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Effect of Wheat Bran Supplement with Sugarcane Bagasse on Growth, Yield and Proximate Composition of Pink Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus djamor)

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This study evaluated the effect of supplementing different levels of wheat bran with sugarcane bagasse on the production of pink oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamor) and find out their yield and proximate composition. The sugarcane bagasse was mixed at spawning with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of wheat bran supplement and arranged in a complete randomized design with three replications, three spawn packets in each replication and six treatments. Result showed significantly (P<0.01) different, the highest mycelium running rate was observed on 40% and lowest on 0% due to using different levels of wheat bran supplement. Number of days from stimulation to primordia initiation and harvest, sugarcane bagasse supplemented with 30% wheat bran took longer time (5.5 days) for primordia and (5 days) to harvest, while 20% took shorter time (6.8 days) to full colonization. 10% supplement provided highest result in term of average number of primordia/packet (176.3), fruiting body/packet (77.6) and weight/fruiting body (5.3 g). The growth of pileus and stipe were significantly (P<0.05 (stipe length, pileus thickness) and P<0.01 (diameter)) different, being highest diameter on 30%, stripe length on 10% and pileus thickness on 40%. The yields of pink oyster mushroom showed significantly (P<0.01) different result, biological yield, economic yield, dry yield, biological efficiency and cost benefit ratio were obtained higher with 10% wheat bran supplement. The maximum moisture content was determined on 50%, dry matter, ash on 20% and protein content, crude fiber on 30%. 50% supplement was accounted for the highest amount of nitrogen, iron and phosphorus, whereas the quantity of calcium, magnesium and zinc were higher on 20%, Potassium on 40% and sulfur on 30% supplement. Thus, 10% wheat bran supplementation with sugarcane bagasse proved to be a viable option to produce pink oyster mushroom due to economical effectiveness while any supplementation above this level might reduce the yield of mushroom significantly.
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American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2015, Vol. 3, No. 6, 150-157
Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfst/3/6/2
© Science and Education Publishing
DOI:10.12691/ajfst-3-6-2
Effect of Wheat Bran Supplement with Sugarcane
Bagasse on Growth, Yield and Proximate Composition of
Pink Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus djamor)
M. T. Hasan1, M. H. A. Khatun2,*, M. A. M. Sajib3, M. M. Rahman4, M. S. Rahman1, M. Roy4,
M. N. Miah1, K. U. Ahmed1
1Department of Biochemistry, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
2Department of Food Technology & Rural Industries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
3Department of Food Technology, Engineering and Nutrition, Lund University, SE Lund, Sweden
4Department of Food Engineering and Tea Technology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, Bangladesh
*Corresponding author: suavekobita@gmail.com
Abstract This study evaluated the effect of supplementing different levels of wheat bran with sugarcane bagasse
on the production of pink oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamor) and find out their yield and proximate composition.
The sugarcane bagasse was mixed at spawning with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of wheat bran supplement
and arranged in a complete randomized design with three replications, three spawn packets in each replication and
six treatments. Result showed significantly (P<0.01) different, the highest mycelium running rate was observed on
40% and lowest on 0% due to using different levels of wheat bran supplement. Number of days from stimulation to
primordia initiation and harvest, sugarcane bagasse supplemented with 30% wheat bran took longer time (5.5 days)
for primordia and (5 days) to harvest, while 20% took shorter time (6.8 days) to full colonization. 10% supplement
provided highest result in term of average number of primordia/packet (176.3), fruiting body/packet (77.6) and
weight/fruiting body (5.3 g). The growth of pileus and stipe were significantly (P<0.05 (stipe length, pileus thickness)
and P<0.01 (diameter)) different, being highest diameter on 30%, stripe length on 10% and pileus thickness on 40%.
The yields of pink oyster mushroom showed significantly (P<0.01) different result, biological yield, economic yield,
dry yield, biological efficiency and cost benefit ratio were obtained higher with 10% wheat bran supplement. The
maximum moisture content was determined on 50%, dry matter, ash on 20% and protein content, crude fiber on
30%. 50% supplement was accounted for the highest amount of nitrogen, iron and phosphorus, whereas the quantity
of calcium, magnesium and zinc were higher on 20%, Potassium on 40% and sulfur on 30% supplement. Thus, 10%
wheat bran supplementation with sugarcane bagasse proved to be a viable option to produce pink oyster mushroom
due to economical effectiveness while any supplementation above this level might reduce the yield of mushroom
significantly.
