilt i samband med tåg, leder integrationen till en ny distinkt transportform, "cykel-tåg-transportmedel" ...
Technical Report
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Kombinerade cykel- och kollektivtrafikresor är ett sätt att resa som kombinerar cykelns flexibilitet med kollektivtrafikens hastighet och räckvidd. Kombinationen i sig skapar ett distinkt transportmedel som kan bidra till ett mer hållbart och hälsosamt samhälle. För att undersöka vilken potential det har och vilka effekter detta transportmedel för med sig har denna litteraturstudie genomförts. Litteraturstudien omfattar internationell forskning och ska vara till hjälp för transportplanering i Sverige. Resultatet visar bland annat att det inte finns ett sätt att utforma ett kombinerat cykel- och kollektivtrafiksystem, utan att lokala förutsättningar måste beaktas vid utformning av systemen. Fördelarna är störst i förorter med ett cykelvänligt avstånd till kollektivtrafiken. Goda parkeringsmöjligheter för cyklar ökar villigheten att cykla till kollektivtrafikstationer. Det här sättet att resa kan konkurrera med bilen, inte bara prismässigt utan även avseende hastighet och tillgänglighet. Eftersom det krävs erfarenhet för att utföra den här typen av resor på ett bra sätt är det mest lämpat för rutinartat resande.
... A tendência de inclusão de modos ativos na agenda pública (Van Wee, 2015) seguiu a percepção de que as cidades precisam de modos alternativos para competir com carros como uma opção de mobilidade viável (Kager et al., 2016). Assim, as bicicletas, vistas como um modo de transporte eficaz e racional, além de ecológico, acessível e saudável (Vale, 2016;Zhao e Li, 2017), cresceram em popularidade (Singleton e Clifton, 2014). ...
... Assim, as bicicletas, vistas como um modo de transporte eficaz e racional, além de ecológico, acessível e saudável (Vale, 2016;Zhao e Li, 2017), cresceram em popularidade (Singleton e Clifton, 2014). Elas são usadas em viagens urbanas, tanto como modo único de viagem ou como uma maneira de "alimentar" modos mais capazes, já que esta opção multimodal possui um grande potencial, oferecendo um mix de longo alcance, alta velocidade e flexibilidade (Kager et al., 2016). Além disso, resolve um problema fundamental do transporte público: acesso difícil a estações de embarque (Furtado et al., 2018;Martens, 2004). ...
... Os modos de acesso e difusão da última milha (first-last mile) ao transporte público podem ser ferramenta para redução de disparidades permitindo maior equidade e acessibilidade (Boarnet et al., 2017;Pathak et al., 2017). A integração bicicleta e transporte público (de agora em diante identificado pela sigla B+TP) surge nos países desenvolvidos como um modo híbrido, que se beneficia da flexibilidade de sistemas ativos como a bicicleta, e da velocidade e confiabilidade de sistemas de transporte de massa (Kager et al., 2016), enquanto em países em desenvolvimento enfrenta um conjunto de desafios. No contexto das grandes cidades brasileiras, a precariedade de infraestrutura urbana, as condições de insegurança pública e viária, adicionada à limitação econômica das populações periferizadas (Vasconcellos, 2000) afetam o funcionamento da integração B+TP. ...
Conference Paper
A bicicleta, ao ser utilizada como modo de acesso e difusão ao transporte público, pode ser ferramenta para redução de disparidades, permitindo maior acessibilidade à população de baixa renda dependente do transporte público. Apesar das potencialidades dessa integração em países em desenvolvimento, a comunidade científica tem feito a conceitualização do fenômeno a partir da realidade de países desenvolvidos, a qual é, por hipótese, diferente daquela observada no contexto de grandes cidades brasileiras. Esse trabalho busca, dessa forma, caracterizar a ocorrência da integração bicicleta-transporte público (B+TP) em uma capital brasileira, Fortaleza, do ponto de vista da oferta e da demanda. Partindo de uma representação conceitual dessa integração, analisou-se dados empíricos de preferência revelada e declarada, provenientes de entrevistas com usuários dos bicicletários e sistemas de bicicleta compartilhada de pesquisas já realizadas. As hipóteses investigadas apontam que a integração B+TP é influenciada por aspectos como renda, gênero, motivo e distância de viagem, bem como segurança pública e viária. ABSTRACT Bicycle, when used as an access or egress mode to transit, can be a tool to reduce disparities, allowing greater accessibility to the low-income population which is dependent on public transportation. Despite the potential of this integration in developing countries, the scientific community has been conceptualizing the phenomenon from the reality of developed countries, which is hypothetically different from that observed in the context of large Brazilian cities. This work seeks to characterize the occurrence of public transport-bicycle integration (B+TP) in a Brazilian capital, Fortaleza, from the point of view of supply and demand. Based on a conceptual representation of this integration, we analyzed empirical revealed and stated preference data, from interviews with users of bicycle parking and shared bicycle systems from previous researches. The hypotheses investigated indicate that B+TP integration is influenced by aspects such as income, gender, trip purpose and travel distance, as well as public and road safety. 1. INTRODUÇÃO Os atuais avanços conceituais e metodológicos no paradigma de planejamento urbano vêm suscitando discussões sobre importantes valores e princípios como acessibilidade, sustentabilidade e equidade (Banister, 2008; Lopes et al., 2018; Macário, 2014). No entanto, as cidades são cada vez mais dependentes da mobilidade motorizada (Bertolini, 2012) e o crescimento da motorização vem resultando em novos desafios pro transporte urbano, associados a impactos ambientais e sociais negativos. Em resposta a isto, as grandes cidades adotaram a redução de distâncias e durações de viagens como principal objetivo de planejamento dos transportes (Givoni e Banister, 2013), especialmente entre residências e empregos (Burbidge e Goulias, 2009). Outra abordagem aponta para o incentivo do uso de modos alternativos, em substituição ao veículo motorizado (Holden, 2012; Modarres, 2013) como uma possível solução. Para manter os princípios e valores introduzidos e lidar com o dilema dos estilos de vida dependentes da mobilidade com práticas insustentáveis, muitos planejadores e pesquisadores veem a adoção de modos ativos de transporte (Vale et al., 2016) 2853
... Studies have found that several factors influence bicycle uptake in high-income countries, including attitudes [4,5], weather [6][7][8][9][10], social norms and identities [11][12][13]; individual socio-demographic characteristics [14][15][16], comfort and safety [17], environmental awareness [18], air quality [19], integration with public transport [20,21], gender [22], and purpose of cycling [23,24]. A recent study by Iwińska et al. [25] in Warsaw found that a car-oriented culture and fear of injury were the greatest impediments to cycling uptake. ...
... Many of these findings are in line with the existing literature, which shows that public transport and cycling should be viewed as complementary transport modes [20,21,52]. However, the findings of this article diverge in that the cyclists stated that poor public transport was one of the main reasons to cycle. ...
Article
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Research on the adoption of the bicycle as a means of transport has been booming in high-income countries. However, little is known about bicycle adoption in lower-income countries where air pollution is high and cycling infrastructure is poor. Understanding the drivers of cycling adoption in developing economies can increase the efficiency of transport policies while reducing local air pollution, improving health, and cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The objective of this study is to identify the factors affecting cycling uptake in a low-income country using the city of Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan as a case study. The analysis is based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, a questionnaire-based survey of 900 respondents, factor analysis, and a logit model. In contrast to studies carried out in developed countries, this study finds that students are less likely to adopt cycling than other population groups. Other findings suggest that support for public transport, a desire for regular exercise and perceptions of the environmental benefits of cycling increase the probability of the use of cycling as a mode of transport in a low-income country. The paper also identifies positive and negative perceptions of cycling among cyclists and non-cyclists.
... Empirical evidence from larger cities has shown that making public transport more accessible for pedestrians and cyclists through shortcuts and accessibility measures increases public transport's ability to reach potential passengers (Hillnhütter, 2016;Kager et al., 2016;Kager & Harms, 2017). Public transport services with a high frequency and low travel time due to shortcuts and prioritized space for public transport services also increase public transport competitiveness (Bertolini et al., 2005;Ferreira et al., 2012;Pettersson & Sørensen, 2020;Tennøy et al., 2017;Walker, 2012). ...
... In Haugesund, the master plans consist of interventions that enable development in both central and suburban areas (Regional Plan for Land Use and Transport in Haugalandet, Municipal Land Use Plan for Haugesund 2014-2030). The plan's objectives state that development should be concentrated centrally and close to the public transport service, but there is land available for development in areas that are less central as well According to theory (Hillnhütter, 2016;Kager et al., 2016;Kager & Harms, 2017), some interventions for cyclists and pedestrians can benefit public transport competitiveness as well. Still, it would be misleading to interpret measures for cyclists and pedestrians in the municipal plans of Haugesund (2014-2030) and Hamar (2018-2030) as generally beneficial for public transport. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many spatial master plans aim at reducing car traffic and increasing public transport use, but whether the plans truly promote such development is not obvious because they may also include conflicting objectives. The purpose of this article is to propose and use a theory-based framework to analyze and discuss the possible effects of planned development in master plans on public transport competitiveness versus cars. Official planning documents and interviews with local planners in the city regions of Stavanger, Trondheim, Hamar, and Haugesund were interpreted using theory on causal mechanisms and previous empirical studies on the built environment and travel behavior. A simple map analysis was also conducted. The study revealed that all the case city regions’ master plans contain interventions that are both negative and positive for public transport competitiveness. Conflicting interventions often reduce such competitiveness. The possible effects of interventions also largely depend on their context, dimension, and location.