Keywords: wheat bran, sugarcane bagasse, pink oyster mushroom, proximate composition, supplementation,
pleurotus djamor, biological efficiency
Cite This Article: M. T. Hasan, M. H. A. Khatun, M. A. M. Sajib, M. M. Rahman, M. S. Rahman, M. Roy,
M. N. Miah, and K. U. Ahmed, Effect of Wheat Bran Supplement with Sugarcane Bagasse on Growth, Yield
and Proximate Composition of Pink Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus djamor).” American Journal of Food Science
and Technology, vol. 3, no. 6 (2015): 150-157. doi: 10.12691/ajfst-3-6-2.
1. Introduction
Bangladesh is an agrarian based country with increasing
number of population; available land for cultivation is
decreasing day by day in order to accommodate vast
population. Using conventional agricultural methods it is
hard to fulfill the demand of food supply for this increased
number of population. Now, we have to increase intensive
use of land to increasing crop production. But it is very
difficult in countries like Bangladesh due to weather
condition, natural calamities and other barriers. At this
time, we could meet our protein need from fish as well as
energy from rice which is two more staple food of Bangladesh.
In last decade, the fish production decreased considerably
and we had to meet our protein need from vegetable
source i.e. pulse. But now-a-days this is also much more
expensive and it’s a high time to find out an alternative
source of protein as well as to introduce methods to
increase production per unit area with the vertical use of
land. Mushroom, which is a highly nutritious, delicious,
medicinal and economically potential vegetable can be a
solution to this.
Mushrooms are large reproductive structures of edible
fungi belong to the class of Basidiomycetes or Ascomycetes.
Approximately 0.3 million varieties of mushrooms are
identified. Among them which are fully edible and have
no toxic effect are to be considered as edible mushroom.
Out of 2000 species of prime edible mushrooms about 80
American Journal of Food Science and Technology 151
have been grown experimentally, 20 cultivated commercially
and 4-5 produced on industrial scale throughout the world
[1]. The vegetative part of mushroom consists of thread
like long thin mycelium which under suitable condition
forms fruiting body or sporocarps. This fruiting body is
used as edible mushroom.
Oyster mushrooms are the easiest and least expensive
commercial mushrooms to grow because they are well
known for conversion of crop residues to food protein [2].
Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is an edible
mushroom having excellent fragrant and taste and its
cultivation on crop residues is considered as potential
source of income, an alternative food production,
provision of employment, and for recycling of agricultural
wastes. The market for mushrooms has been reported to
be on a continuous growth due to the interest in their
culinary, nutritional, health benefits and their potential for
use in waste management [3]. Pink oyster mushroom
comes with the scientific name Pleurotus djamor var.
roseus that has a light to dark pink colored cap depending
upon the strain and growing conditions.
Figure 1. Pink oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamor) [4]
Primordia and young mushrooms are bright pink but
become less intensely colored as the mushroom matures.
The color disappears entirely after cooking. The Pink
oyster mushroom is one of the fastest growing Pleurotus
species and can readily colonize on any kind of
agricultural waste including wheat or paddy straw,
sawdust, sugarcane bagasse. The fruit body formation also
takes very less time as compared to all other Pleurotus spp.
Report showed that oyster mushrooms are one of the
most delicious foods due to their high nutritional value,
very good taste and medicinal value [5]. The low calorie
and cholesterol free mushroom diets also display certain
medicinal properties. Mushroom reduces the diabetic on
regular feeding [6]. It also reduces the serum cholesterol
in human bodies which reduces hypertension [7]. Mushroom
inhibits the growth of tumor and cancer. Edible mushrooms
have been treated as important tool in modern medicine
for their medicinal values. Oyster mushroom contains 19-
35% protein on dry weight basis as compared to 7.3% in
rice, 13.2% in wheat and 25.2% in milk [1]. It is rich in
essential minerals and trace elements [8]. Mushrooms are
source of Niacin (0.3 g) and Riboflavin (0.4 mg).
Mushroom is a good source of trypsin enzyme. It is also
rich in iron, copper, calcium, potassium, vitamin D and
folic acid. Mushrooms are valuable health food, which are
low in calories, high in vegetable proteins, zinc, chitin,
fiber, vitamins and minerals. [9]
Substrate plays an important role in the yield and
nutrient content of oyster mushroom. The substrates on
which mushroom spawn (Merely vegetative seed materials)
is grown, affects the mushroom production. [10] A remarkable
variation observed in nutritional content of oyster mushroom
in different substrates [11]. Mushroom cultivation has
been shown to exploit the natural ability of fungi to bio-
divert solid waste generated by industry and agriculture
into food and therefore many agricultural and industrial
wastes can be utilized as substrates for production of Pleurotus
species [12]. The mushroom mycelia requires specific
nutrients for its growth and the addition of supplements
increases mushroom yield by providing specific nutrients
for the mycelium growth [13]. Cereal bran rich in protein
is usually added to the substrate in P. ostreatus cultivation
to stimulate mycelia growth and increase the yield of
mushroom [14]. The objective of this work was to
evaluate the effects of wheat bran supplementation on the
growth and productivity of pink oyster mushroom, with a
view to know the physio-chemical characteristics of pink
oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamor).
2. Material and Methods
The experiment was carried out at the laboratory of
Department of Biochemistry and Mushroom Culture
House (MCH), Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University,
Dhaka-1207. Pleurotus djamor, the most cultivated pink
oyster mushroom in Bangladesh was used to perform this
study.
2.1. Sample Collection
Mother culture of Pink Oyster Mushroom was collected
from National Mushroom Development and Extension
Center (NAMDEC), Savar, Dhaka.
2.2. Varietal Characteristics of Pink Oyster
Mushroom
Pink oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamor) is
characterized by the rapidity of the mycelial growth and
high saprophytic colonization activity on cellulosic
substrates. Their fruiting bodies are shell or spatula shaped
with pink color. If the temperature increases above 32°C,
its production markedly decreases.
2.3. Design of Experiments
Six different experiments with six treatments with three
replications were conducted to achieve the desired
objectives. The treatments were as follows:
T1: Sugarcane bagasse supplemented + wheat bran@ 0%
(Control)
T2: Sugarcane bagasse supplemented + wheat bran @ 10%
T3: Sugarcane bagasse supplemented + wheat bran @ 20%
T4: Sugarcane bagasse supplemented + wheat bran @ 30%
T5: Sugarcane bagasse supplemented + wheat bran @ 40%
T6: Sugarcane bagasse supplemented + wheat bran @ 50%
The experiment was laid out in single factor
Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The experiment
included six treatments with three replications and three
spawn packets in each replication.
2.4. Substrate Preparation
Spawn packets using different levels of supplements
were prepared separately. With spawn preparing substrate;
152 American Journal of Food Science and Technology
different supplements (at the different rate on dry weight
basis) and CaCO3 (1 g per packet) was added. The
measured materials were taken in a plastic bowl and
mixed thoroughly by hand and moisture was increased by
adding water. Moisture was measured by using the
moisture analyzer and adjusted the moisture content at
65%.
2.4.1. Preparation of Spawn Packets
The mixed substrates were filled into 9×12 inch
polypropylene bag at rate 750 g. The filled polypropylene
bags were prepared by using plastic neck and plugged the
neck with cotton and covered with brown paper placing
rubber band to hold it tightly in place.
2.4.2. Sterilization, Inoculation and Mycelium running
in Spawn Packets
The packets were sterilized about 1 hrs and then these
were kept for cooling. After cooling, 5g mother spawn
were inoculated into the packets in the laminar airflow
cabinet and were kept at 20-22°C temperature until the
packets become white with the mushroom mycelium.
After completion of the mycelium running the rubber band,
brown paper, cotton plug and plastic neck of the mouth of
spawn packet were removed and the mouth was wrapped
tightly with rubber band. Then these spawn packets were
transferred to the culture house.
2.4.3. Cultivation of Spawn Packet
Two ends, opposite to each other of the upper position
of plastic bag were cut in "D" shape with a blade and
opened by removing the plastic sheet after which the
opened surface of substrate was scraped slightly with a tea
spoon for removing the thin whitish mycelial layer. Then
the spawn packets were soaked in water for 15 minutes
and invested to remove excess water for another 15
minutes. The packets of each type were placed separately
on the floor of culture room and covered with paper. The
moisture of the culture room was maintained 80-85%
relative humidity by spraying water 3 times a day. The
light around 300-500 lux and ventilation of culture house
was maintained uniformly. The temperature of culture
house was maintained 22°C to 25°C. The first primordia
appeared 2-4 days after scribing depending upon the type
of substrate. The harvesting time also varied depending
upon the type of substrate.