... Future research could examine these issues in further detail. For commuting distances beyond 15 km within the daily urban system (roughly defined by a 30 km range from the city centre, approximately 30 min by car), we consider the bike-train-walk combination as the most competitive car alternative (Debrezion, Pels, and Rietveld 2007;Staps 2014;Schakenbos et al. 2015;Kager, Bertolini, and te Brömmelstroet 2016). In this respect we consider rail infrastructure, or bus infrastructure separated from other traffic (BRT), as a necessary spatial condition, as well as concentration of jobs and residents near stations. ...
... (2) the percentage of jobs within walking distance from a railway station (within a 30 km range from their homes); and (1 × 2) an origin-destination match, indicating the percentage of employees that potentially can reach employment by the bicycle-train-walking combination (Kager, Bertolini, and te Brömmelstroet 2016). It must be kept in mind that this refers not to actual jobs these employees have, but to the potential jobs they can access. ...
Article
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We analysed the spatial conditions for Car Dependency (CD) in three European cities and their suburbs, to investigate the following research question: What are the potential travel mode alternatives to the car, and how do they relate to actual travel behaviour? We defined CD as the lack of alternative transport modes to the car for reaching daily destinations. We selected three mid-sized city regions with different planning traditions and travel behaviour: Eindhoven, Southampton and Aachen. The results demonstrate that the differences in CD in the three cities are not substantial. The suburbs show a substantially higher CD than the city proper; however, when considering the e-bicycle as an alternative transport mode, this difference decreases. Daily amenities are largely within walking distance, in cities as well as in suburbs. For the daily commute there seems to be great potential for the (e)-bicycle as most employees, living both in the cities and their suburbs, currently live within 15 km of their jobs. Overall, our research shows that the differences in the actual modal split in the three cities cannot be explained by differences in the spatial conditions for CD.
... Therefore, the encouragement of active mobility should be centerpiece in MaaS systems that have sustainability purposes. In the case of cycling, the potential of bikes to facilitate multimodality -which is in the core of MaaS developments-has been unambiguously shown in the literature, as cycling enlarges the catchment area of public transport far beyond a catchment area defined by a 'walkable' distance (Geurs et al., 2016;Kager et al., 2016). Even though in several countries most cycling trips are door-todoor (i.e., trips that involve cycling only), the potential of multimodality involving the use of bicycles and public transport is large in both planning and design of infrastructure (Kuhnimhof et al., 2010). ...
... This is because cycling infrastructure could enhance the quality and quantity of bicycle routes, and bicycle parking facilities at train stations can significantly increase train demand and accessibility to jobs (Geurs et al., 2016). To illustrate this potential, Kager et al. (2016) show that while 19% of the population in the Netherlands lives within a 1 km network distance from a train station (walkable distance), 69% of the population live within 5 km of a train station (cyclable distance). Furthermore, the advent of electric bikes can enlarge the catchment area of public transport even more. ...
... One of the new trends in modern transportation systems planning model in smart cities is game theory concepts to solve congestion problems with the multiplayer objective. The game theory, with its different strategies, helps intelligent transport system developers to design a model that provides the shortest trip time and the lowest cost for transporting passengers [5]. ...
Conference Paper
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In this work, we develop a dynamic multi-mode transportation model in which the passenger, for his trip, can use one or a combination of the transportation form such as the car, the bus and the bike. This model is based on the game theory concept based trip cost-optimization. The proposed system is implemented through a realistic scenario in a specific city using the OMNET++, VEINS, SUMO, MATLAB and the OpenStreetMap software tools. The results show that the average trip price and the average trip time are improved when using our proposed model.
... One of the new trends in modern transportation system planning models in smart cities is the game theory (GT) concepts to solve congestion problems with multiplayer objectives. The GT, with its different strategies, helps intelligent transport system developers to design a model that provides the shortest trip time and the lowest cost for transporting passengers [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we develop a dynamic multi-mode transportation model in which the passenger, for his trip, he can use one or a combination of the transportation form such as a car, a bus or a bicycle. This model is based on the game theory (GT) concept based trip cost-optimization and it is called game theory multi-mode transportation (GT-MMT). The proposed system is implemented through a realistic scenario in a specific city using the OMNET++ and theOpenStreetMap software tools. The results show that the average trip price and the average trip time are improved when using our proposed model.
... The possible impacts of bicycle usage in combination with public transport means on users' modal choice have been studied for a long time, because cycling could be an effective first-and last-mile solution [19][20][21]. ...
Article
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Background: In a world where every municipality is pursuing the goals of more sustainable mobility, bicycles play a fundamental role in getting rid of private cars and travelling by an eco-friendly mode of transport. Additionally, private and shared bikes can be used as a feeder transit system, solving the problem of the first- and last-mile trips. Thanks to GIS (Geographic Information System) software, it is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of such a sustainable means of transport in future users’ modal choice. Methods: Running an accessibility analysis of cycling and rail transport services, the potential mobility demand attracted by these services and the possible multimodality between bicycle and rail transport systems can be assessed. Moreover, thanks to a modal choice model calibrated for high school students, it could be verified if students will be really motivated to adopt this solution for their home-to-school trips. Results: The GIS-based analysis showed that almost half of the active population in the study area might potentially abandon the use of their private car in favour of a bike and its combination with public transport systems; furthermore, the percentage of the students of one high school of Palermo, the Einstein High School, sharply increases from 1.5% up to 10.1%, thanks also to the combination with the rail transport service. Conclusions: The GIS-based methodology shows that multimodal transport can be an effective way to pursue a more sustainable mobility in cities and efficiently connect suburbs with low-frequent public transport services to the main public transport nodes.
... e cycling speed was set at 17.7 km/h. Various estimates of the average speed of urban cyclists are used in the literature, ranging from 15 to 19 km/h (Ellison & Greaves, 2011;Andersen, 2014;Kager et al., 2016). Because no data are available on the average speed of cyclists in Ljubljana, it is assumed that the above speed estimate is suitable. ...
Article
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In promoting the use of public transport, an understanding of the passengers’ perspective on the provided service plays an important role. A series of factors influence people’s selection of transport mode, among which the competitiveness of travel time, or travel speed, is vital. Thanks to the widespread use of electronic payment systems, data collected through user validation can be used to calculate this speed. Thus, the actual trips made can be used to estimate their speed. This study focused on the Ljubljana bus system to analyse all trips made on a typical day. The input and output trip data were used to calculate the distance travelled, and the time and speed of the trips. In addition, an estimate was also made of how quickly the distances travelled by bus could have been travelled by bicycle or on foot. The findings showed that the speed of the bus trips analysed depends on the length of the journey: it increases with longer journeys. Bicycles are generally faster for all distances, but they become a less acceptable choice for longer distances. With regard to distances shorter than 2 km, in terms of speed, walking is competitive on only a few routes. The analyses performed using the data collected through the electronic service payment system provided useful insight into the efficiency of the public transport system from the passenger perspective, which in the future may prove useful in planning system improvements.
... Integrating bicycling and transit-including BoB-is part of an effective TDM toolkit, yet it is an often-overlooked travel consideration in practice and research within the U.S. [60,61]. This leaves us with an incomplete understanding of how to effectively promote this mode in cities and universities alike. ...
Article
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Bicycles-on-board (BoB) transit is a popular travel demand management (TDM) tool across many U.S. cities and universities, yet research on this mode within a university environment remains minimal. The purpose of this research is to investigate how personal and neighborhood factors influence this travel choice in a university setting. Relying on attitudinal data from a stated preference survey, this study examined the effect of personal characteristics and seven key neighborhood conditions on the willingness to utilize BoB for the "first mile" of the journey to campus. The study used exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), a discrete choice modeling framework, and geovisualizations to understand the likelihood of choosing this mode among a university population in Flint, Michigan, USA. The results revealed that the majority of constituents were not interested in BoB, aside from a cluster near the commercial business district. Also of note was that long commutes, and reduced access to parks and bicycle facilities dissuaded people from choosing this mode. Surprisingly, a neighborhood's walkability or bikeability had no effect on respondent's interest in using BoB. Lastly, the geovisualizations showcased where localized interventions may effectively increase this mode choice in the future.
... Railway station car parking, bicycle facilities and other transit facilities within a 160-m (Euclidian) radius of the transit facility were identified. The length of principal bicycle network paths within 3 km of the facility were also measured, the midpoint of the range of accepted cycle distances to transit in the literature (Kager et al., 2016;Rijsman et al., 2019). ...
Article
Many studies have identified links between the built environment (BE) and transit use. However, little is known about whether the BE predictors of bus, train, tram and other transit modes are different. Studies to date typically analyze modes in combination; or analyze one mode at a time. A major barrier to comparing BE impacts on modes is the difference in the types of locations that tend to be serviced by each mode. A method is needed to account for this ‘mode location bias’ in order to draw robust comparison of the predictors of each mode. This study addresses this gap using data from Melbourne, Australia where three types of public transport modes (train, tram, bus) operate in tandem. Two approaches are applied to mitigate mode location bias: a) Co-located sampling – estimating ridership of different modes that are located in the same place; and b) Stratified BE sampling – observations are sampled from subcategories with similar BE characteristics. Regression analyses using both methods show that the BE variables impacting ridership vary by mode. Results from both samples suggest there are two common BE factors between tram and train, and between tram and bus; and three common BE factors between train and bus. The remaining BE predictors – three for train and tram and one for bus - are unique to each mode. The study's design makes it possible to confirm this finding is valid irrespective of the type of locations serviced by modes. This suggests planning and forecasting should consider the specific associations of different modes to their surrounding land use to accurately predict and match transit supply and demand. The Stratified sampling approach is recommended for treating location bias in future mode comparison, because it explains more ridership variability and offers a transferrable approach to generating representative samples.
... Finally they note that car use in these countries is considerably more expensive than it is in other countries like the USA, due to taxes and restrictions on car parking, ownership and use. Kager et al. (2016) demonstrates the need to analyze the synergy between bicycle and public transport by considering Netherlands as a case study. Their study explores the distinct characteristics of the bicycle-train combination and how these modalities can complement each other. ...
Article
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With 35,000 km of bicycle pathways, cycling is common among persons of all ages less than 65 years in the Netherlands. Bicycle is often seen as a standalone travel mode but when integrated as part of a multimodal trip with train, it can be an important solution for long distance journeys, offering increased flexibility and faster access time compared to other travel modes. In this paper we investigate which factors influence departure station choice on combined bicycle–train and bicycle-metro trips in the metropolitan region of Amsterdam. Data from a mobile app was used to track an individual’s travel behavior over the years 2018 and 2019. A discrete choice model was estimated to see whether people prefer to park their bicycle at the station with the shortest travel duration or one of the stations with a longer travel duration. The final results show that level of education and age negatively influence the choice for cycling to the second closest station. Furthermore, the results show that people with an origin inside Amsterdam prefer to travel to a train station regardless of their destination.
... In questo senso, le ciclostazioni per la sosta di lunga durata hanno un ruolo fondamentale. Tali strutture, che non a caso sono ampiamente presenti nei contesti in cui la mobilità ciclabile ha una buona quota modale, sono fortemente richieste dall'utenza, e possono costituire un fattore di scelta dirimente non solo per l'uso della bicicletta ma anche per la scelta di utilizzare il trasporto pubblico anziché l'automobile per gli spostamenti di lungo raggio, combinandolo con la bicicletta per il primo e l'ultimo miglio (Kager et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2016). Ne consegue che un'adeguata dotazione di posteggi ciclabili sicuri, protetti e ben accessibili per la sosta lunga può contribuire all'incremento dell'utenza dei servizi di trasporto pubblico, ed è anche per questo che sono numerosi i casi in cui la pianificazione e la realizzazione delle ciclostazioni intermodali è in capo agli enti, pubblici o privati, che gestiscono i servizi di trasporto a livello metropolitano e regionale. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La mobilità ciclabile, tema a lungo posto in secondo piano nel dibattito disciplinare dei settori dell’urbanistica e dei trasporti, sta nell’ultimo decennio ricevendo la necessaria attenzione a livello internazionale e nazionale. Come ormai diffusamente riconosciuto e sostenuto, l’aumento della mobilità ciclabile può infatti apportare importanti benefici ambientali, economici e sociali, migliorando l’accessibilità, la qualità dell’aria e la vivibilità. L’emergenza sanitaria ha contribuito a porre enfasi sulla mobilità dolce, e il momento è dunque più che propizio per investire su un sensibile potenziamento degli spostamenti a piedi e in bicicletta, questi ultimi in Italia ancora quota molto marginale. Il tema della sosta ciclabile, che tocca e intreccia diversi aspetti legati alla mobilità – non solo ciclabile –, e alla vita nelle città e nei territori, è ad oggi ancora decisamente trascurato nel dibattito scientifico e poco affrontato nelle pratiche, essendo l’attenzione e più diffusamente concentrata sull’offerta di piste e reti ciclabili. Il tema interessa non solo la pianificazione dei trasporti, ma anche l’urbanistica e la pianificazione territoriale, anzi esprimendone le interazioni. Un adeguato sistema di offerta di sosta ciclabile può essere elemento dirimente nella scelta modale; inoltre, l’offerta di sosta ciclabile ben dimensionata e pianificata nei suoi diversi elementi per soddisfare la domanda di sosta di breve, media e lunga durata, non solo può migliorare il decoro urbano, evitando ammassamenti disordinati, ma può costituire occasione di miglioramento dello spazio pubblico e del paesaggio urbano. Complessivamente, una dotazione di strutture ed elementi per la sosta ciclabile, integrata nella rete di offerta (ciclabile e non solo), dimensionata e differenziata in funzione della domanda attuale e ben inserita nel contesto, può concretamente contribuire a migliorare la qualità della vita e dello spazio urbano e ad aumentare la quota modale delle alternative all’auto. La pianificazione della sosta ciclabile è stata negli ultimi decenni oggetto di interesse in diverse città, seppure con approccio prevalentemente trasportistico. D’altro canto, esempi internazionali mostrano come la sosta ciclabile possa essere occasione per progettare spazi di qualità, luoghi di scambio e di interazione nelle più varie accezioni del termine. Il contributo intende discutere questi temi per favorire una maggiore attenzione del dibattito scientifico e della pianificazione per la sosta ciclabile.
... Sadly, large mass transit projects in the region generally do not improve walking and cycling conditions in a comprehensive way (see Chapter 4). In particular, intermodality between cycling and public transport has immense potential to amplify the range of public transport (Kager, Bertolini, & Te Brömmelstroet, 2016;Pardo & Calderón, 2014;Pucher & Buehler, 2009). To do so requires safe infrastructure connections to the mass transit stations, and above all, the ability to store bicycles for free or at low cost. ...
Chapter
The number of deaths and injuries due to traffic crashes continues to rise. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the number of fatal victims in traffic has increased from 1.25 million in 2013 to 1.35 million in 2016. Globally, crashes are the main cause of death for children, youth and young adults – people between 5 and 29 years of age – particularly affecting low and middle income countries (WHO 2018). In Latin America and the Caribbean, there are more than 100,000 deaths in road crashes annually, most of which are attributed to human error (Adriazola-Steil et al. 2018). Efforts to improve road safety have been characterized by a traditional focus on changing the behaviour of road users, using educational campaigns and training. The supposed merits of this approach have not been reflected in a reduction of crashes and victims (Adriazola-Steil et al. 2018). Contrary to global tendencies, in the majority of European Union countries that have focused on reducing the number of victims in crashes, the number of incidents has gone down (ERSO 2018). Countries that have adopted a safe system approach have achieved the most rapid and significant reductions in the rate of fatalities due to road crashes (Welle et al. 2018). Unsafe roads have a negative impact on the quality of life and the economy of Latin American countries, which makes it more difficult to implement and promote sustainable transport modes (walking, cycling, and public transport). Our cities are oriented around motorized transport, predominantly individual, and those who walk or use the bicycle for daily travel are exposed to higher risk. Infrastructure – such as the distance between safe crossings, turn radii, road width, etc. – prioritizes motorized vehicles. Meanwhile, pedestrians and cyclists are more vulnerable in a crash, as impact directly affects their body, while automobile drivers are protected by a metal shell. Similarly, the risk for public transport passengers is lower inside buses and the implementation of mass transit projects has shown to have a positive impact on road safety, due to changes in infrastructure made during such projects (Duduta et al. 2015). If road safety conditions for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users do not improve, people will continue to choose automobiles rather than more sustainable modes. Improving the safety conditions for pedestrians and cyclists has the potential to increase the modal share for active transport. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the advances as well as challenges of some of the road safety measures that have been implemented in Latin America based on a safe system approach. Full text available at: https://www.despacio.org/portfolio/transporte-urbano-sostenible-en-america-latina/
... Bicycletransit combines the advantages of speed and accessibility of (particularly higher level) transit with the flexibility and reliability of the bicycle. Recent publications have highlighted the potential of the marginalised and little researched bicycletransit combination (Jonkeren et al. 2019;Kager et al. 2016;KiM 2016b;Scheltema 2012). This paper aims to provide new knowledge on the bicycle-transit combination. ...
Article
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This paper considers an increasingly popular, sustainable multimodality: the combination of bicycle and transit. The flexibility of the bicycle combined with the speed and comfort of good transit can be a highly competitive alternative to the car. This study shows that many factors influence the uptake and attractiveness of the bicycle-transit combination. An in-depth literature review resulted in over thirty unique factors: six transit-related factors, twenty-first-last mile factors and fifteen context-related factors. All these factors might influence the demand for this ‘new’ mode positively or negatively. An exploratory choice modelling study showed the weights of some factors that Dutch bicycle-train users consider when choosing to cycle to a railway station. The weights showed that people are especially willing to cycle to a station with longer bicycle time (or bicycle parking time) when by doing so they can avoid a transfer in their train trip thereafter. The willingness to pay found were €0.11 for 1 min less bicycle time, €0.08 for a minute less train time, €0.11 for a minute of less time to park and €0.60 per avoided transfer. These kinds of insights give the bicycle and transit sector valuable information to be used in modelling multimodality and cost–benefit analyses, thereby supporting improved decision making and integrated design of bicycle and transit networks.
... Public transport can be considered for multimodal purposes by cyclists through the simple existence of a station [20] or through the distances between origins and a specific station/stop [2]. Furthermore, public transport provides an increase in the area of influence of cycling [69]. On the other hand, the parking infrastructure available for bicycles is a relevant aspect and is closely related to the context of multimodality. ...
Article
Recent strategies to improve the performance of the cycling mode of transport are based on infrastructural, behavioral, and multimodal measures, which are related to the concept of bikeability. A literature review on “bikeability indexes” was conducted focusing on indicators, using a four-step systematic process. Fourteen studies were included for the final analysis and provided 138 indicators, 17 criteria, and four domains. The exploratory analysis evidenced limited application of indicators related to pollution, scarce use of indicators related to bicycle sharing systems (BSS), absence of indicators related to electric bicycles, lack of indicators related to digital solutions, and the need of a calibration and validation process for bikeability indexes. Considering the changes and opportunities created by emerging innovations (namely BSS and electric bicycles) and the health trade-off related to pollution reduction, this research reveals that the current bikeability indexes do not fully address the real potential of a cycle network, limiting its use as a comprehensive tool for the promotion of sustainable mobility.
... Despite the significant methodological improvements, the transport literature often explains travel mode choice using only the assumption that a rational decision-maker automatically chooses a travel mode supported by rational motives such as the shortest travel time or the lowest costs, hence taking little notice of individuals' nuanced perceptions (Bahamonde-Birke et al., 2017). Recently, there has been a growing call for addressing this gap by incorporating subjective perspectives in transport studies and deepening our knowledge of social, psychological factors affecting mode choice and in particular sustainable travel behaviour (Kager et al., 2016). In this context, we view the concept of motility or the potential to be mobile as a helpful analytical framework in this field of endeavour. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on the conceptualisation of motility as the capacity to be mobile, this paper employs statistical and GIS-based analyses to explore the associations between travel mode choice and mobility-related attitudes, skills and opportunities to access transport modes. The study builds on survey data and spatial data from three urban contexts of Beijing, Gothenburg and Malmo to analyse both individual-level and contextual factors influencing sustainable travel behaviour. The results indicate that despite varying contexts, the three dimensions of attitude, skills and access significantly explain individuals’ travel behaviour and their choice to travel by public transport, bicycle or car. Among the studied travel modes, cycling appears to be a competitive mode when the travel distances are within 5 km. In all three urban contexts, individuals who have greater environmental awareness are more likely to travel by public transport or cycling if the physical conditions facilitate using these modes. Good access to public transport is likely to increase the usage of both cycling and public transport and reduce car use. Favourable conditions for cycling within 2 km and 5 km radius can positively encourage people to use a bicycle as a feeder mode for public transport. Overall, our findings demonstrate that for mobility policies to increase individuals’ motility in relation to sustainable travel modes and encourage a travel behaviour shift towards using alternatives to cars, planners need to take more holistic approaches and design policies that deal with the three motility dimensions in an integrated manner and avoid focusing on a single dimension in isolation.
... One of the new trends in the modern transportation system planning models in smart cities is the game theory (GT) concept to solve congestion problems with multi-player objectives. The GT, with its different strategies, helps intelligent transport system developers to design a model that provides the shortest trip time and the lowest cost for transporting passengers [9]. ...
Article
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Abstract Here, a dynamic multi‐mode transportation model is developed in which the passenger, for his trip, can use one or a combination of the transportation forms such as a car, a bus or a bicycle. This model is based on the game theory concept‐based trip cost‐optimization and it is called game theory multi‐mode transportation. The proposed system is implemented through a realistic scenario in a specific city using the OMNET++ and the OpenStreetMap software tools. The results show that the average trip price and the average trip time are improved when using the proposed model.
... Accessibility to transport interfaces (A3) takes advantage of the integration of cycling and public transport, significantly extending the catchment area of both, and making intermodal mobility more competitive than car travel (Doolittle and Porter, 1994;Kager et al., 2016;Pucher and Buehler, 2009). In these three indicators, accessibility was measured through predefined cycling travel isochrones towards the considered facilities. ...
... Scooters could arguably replace motorized trips (Abouelela, Al Haddad, and Antoniou 2021), or at least reduce their negative impacts, especially if they are well integrated with existing public transportation. This integration can solve the first and last-mile dilemma (Fearnley, Johnsson, and Berge 2020), increasing accessibility to public transportation (Oeschger, Carroll, and Caulfield 2020), but also leading to more sustainable transportation systems (Kager, Bertolini, and Brömmelstroet 2016). One of the most important, but not yet studied aspects of scooter integration with public transportation, is the distance between the stops and the scooters, as walking distance willingness could be a factor affecting or determining the use of different transportation services. ...
Article
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With the increasing popularity of shared e–scooters, understanding where they are parked becomes crucial, especially for integrating them with existing public transportation services. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between trip origins and the nearest bus stops, using 506,000 shared e-scooter trips from Louisville, Kentucky. We examined this relation temporally for different hours of the day and different weekdays, but also spatially, using three metrics including land use, distance from the city center, and the Local Index of Transit Availability (LITA) accessibility index. The temporal analysis showed a different parking distance pattern during early morning hours (between 2 and 4 a.m.), whereas the spatial analysis showed no impact of spatial features on distances between scooter parking (and therefore trips starting points) and nearest bus stops.
... Mugion et al. confirmed that improved public transportation service quality directly results in a higher percentage of trips for BSS services and can help to reduce private vehicle trips [17]. Kager, et al. demonstrated that using bicycles and public transportation services together can be considered an individual mode of transportation [18]. Chen et al. determined how many BSS stations there are and where they are in relation to the desired boundaries of a single metro station [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research looks at how spatial factors of public transportation influence the use of bike-sharing in an urban context. Based on a grid-cell-based method, ordinary least square regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) are developed to reveal the link between the spatial distribution of bus, tram, rail stops, and bike-sharing trips. The public transportation coverage in Budapest City is rated as excellent, with all parts of the city covered within a 5 km radius. We find that areas with a high proportion of public transportation stops have a significantly higher number of bike-sharing trips. Bike-sharing trips are concentrated near regional railway stations, the central business district, and surrounding zones. The connection between bike-sharing and trams/rails appears to be stronger than the connection between bike-sharing and buses. According to the findings, nearly one-third of public transportation stops have accessible bike docks within 125 m walking distance. In GWR analysis, the coefficients of bus stops are increasing towards the center of the city, while the coefficients of tram/rail stops are decreasing. Finally, by examining the priority zones for establishing more bike-sharing facilities, it is discovered that the eastern side of the city requires more development than the western side because it has a high number of bike-sharing trips but no adequate facilities near public transportation facilities.
... Together, public transport and bicycling provide more flexible alternatives than each transport mode on its own and can play a key role in replacing car trips. The hybrid transport mode of bicycling and public transport generates a unique synergy of speed and accessibility for long and short trips: the bicycle increases door-to-door accessibility and allows for flexibility and individual adaptation, while public transport increases the speed and spatial reach of travel (Kager, Bertolini, and Brömmelstroet 2016). An analysis of Lima shows that adequate integration of cycling facilities with public transport can increase the pedestrian coverage of high-capacity public transport by over six times (Ortegon-Sanchez and Hernandez 2016). ...
Chapter
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Uneven distribution of employment opportunities and services, the imbalances in access to housing and job opportunities for the entire population, and the difficulties of providing access to urban services for all urban dwellers may also increase socio spatial inequalities. Chapter 3 describes emerging issues related to the tradeoff between affordable housing location and transport and the need of promoting integrated planning as essential for economic development in Latin American cities and a source of opportunities for low-income populations. Many of the urban transport projects in Latin American cities have prioritized the development of mass transit corridors, which generate better access conditions for hundreds of thousands of low-income citizens. However, in some cases these projects can have an unintended impact of decreased affordability of housing options located near the new system, making access to opportunities more difficult to the city’s poorest. The degree of displacement or gentrification associated with the introduction of mass transit corridors remains unknown given the lack of research on this topic, as indicated by the related gap in the literature. Studies in which the socioeconomic and socio-spatial distribution changes occurring due to the implementation of mass transit projects are urgently needed. Additionally, land value increments generated on property values are not often captured by the public sector to leverage the financing of mass transit projects or their expansion. The experience in the region suggests that coordination between transport and land use planning is difficult due to a mismatch and variation in the implementation and development timelines of each, low technical capacity, and a lack of funding for TOD projects. TOD projects provide the opportunity to strength the coordination between the transportation, land use planning and housing sectors. It is important that each city defines a TOD policy, with pilot projects based on the previous research into the dynamics of real estate as well as the land and housing markets, within a long term planning process that includes citizen participation. TOD pilot projects can certainly improve the integration of transportation planning and land use planning. TOD projects in the region should be employed as a strategy to promote value capture mechanisms, including cross housing subsidies in which the promotion of affordable housing near transit systems becomes a reality Affordable housing initiatives require to become more diverse and innovative in order to increase the quality of these projects through a portfolio of options linked to mass transit and other infrastructure investments that increase the accessibility for their residents. As in the case of transportation infrastructure projects, it is important that those projects include accessibility indicators to evaluate the effects of these investments on the poor. The recent experience with the implementation of Cable Cars that include slum upgrading measures, and the generation of new affordable housing units with infill development measures, constitute an innovation in the region.
... In doing so, they also help travelers to plan precise and fast connections to other transportation modes. The net effect of such proactive prediction and dynamic route planning is the timely arrival at the desired destination with low costs [3][4][5]. ...
Article
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This paper presents a method for predicting bus stop arrival times based on a unique approach that extracts the spatio-temporal dynamics of bus flows. Using a new technique called Bus Flow Centrality Analysis (BFC), we obtain the low-dimensional embedding of short-term bus flow patterns in the form of IID (Individual In Degree) and IOD (Individual Out Degree) and TOD (Total Out Degree) at every station in the bus network. The embedding using BFC analysis well captures the characteristics of every individual flow and aggregate pattern. The latent vector returned by the BFC analysis is combined with other essential information such as bus speed, travel time, wait time, dispatch intervals, the distance between stations, seasonality, holiday status, and climate information. We employed a family of recurrent neural networks such as LSTM, GRU, and ALSTM to model how these features change over time and to predict the time the bus takes to reach the next stop in subsequent time windows. We experimented with our solution using logs of bus operations in the Seoul Metropolitan area offered by the Bus Management System (BMS) and the Bus Information System (BIS) of Korea. We predicted arrival times for more than 100 bus routes with a MAPE of 1.19%. This margin of error is 74% lower than the latest work based on ALSTM. We also learned that LSTM performs better than GRU with a 40.5% lower MAPE. This result is even remarkable considering the irregularity in the bus flow patterns and the fact that we did not rely on real-time GPS information. Moreover, our approach scales at a city-wide level by analyzing more than 100 bus routes, while previous studies showed limited experiments on much fewer bus routes.
... Brand et al. (2017) and Shelat et al. (2018) showed the opportunity offered by combining bus services and cycling. Combined, micromobility modes and high-level transit complement each other's characteristics, offering fast speeds and accessibility in the range of personal vehicles or on-demand transit (Kager et al., 2016). The synergy between micromobility and transit has been noted by researchers and city planners for its potential to increase sustainability, efficiency, and equity of transportation (Krizek & Stonebraker, 2011;Hosseinzadeh et al., 2021). ...
Article
Electric micromobility systems such as e-bikes and e-scooters represent sustainable mobility options especially for specific classes of travelled distances. Moreover, the coverage and accessibility of transit services can be expanded through the implementation and promotion of these systems. Therefore, transport engineering is dealing with the development of new tools to support the forecast of the potential demand both for door-to-door trips and its integration with transit. With respect to these incoming research challenges, the paper proposes a methodology to investigate private mobility through floating car data (FCD) to identify the potential demand that can be shifted from cars to electric micromobility (e-micromobility) systems while also exploring the opportunity to increase transit usage. The benefits of such methodology have been evaluated on a real large test case, i.e. Rome (Italy), through an FCD dataset of about 240,000 monitored vehicles. The developed methodology is parametric and, thus, it can be easily transferred to other city contexts taking into consideration the compatibility of the local network infrastructures and the micromobility solutions. In Rome, it was estimated that the potential demand for e-micromobility can reach a maximum value of about 20% of weekday-trips, while about 10% of the morning peak trips could potentially be interested in a multimodal trip (i.e. mass transit services and e-micromobility for the access/egress). Results can be adopted by local authorities, transport companies and electric mobility providers to optimize infrastructural measures or the location of shared e-scooters and e-bikes to increase potential e-micromobility demand, as well as to increase the number of multimodal mobility options. Keywords: Micromobility; Sustainable travel modes; E-scooters; E-bikes; Floating car data; Modal shift; Transit network coverage https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965856422000088
... Consequently, many advantages follow; as we know, walking or cycling provide significant health benefits. Furthermore, cycling represents an effective form of transport for distances of up to 5 km, making it particularly suitable for inner-city journeys [1]. The positive effects of exercise on the human body are even more pronounced for wheelchair users. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasingly frequent use of electric drives is a new direction of development in personal transport. Sometimes these drives take over the work of human muscles, and sometimes they only support them. This is particularly evident in means of transport such as bicycles and scooters, but also in transporting people with disabilities. This study questions whether this is the only right development direction, and explores the possibility of developing means of transport for the more effective use of human muscles by proposing new structural solutions. We identified that such an action favors the minimization of the environmental load generated by technical facilities and, at the same time, may be a response to social needs resulting from the principles of sustainable development. This paper presents the operation principle of the innovative Wheelchair Cam-thread Drive (WCD), followed by field tests, laboratory measurements and biomechanical analyses of the WCD, comparing it with a typical Wheelchair Push-rim Drive (WPD). We found that the WCD allows efficient driving on flat and level surfaces, but its propulsion method can adversely alter the location of the center of gravity on the human-wheelchair system. A brake is also required to control the driving speed. Ultimately, the WCD was found to put less strain on the human movement system, so it could be used for rehabilitation exercises. The WCD appears to be a promising design, deserving further research into the drive biomechanics and the optimization of the mechanism operation. Such an innovative manual drive presents an interesting alternative to electric drives.
... Although this study did not evaluate public transport use directly, research does exist suggesting that increased public transport access may increase both walking and cycling rates (e.g. Dalton, Jones, Panter, & Ogilvie, 2013;Kager, Bertolini, & Te Brömmelstroet, 2016), but this research is not conclusive. Note: * p < 0.1; ** p < 0.05; *** p < 0.01. ...
Article
Open access until January 2022: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1e5ls4tTwCn6Qi. --- Large efforts and investments have been made into public transport, walking, and cycling in cities around Europe. Yet, cars remain the most ubiquitous mode of travel in urban areas. Often, research into the barriers facing active travel evaluates only one part of the problem, such as a person’s surrounding environment (the macro level), socially embedded practices that define the activity (meso level), or a person’s own beliefs and sense of identity (micro level). However, barriers and enablers to active travel exist on multiple levels, and interventions to increase walking and/or cycling are less likely to work when implemented in isolation. Hence, a multilevel socio-ecological model is developed to demonstrate and test the importance of assessing these barriers together, and identify interrelationships among them. Using the Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transportation Approaches (PASTA) dataset on the travel behaviour of people in seven different European cities, this paper identifies the constructs that correlate with active travel most. Within PASTA, psychosocial constructs influence the decision to take a trip by bicycle or walk more than built environment variables. In addition, trip purpose and the meso level influence the importance of built environment and attitudinal variables in explaining active travel. These relationships do not vary significantly between cities. This research further supports the use of multi-faceted interventions to increase walking and cycling, rather than focussing on a single policy.
... In particolare, come evidenziato in questo paragrafo si sembra delineare, almeno per il trasporto urbano, uno sviluppo verso un ruolo sinergico di trasporto pubblico e bicicletta (ed in generale micromobilità). Kager et al (2016) e Kager & Harms (2017) illustrano esaurientemente come l'integrazione di tali modalità di trasporto abbia la potenzialità di superare i limiti di ognuna delle due modalità prese singolarmente. Inoltre si evidenzia come tale sistema sia scalabile, per adattarsi alle mutevoli esigenze urbane in maniera sostenibile e preservando la qualità dello spazio urbano. ...
Research
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Questo elaborato si pone l'obiettivo di raccogliere le prime documentazioni emesse da vari attori del settore trasporti, ed interpretarle nel loro complesso per evincere l'effetto della pandemia di COVID-19 causata dal virus SARS-CoV-2 sul sistema dei trasporti.
... PT offer various qualities to the users in comparison to private vehicles, this includes the availability of PT (Kager et al., 2016). Normally, travellers would choose available transportation for their travel action (Drabicki et al., 2018). ...
Article
Public transport (PT) continues to receive much attention from many countries as a means to reduce traffic congestion, accident, and pollution. Moreover, PT can boost mobility, physical and social leisure activities for the public. To enhance PT ridership, it is important to enhance its customer loyalty. This study is designed to examine the interrelationships between factors such as accessibility, availability, reliability, comfortability, and safety and security, satisfaction, and loyalty. A total of 179 respondents participated in this study. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for data analysis. The results show that availability, safety and security are positively related to user satisfaction. Moreover, satisfaction has been found to be positively related to loyalty. These results suggest that practitioners should focus on availability and safety and security which can enhance satisfaction followed by loyalty. Scholars are recommended to further study other variables which can impact on satisfaction and loyalty.
... To further push recent bicycle utilization in cities, cities need to implement favorable cycling conditions. This mostly refers to a well-developed infrastructure that is oriented towards cyclists' requirements [1], [2]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Traffic planners in most cities need detailed bicycle route data to investigate cycling behavior. This disaggregate data, which provides information on revealed preference of cyclists choosing their routes through a city road network, is often used to analyze bicycle route choice. However, the required data is usually not available for most city areas. In recebt years, more and more commercial companies and non-governmental initiatives provide aggregate GPS-based cycling data. Due to crowdsourcing, the data is relatively cheap to acquire and available for most cities around the globe (e.g. data from Strava). However, the data do not provide detailed infor-mation on single routes because companies usually process the data and provide aggregate data instead of single route data. Thus, the data do not meet the requirements for detailed analysis. Few studies investigated how to exploit the aggregate data or even how to derive single routes. Disaggregating the available aggregate data to synthetic single routes could help to generate detailed cycling route data on low costs. However, there is currently no knowledge about feasibility of route disaggregation and the validity of resulting routes. Therefore, the article presents results of the evaluation of a developed route synthetization approach. To evaluate the approach, a large bicycle GPS data sample is aggregated first. This ensures that the used aggregate data possess the same data structure as the data provided e.g. by commercial providers. In a second step, detailed routes are synthesized using a state-of-research multi-step route synthetization approach. The comparison of syn-thesized routes with the original ones reveals an impressive match (up to 97%). However, accuracy strongly depends on zonal size of the aggregate input data.
... K.J. Schaefer et al. metropolis, while the other spatial categories show a non-significant reduction. The symbiotic relationship between public transport and biking has been explored elsewhere (Kager et al. 2016; Nello-Deakin and te Brömmelstroet, 2021) and our research seems to confirm that there is indeed an interaction between these two transport modes. Further, reduced bus use increases car use particularly for residents of the medium-sized cities and urban areas. ...
Article
The Covid 19 pandemic has caused dramatic disruptions in the public transport sector that has seen a stark downturn in many cities across the globe, calling into question previous efforts to reduce air pollution and CO2 emissions by expanding this sector. Especially, the current surge of individual car use is worrying and the question remains which users might be able and willing to substitute public transport by cycling. This effect is interesting to study for the case of Hanover Region, because of the well-developed biking infrastructure that makes biking a viable alternative to individual car use. In this paper, we analyze survey data from June 2020 on the use of transportation modes before and during the pandemic in the Hanover Region. We ask if and how the over 4.000 participants substitute public transport and what characterizes those who chose biking over individual car use. We use multivariate regression models and find evidence that Stadtbahn (local light rail) and bus are substituted by bike, car and working from home, while train use is not significantly replaced by car and seems to be positively related to bike use. The data also shows that women have a higher level of fear of infection than men have during public transport use and therefore reduce public transport use more. Moreover, income displays a positive effect on increased car use while cycling is independent of socio-economic indicators but instead driven by the eco-consciousness of users. Surprisingly, we find that car use was increased in particular by residents of Hanover city, while it was decreased by residents of less densely populated urban areas in the region.
Article
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Governments worldwide are aiming to increase sustainable mode use to increase sustainability, livability, and accessibility. Integration of bicycle and transit can increase catchment areas of transit compared with walking and thus provide better competition to non-sustainable modes. To achieve this, effective measures have to be designed that require a better understanding of the factors influencing access mode and station choice. At the national/regional level this has been thoroughly studied, but there is a knowledge gap at the urban level. This study aims to investigate which factors influence the joint decision for tram access mode and tram station choice. The joint investigation can identify trade-offs between the access and transit journeys. Furthermore, the effect of each factor on the bicycle catchment area is investigated. Using data from tram travelers in The Hague, Netherlands, a joint simultaneous discrete choice model is estimated. Generally, walking is preferred to cycling. The findings of this study suggest that access distance is one of the main factors for explaining the choice, where walking distance is weighted 2.1 times cycling distance. Frequent cyclists are more likely also to cycle to the tram station, whereas frequent tram users are less inclined to cycle. Bicycle parking facilities increase the cycling catchment area by 234 m. The transit journey time has the largest impact on the catchment area of cyclists. Improvements to the system, such as fewer stops, higher frequency (like light rail transit), or both, therefore would result in a much longer accepted cycling distance.
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Today, there are more two-wheel scooters on the road than ever before. That is infact, the root cause of many problems in our daily life. Major concerns include air as well as noise pollution, traffic, shortage of parking space and the depletion of nonrenewable resources. This project aims to reduce emissions by creating an environmentally friendly foldable electric vehicle that will substantially reduce problems related to parking and increasing fuel cost. We have designed this vehicle using DC hub motor as a drive and Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery as a power source. As a result, no direct emissions will be made as no fuel will be consumed. Furthermore, this vehicle is built in such a way that both men and women can ride it. This has the advantage of being incredibly light and foldable. The maximum speed of this scooter is 25 kilometers per hour.
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Pri spodbujanju rabe javnega potniškega prometa ima pomembno vlogo razumevanje razmer, ki jih sistem zagotavlja za potnika. Na izbiro potovalnega načina vplivajo številni dejavniki, med katerimi se kot pomembna izkazuje konkurenčnost potovalnega časa ali potovalne hitrosti. Pri njenem izračunu si lahko zaradi razširjenosti elektronskih plačilnih sistemov pomagamo z zbranimi podatki validacij uporabnikov. S tem lahko na podlagi dejanskih potovanj izračunamo njihovo hitrost. V okviru raziskave smo na primeru avtobusnega sistema v Ljubljani analizirali vse vožnje, opravljene na tipičen dan. Na podlagi vstopnih in izstopnih podatkov o avtobusni vožnji smo izračunali opravljeno razdaljo, čas, potreben za pot, in hitrost opravljenih poti. Primerjali smo še, kako hitro bi lahko potniki poti, prevožene z avtobusom, opravili s kolesom ali peš. Ugotovili smo, da je hitrost obravnavanih potovanj z avtobusom odvisna od dolžine potovanja. Pri daljših potovanjih se hitrost povečuje. Kolo je hitrejše na vseh razdaljah, vendar pri večjih razdaljah postane manj sprejemljiva izbira. Hoja je na obravnavanih razdaljah do 2 km glede hitrosti konkurenčna le v manjšem deležu poti. Z opravljenimi analizami nam je uspelo s podatki, ki se zbirajo zaradi elektronskega plačevanja storitve, pridobiti uporaben vpogled v uporabniško učinkovitost sistema javnega prometa, kar je v prihodnje lahko uporabno pri načrtovanju izboljšav sistema.
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Negative effects of a massive use of cars, such as congestion, air pollution, noise, and traffic injuries, are affecting the cities everywhere. Recently introduced shared vehicles, such as e-scooters and electric bicycles, could potentially accelerate the transition towards sustainable mobility. Although these vehicles are becoming increasingly common and accepted within regulatory frameworks, some local governments are not yet ready to integrate e-scooters into their transport systems. Indeed, the legislation is unclear as it is not easy to determine whether the e-scooter is more like a bicycle or a vehicle. Moreover, it is difficult to predict the impact of e-scooters on road traffic, as well as the type of road infrastructure chosen by e-scooter drivers or the possible interaction of such vehicles with weak road users, such as pedestrians or cyclists. This study showed an analysis of speed and behaviour of e-scooter drivers in the city of Trondheim (Norway) to investigate how to manage this mode of transport. A total of 204 e-scooters were observed on six different roads in the city centre. The speed of e-scooter drivers was measured by a speed tracker (average value 15.4 km/h) and their behaviour recorded by a hidden observer in the field. Gender, age, distance from pedestrians, speed adaptation to the environment, and type of vehicle used were registered for each e-scooter. Through a Binomial Logit analysis, the data obtained were used to analyse the type of road infrastructure preferred by e-scooter drivers. Results showed that the cycle path is more widely used with percentage value from 60% to 90% of users. In addition, the probability of choice depended mainly on the road environment. The aim of this analysis was to assist local authorities in regulating the safe use of e-scooters and developing appropriate policies for their integration into cities.
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The purpose of this paper is to reveal possible reasons for unfavorable decisions in transit planning that weaken the possibility of increasing transit competitiveness versus the private car. The paper is based upon a qualitative case study of two Norwegian cities that have initiated projects to increase transit competitiveness versus the private car. Interviews and document studies have been conducted and interpreted using existing theories and case studies to determine possible reasons for decisions that are unfavorable for transit competitiveness. In this paper, it is concluded that conflicting politics is the main reason for unfavorable decisions in transit planning. Though the planning practitioners in the transit projects make effort to communicate to the politicians how the conflicting politics are limiting the possibility to increase transit competitiveness versus the private car, this effort has little effect. It is suggested in this work that the role of the urban planner should be extended to not only inform but also awaken a need for more knowledge among politicians and decisionmakers to help prevent unfavorable decisions being made within transit, and urban planning.
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Financing of public transportation has been a challenge that needs to be concerned because ridership has decreased by up to 90% with the impact of COVID-19. This study presents sustainable policy recommendations and their cost-benefit analyses for the financing problems in public transportation caused by COVID-19. First of all, the public transportation data of Eskişehir-Turkey between the years 2018-2021 were investigated according to different public transportation modes, and financial losses were calculated for municipality. Secondly, within the scope of the study, six policies were recommended as follows: (i) different network and service plans for public transportation, (ii) new or improved low-budget public transportation, (iii) congestion pricing, (iv) bike, bike-sharing and e-scooter, (v) park and ride, (vi) pedestrianization. Crucial points in the implementation of policies and their possible financial impacts were investigated. According to the findings of the study, total ridership decreased 72.94 million in 2020 and 2021 compared to pre-COVID-19. In different modes, it was observed that the decrease buses ridership was higher than in trams. Municipality financial loss was calculated as $19.69- 24.87 million. In the cost-benefit analysis results of recommended policies, net present value was calculated as 0.28-23.36 million $ according to different scenarios and sensitivity analyses. It has been foreseen that this is a very suitable period for the implementation of these policies, they could provide sustainable urban transportation and increase the quality of life as well as solving financial problems.
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Public transport is increasingly addressing the problems of congestion in large urban agglomerations and transport exclusion of peripheral areas. To improve the quality of connections between smaller towns and the central city of the region, local authorities, in consultation with the local railway company, have launched the first voivodeship bike-sharing system in Poland, covering ten cities and towns in the Łódź region. The aim of that project was to increase transport cohesion in the Łódź agglomeration. The article analyses the expectations of the project participants – small and medium-sized towns, areas in danger of transport exclusion, and towns with less-developed cycling policy. The study has shown that the voivodeship bicycle-sharing system can bring numerous benefits, especially for small and medium-sized towns of the region, by not only boosting transport accessibility in their area, but also improving the quality of life of the inhabitants, the image and innovativeness of the town, and deepening cooperation between local governments participating in the project. However, the conducted research has proven that at the present stage the analysed voivodship public bicycle system does not ensure full cohesion of the region due to the small number of stations and bicycles in the central city, resulting from the fact that it already has a separate urban bicycle-sharing system.
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In this study a unique bicycle sharing program (BSP) is studied: a BSP initiated by an urban transit provider (buses and trams). The idea is that the combined use of BSPs and buses and trams could increase the catchment area of urban transit alone, therefore offering a more competitive alternative for the car. However, in the scientific literature hardly any knowledge is available regarding to what extent, by whom and how this bicycle – urban transit combination is used. This study explores the so-called ‘HTM-fiets’ programme in The Hague, the Netherlands, operated by urban transit operator HTM. Within the case, data was collected through a survey among the users of this program. The results indicate that, in this case, only 9% of the respondents use HTM-fiets in combination with urban transit. Of bike users who use HTM-fiets as a stand-alone mobility option (i.e. without combining it with transit), 46% have used the HTM-bike as substitute for bus and tram. Our results imply that the transit provider of ‘HTM-fiets’ faces difficult policy choices. The large degree of substitution may negatively influence their business case. However, a large degree of substitution is at the same time not a problem per se for them, because this substitution may alleviate crowding problems in transit and ‘HTM-fiets’ can be seen as an extra service by them offered to people in the Hague to ensure better accessibility of the city. The main lesson would be to focus on an integrated design of BSP and public transport in case a complementary system is aimed for, since our case shows clearly that without an integrated design especially substitution will take place from urban transit to the bicycle.
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Cities globally are grappling with the negative externalities of car travel and are therefore striving to move towards a more sustainable urban transportation system. The introduction and popularity of new personal transport modes, such as e-scooters and electric bicycles, could potentially accelerate this transition as they become more commonplace and are accepted into regulatory frameworks. The integration of these new modes and vehicles into public transport systems, for example, could enhance accessibility and lead to potential modal shifts away from private car use. In order to assess the potential for change that micromobility holds, it is key to study these new modes in the context of access and egress trips to and from public transport. This paper presents an extensive systematic literature review of studies that focus specifically on the integration of micromobility and public transport systems and is, to the knowledge of the authors, the first review focusing on this specific aspect of micromobility. This paper offers an understanding of how this topic has been studied to date, which factors and aspects have been considered and analysed, which causalities have been identified in the research, in addition to identifying gaps in the literature and providing guidance for future research on this topic. Furthermore, this paper provides a comprehensive collection and critical discussion of suggestions and recommendations included in the literature which are analysed in this study, aimed at improving and further promoting the effective integration of micromobility and public transport services.
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The combined use of bicycles and trains is a popular means of transport in the Netherlands, experiencing strong growth in recent years. This development is in line with the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management's policy goal of promoting cycling as a stand-alone mode, and in combination with trains. Such active travel policies generate social benefits, such as improved public health, reduced emissions and less congestion. The success of combined bike and train use in the Netherlands however has unresolved issues. Due to overcrowded bicycle storage facilities at large train stations, many bicycles are parked outside these facilities, resulting in public nuisance and inefficient use of space in the areas around train stations. Concurrently, the continued growth of combined bicycle-train use is desired. The policy question therefore is how to facilitate growth while accounting for the current bicycle parking problem. In tackling this challenge, this paper aims to shed more light on the bicycle parking behaviour of bicycle-train travellers. In cooperation with Dutch National Railways, train travellers were given a questionnaire designed to elicit information about their travel behaviour during the two-week period preceding the questionnaire's completion date. More than 3000 questionnaires were completed. Descriptive statistics and binary logit models were used to analyse the resulting data. We found that the privately owned bicycles used on a train trips' activity-end (the so-called ‘second bicycles’) were parked at train station parking facilities approximately four times longer than bicycles used at the train trips' home-end station. Initial estimates revealed that these second bicycles accounted for at least 45% of the bicycle parking pressure witnessed at all train stations in the Netherlands. We also found that among second bicycle owners, low-frequency train use, and using activity-end train stations located in suburbs, are positively associated with long term bicycle parking on the activity-end. Moreover, of all the times bicycles are parked, approximately 10% of activity-end bicycles, and 20% of home-end bicycles, are parked unguarded outside of train station parking facilities. There is a lower probability of home-end bicycles being parked outside of bicycle parking facilities at small train stations than at large stations. Possible solutions to the bicycle parking problem include offering more shared bicycles as alternatives to second bicycles, striving to ban second bicycles from racks situated close to train platforms (by means of pricing and enforcement), and locating parking spaces specifically designated for second bicycles further away from train platforms. This would free up parking spaces close to platforms for home-end bicycles, which are more frequently rotated in and out. Additionally, to further alleviate the parking problem, an awareness-and-warning campaign could be directed at those who wrongly park their home-end bicycles.
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To increase cycling shares through urban planning and development, planners need sound tools to assess the built environment. This article presents a methodology to qualitatively determine bikeability, the extent to which it is possible and pleasurable to bike in or through a given area. It is a holistic assessment of four categories of built environment characteristics that affect bikeability. An assessment follows an iterative process combining secondary data and registrations from maps, aerial photos and fieldwork. The methodology does not require specialised tools and is applicable to different urban contexts and purposes. Two examples are included to demonstrate possible uses: assessment of existing built environments to establish a knowledge base when developing short- and long-term cycling plans and strategies, and assessment of planned urban transformations for use in planning processes to ensure new urban developments with a high level of bikeability. Possible methodological improvements are identified. Surveys and interviews with cyclists can provide further understandings of local context. Geographical information systems can inform an assessment but require specialist knowledge, better datasets, and more empirical data on cycling and the built environment from various contexts. As new insights emerge, the methodology must be continually updated to remain valid and reliable.
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Read-only version available at https://journals.sagepub.com/share/KGMMRQBS6NSNTS5Z8ZZE?target=10.1177/03611981211037884 Reduced transit capacity to accommodate social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic was a sudden constraint that along with a large reduction in total travel volume and a shift in activity patterns contributed to abrupt changes in transportation mode shares across cities worldwide. There are major concerns that as the total travel demand rises back toward prepandemic levels, the overall transport system capacity with transit constraints will be insufficient for the increasing demand. This paper uses city-level scenario analysis to examine the potential increase in post-COVID-19 car use and the feasibility of shifting to active transportation, based on prepandemic mode shares and varying levels of reduction in transit capacity. An application of the analysis to a sample of cities in Europe and North America is presented. Mitigating an increase in driving requires a substantial increase in active transportation mode share, particularly in cities with high pre-COVID-19 transit ridership; however, such a shift may be possible based on the high percentage of short-distance motorized trips. The results highlight the importance of making active transportation attractive and reinforce the value of multimodal transportation systems as a strategy for urban resilience. This paper provides a strategic planning tool for policy makers facing challenging transportation system decisions in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Typically, mode choice behaviour is studied as a function of observed travel factors. Given the importance of unobservable factors on choice behaviour, this paper deviates from this approach. We analysed cycling as mode choice to access railway stations, incorporating latent variables and psychometric data to capture relatively intangible factors that influence mode choice. Such factors are not observable, but can manifest themselves through adjustable indicators. The database used for this paper contains 12000 observations of journeys carried out in the Rotterdam – The Hague area in the Netherlands, covering thirty-five railway stations. In addition to using a traditional binary logit model, we estimated three hybrid choice models for access mode choice. These hybrid choice models represented observed and unobserved factors simultaneously, including the train users' perception of connectivity, attitude towards station environment and perceived quality of bicycle facilities. The results show that both attitudes and observable travel-related elements are important in the decision to cycle to the station or not. Variations in these perceptions and attitudes significantly affect the bicycle-train share. At the same time, improvements in unguarded bicycle parking facilities may increase the number of people who cycle to the train station more than improvements in guarded bicycle parking would. Moreover, the availability of the parking facilities is crucial during rush hours. Another conclusion is that transport strategies to encourage bicycle-train use must be implemented by station type, i.e. measures to encourage bicycle access at larger stations. Further research would develop a hybrid choice model for egress, and a stated choice experiment would compare these results.
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Public transport (PT) is important, because the current traffic system faces well known problems like congestion, environmental impact and use of public space. To be able to assess the effects of policy measures properly, it is necessary to model the behavior of the (PT) traveler in a realistic way. An aspect that lacks realism in a lot of current models is the rigid separation between modes: within the model a traveler cannot choose to switch between modes, so multimodal trips that combine a public transport trip with the car or with the bicycle are not (or at least not explicitly) taken into account, while the use of the bicycle as an access mode is very popular in the Netherlands, and getting more popular in other countries. Easy bike rental systems enable use as an egress mode as well. The use of the car as an access mode is very popular in the US. Furthermore, multiple routing is important, because different users have different preferences (i.e. a fast route or a route without a transfer). These two aspects are addressed in this paper, to achieve more realistic transit modeling.
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Potential influences on explaining walk distance from home to access public transport are investigated including trip and demographic characteristics and public transport supply. In Sydney, Australia, people walk further to train than to bus, the distributions of walk distances are different for each mode, and the trip and demographic characteristics of train and bus users are different. Given the decision to walk to public transport, demographic characteristics such as age, gender, income and labour force status and trip characteristics such as trip purpose, time of day and week, fare and ticket type and trip duration are not significant in explaining walk distance to each mode of public transport. The mode of the public transport trip is the most important determinant of walking distance, reflecting the different supply and spacing of each mode in which there are many more bus stops than train stations. The differences between train and bus users suggest that accessibility initiatives for public transport may not be the same for each mode.
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Bike-and-ride, or the combined use of bicycle and public transport for one trip, is a multimodal alternative for the car. This paper discusses the use of bike-and-ride in three countries with widely differing bicycle cultures and infrastructures: the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. The share of the bicycle in access trips is comparable to general levels of bicycle ridership in each country, but only for train services and other fast modes of public transport. Strong similarities are found in the characteristics of bike-and-ride trips and users, in terms of travel distances, travel motives, and the impact of car availability. The majority of bike-and-ride users travels between 2 and 5 km to a public transport stop, with longer access distances reported for faster modes of public transport. Work and education are the main travel motives, with the first dominating the faster modes and the second the slower modes of public transport. Car availability hardly influences the choice for a combined use of bicycle and train, but strongly affects the levels of bike-and-ride for slower modes of transport.
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This paper investigates innovative approaches to the integration of land-use and transport planning in urban regions. Engineering, economic and social-science based theories and empirical studies are analyzed regarding their ability to explain the interaction between land use and transport - that land use determines traffic flows and that transport infrastructure changes land-use patterns. In addition, this paper provides an overview of the state of the art of computer models for the simulation of land use and transport. Based on these theories and models the effectiveness of policies to influence land use and transport in urban regions is assessed.
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•The transport policy domain is seeing a surge of behavioural change campaigns.•More attention for unintended and undesirable consequences of these are needed.•Hirschmann triad of futility, perversity and jeopardy can be a useful heuristic for this.•Financial rewards and gamification are effective but concerns about unintended consequences can be raised.•Researchers and practitioners need to develop more sensibility for this to counter solutionist tendencies.
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Transit Oriented Development: Making it Happen brings together the different stakeholders and disciplines that are involved in the conception and implementation of TOD to provide a comprehensive overview of the realization of this concept in Australia, North America, Asia and Europe. The book identifies the challenges facing TOD and through a series of key international case studies demonstrates ways to overcome and avoid them. The insights gleaned from these encompass policy and regulation, urban design solutions, issues for local governance, the need to work with community and the commercial realities of TOD. http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&title_id=8710&edition_id=11109&calcTitle=1
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Walking and cycling can make a considerable contribution to sustainable transport goals, building healthier and more sustainable communities and contributing to traffic and pollution reduction. There have been many national and local initiatives to promote walking and cycling, but without a long term vision and consistent strategy it is difficult to see how a significant change may be achieved. This paper presents three alternative visions for the role of walking and cycling in urban areas for the year 2030: each vision illustrates a ‘desirable’ walking- and cycling-oriented transport system against a different ‘exogenous social background’. These visions have been developed through a process of expert discussion and review and are intended to provide a stimulus for debate on the potential for and desirability of such alternative futures. Each is based on the UK and represents a substantial change to the current situation: in particular, each of the visions presents a view of a society where walking and cycling are considerably more important than is currently the case and where these modes cater for a much higher proportion of urban transport needs than at present. The visions show pictures of urban environments where dependence on motor vehicles has been reduced, in two of the visions to very low levels. The methodological approach for devising visions is informed by work on ‘utopian thinking’: a key concept underlying this approach is one of viewing the future in social constructivist terms (i.e. the future is what ‘we’, as a society, make it) rather than considering the future as something that can be ‘scientifically’ predicted by the extrapolation of current trends.
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Commuting by bicycle has advantages over other modes of transport, both for the commuter and for society. Although cycling is an option for many commuters, a considerable number of them choose to use other forms of transport. In order to underpin policies that promote commuting by bicycle, this paper investigates the determinants for commuting to work. As many bicycle commuters do not cycle every day, we also examine people’s daily choices, in terms of frequency. We conducted a survey of the current literature in order to identify the determinants for commuting by bicycle. We found many determinants, not all of which are addressed by conventional mode choice studies and models. This suggests that predicting and influencing bicycle use needs to be grounded in other kinds of knowledge than those currently available for motorized forms of transport.
Article
Purpose – This chapter traces the development of cycling in several European countries over the period from the 1880s to the present, with special focus on the two cycling nations, Denmark and The Netherlands. Methodology – Drawing on a wide array of research on bicycle use in Europe in the twentieth century as well as primary sources, the chapter pays particular attention to the users of the bicycle, their organisations and the mixture of male and female, young and old, and rich and poor, because these users were the people who actually shaped cycling cultures. Findings – While acknowledging that geographical conditions cannot be fully ruled out as contributing factors, the authors point out that political, social and cultural aspects were all woven together into what would become increasingly distinctive national cycling cultures. Value – This study provides historical context for recent efforts to increase cycling participation by identifying relevant cultural, social and political factors, and providing insights into the trajectories of Dutch and Danish cycling cultures.
Article
The quality of transport networks does not only depend on the quality of the individual links and nodes, but also on the way these nodes and links function in the context of multimodal networks. In the present paper we focus on multimodal trips where the railways are the main transport mode. We discuss detour and frequency problems related to multimodal transport chains. Local accessibility of railway stations is an important determinant of railway use in the Netherlands. We find that the propensity to make use of rail services by people living in the ring between 500 to 1000 meters from a railway station is about 20% lower than of people living at most 500 meters away from railway stations. At distances between 1.0 and 3.5 km the distance decay effect is about 30%, and above this distance it may reach values up to 50%. Non‐motorized transport modes are dominant at both the home‐end and the activity‐end. A rather unique feature of the home‐end access mode is the high share of the bicycle. More than one out of every three passengers uses the bike on the trip from home to station. At the activity‐end the share of the bike is much smaller, because of the asymmetry in the supply of this transport mode in the home versus activity‐end. This explains the dominant position of walking as the access mode at the activity‐end. Implications are discussed for physical planning and the need for facilities near railway stations.
Article
The market potential of railway services depends on the quality of the total chain from residence to place of activity. In The Netherlands where natural conditions and infrastructure are conducive, the bicycle is a potentially attractive access mode for railways since it allows travellers to avoid waiting at bus, metro or tram stops. Especially at the home end the bicycle appears to play a large role as an access mode with a share of 35%. At the activity end the share is much shorter. Implications are discussed for policies aiming at increasing the share of multimodal trips. Also physical planning implications are considered.
Article
This paper focuses on two lines of investigation with regard to access to railway stations in the Netherlands. Firstly, the profile of the access and egress modes on journeys to and from railway stations is analyzed. We also examine how the availability of car affects the mode choice on journeys to the station. Secondly, the effect of passengers’ perception of the station and of the journey to the station on the overall perception of traveling by rail is estimated. The results show that most of the passengers choose walking, bicycle and public transport to get to or from the railway station and that the availability of a car does not have a strong effect on the choice of access mode to the station. The quality of the station and the access/egress facilities was found to have an important effect on the general perception of traveling by rail.
Article
This study models the choices of Dutch railway users. We find a steeper negative distance effect on the utility of departure stations accessed by the non-motorized modes of walking and bicycle as compared to the motorized modes of car and public transport. Availability of parking places and bicycle standing areas have a positive effect on the choice of departure railway stations accessed by car and bicycle, respectively. Public transport frequency has a positive whereas travel time has a negative effect on the choice of departure stations accessed by public transport. The derived rail service quality index (RSQI), which provides a measure of rail accessibility to all other stations, has a significant and positive effect on the choice of departure stations accessed by all modes. The outcome of this paper can be used to develop a comprehensive railway accessibility indicator for neighbourhoods, for hedonic pricing studies.
Article
The propensity to travel by rail, and not, for example by car, can be considered to be a factor of the rail service offered, the access to it and the characteristics of the population served. Efforts to increase rail use usually focus on the rail service itself while the accessibility of the rail network receives less attention. In this context, the paper has two broad aims. First, to evaluate how important the 'access-to-the-station' part of a rail journey is to passengers in their overall satisfaction with the rail journey and second, to investigate the balance between characteristics of the service, the access to it and the population served in determining rail use in different parts of the rail network. The analysis is carried out for the Netherlands. To achieve the first aim, we use the Dutch Railways customer satisfaction survey and apply principal component analysis and derived importance techniques to assess the relative importance of accessibility in determining the overall satisfaction with the rail journey. For the second aim, we use regression analysis to explain, at the Dutch postcode level, the propensity to use rail. We find that satisfaction with the level and quality of the access to the station is an important dimension of the rail journey which influences the overall satisfaction from that journey and that the quality and level of accessibility is an important element in explaining rail use. The conclusion reached is that in many parts of the rail network improving and expanding access services to the railway station can substitute for improving and expanding the services provided on the rail network and that it is probably more cost efficient when the aim is to increase rail use. These parts of the network are mainly in the periphery where the current level of rail service is relatively low.
Article
The fundamental dilemma in attempts to make urban development less dependent upon mobility by car is the inability of alternatives to match the quality of accessibility provided by private motorized transport. Failure to recognize this means that bringing about environmentally more sustainable urban mobility patterns is only possible at economic, social, and political costs that are unacceptable in most societies. In this paper we identify and discuss ways out of this dilemma, in the form of solutions that pursue the goal of increasing both sustainability and accessibility. We start by contending that what people ask is not a generic mobility, but rather opportunities to participate in spatially disjointed activities. Accordingly, accessibility should be defined as the amount and the diversity of 'spatial opportunities' that can be reached within a certain amount of time. Solutions to the accessibility - sustainability dilemma building upon this perspective (that is, planning concepts, policy measures) have been the object of recent research at the Universiteit van Amsterdam and are discussed and we look for, and find, evidence of the feasibility of these solutions in the actual trends in the Amsterdam urban region. Some policy implications of the findings are discussed.
BikePRINT, presentation for Colloquium Vervoersplanologisch Speurwerk (CVS) 20/21
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Integrated Transport: From Policy to Practice
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Sustainable Railway Futures. Issues and Challenges
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Chapter 3: urban travel and transportation system characteristics: a system perspective
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Gecombineerd gebruik van fiets en openbaar vervoer, Verwachte effecten op de vervoerwijzekeuze van optimale fietsbeschikbaarheid in voor-en natransport, Delft. Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, 1994. Feiten over het fietsen in Nederland. Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat
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Feiten over het fietsen in Nederland
  • Waterstaat Ministerie Van Verkeer En
Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, 2000. Feiten over het fietsen in Nederland.
Typologie et évolution des logiques de choix modal chez les actifs motorisés urbains
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Kiezen voor kwaliteit, Aanbevelingen voor beter OV in de Randstad
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OV-bureau Randstad, 2013. Kiezen voor kwaliteit, Aanbevelingen voor beter OV in de Randstad.
Waiting Experience at Train Stations: Theory and Practice Potentie multimodaal vervoer in stedelijke regio's, DBR-notitie Nr
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Cities and Regions as Self-Organizing Systems: Models of Complexity. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers
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Allen, P.M., 1997. Cities and Regions as Self-Organizing Systems: Models of Complexity. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Amsterdam. Bertolini, L., 2012. Integrating mobility and urban development agendas: a manifesto. In disP -Plan. Rev. 188 (1), 16-26.
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John Wiley and Sons, UK. OV-bureau Randstad
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Potentie multimodaal vervoer in stedelijke regio’s, DBR-notitie Nr
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Land-Use Transport Interaction: State of the Art. Berichte aus dem Institut für Raumplanung 46
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The bicycle as a feedering mode
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Gecombineerd gebruik van fiets en openbaar vervoer, Verwachte effecten op de vervoerwijzekeuze van optimale fietsbeschikbaarheid in voor- en natransport
  • Waterstaat Ministerie Van Verkeer En