2.4.4. Collection of Produced Mushrooms
Pink oyster mushrooms matured within 2-3 days after
primordia initiation. The matured fruiting body was
identified by curial margin of the cap. Mushrooms were
harvested by twisting to uproot from the base.
2.5. Growth and Yield Analysis of Oyster
Mushroom
The parameters measured were number of contaminated
bags, number of days for substrate colonization, mushroom
pileus diameter (cm), stipe length (cm), thickness of pileus
and stripe (cm), total mushroom yield (g), biological
efficiency (BE) and proximate composition and their
mineral content.
2.6. Proximate Composition Analysis of
Oyster Mushroom
The moisture content, dry matter, total fat, ash and
carbohydrate content were determined by the standard
AOAC method [15] and the estimation of total protein
was made by method described by Ronald and Ronald
[16]. Crude fibre was estimated by the process of
Ranganna [17].
2.7. Elementary Composition Analysis
In order to investigate the mineral content of oyster
mushroom the main elements including Nitrogen, Sulphur,
potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc and phosphorus
were determined based on the methods of AOAC [15,18].
2.8. Statistical Analysis of Data
The data for the characters considered in the present
experiments were statistically analyzed following the
Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and Randomized
Complete Block Design (RCBD) method. The analysis of
variance was conducted and means were compared
following least significant difference (LSD) test at 1% and
5% level of probability for interpretation of results.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Mycelium Running Rate (cm)
Mycelium running rate per day (MRR) for each type of
substrates was measured after the mycelium colony
crossed the shoulder of the packet. The linear length was
measured at different places of packet. The mycelium
running rate of oyster mushroom greatly influenced with
the supplement of wheat brans in different levels. The
highest running rate was observed in 50% (0.96 cm) and
in 0% (0.72 cm). The other treatments varied significantly
over control.
3.2. Time Required from Stimulation to
Initiation of Priomordia
The time from stimulation to primordia initiation ranged
from 3.33 days to 5.50 days. The highest time from stimulation
to primordia initiation was observed in 30% (5.50 days).
Duration of primordia initiation to first harvest of oyster
mushroom was significantly lower as compared to control
where no supplement was used and the duration required
for total harvest of oyster mushroom increased with the
level of supplement used. In the present study, the time
required for total harvest also decreased with the levels of
supplements increased compared to sugarcane bagasse alone.
3.3. Time Required from Priomordia Initiation
to Harvest
The lowest time from primordia initiation to harvest
was in 20% (3.39 days) and the highest time from primordia
initiation to harvest was observed in 30% (5.00 days)
followed by 50% (4.50 days). Spawn running pinhead
formation took 7-8 days and fruiting body formed after 3-
5 days, sporocarps harvested after 10-12 days. A comparison
of the data among different treatments is shown on Table 1.
American Journal of Food Science and Technology 153
Table 1. Growth and Time of full Colonization of Pink Oyaster Mushroom on Wheat Bran
Treatments
Mycelium running rate in spawn
packet (cm)
Time from Stimulation to
Priomordia Initiation (days)
Time from Priomordia Initiation to
Harvest (days)
T1 (0%)
0.72e
3.333b
4.220b
T2 (10%)
0.78d
3.333b
4.167b
T3 (20%)
0.87c
3.387b
3.390c
T4 (30%)
0.91b
5.500a
5.000a
T5 (40%)
0.96a
4.000b
4.333b
T6 (50%)
0.79d
4.167b
4.500ab
CV (%)
0.71
13.57
6.76
Level of Significance
**
**
**
LSD (0.05)
0.028
0.9763
0.5241
Means followed by same letter significantly different at 1% or 5% level of significance. NS Not significant * Significant at 5% level; ** Significant at
1% level.
3.4. Average Number of Primordia/Packet
The highest average number of primordia/packet was
observed in 10% (176.3) followed by 20% (159.0), 30%
(148.0) and 50% (146.0) and the lowest average number of
primordia/packet were in 0% (75.33). The number of
primordia and the average yield significantly varied with
the substrates used in production of oyster mushroom.
3.5. Average Number of Fruiting Body/Packet
The highest average number of fruiting body/packet
was observed in 10% (77.67) followed by 30% (69.67)
and the lowest average number of fruiting body /packet
were in 50% (49.00). The number of primordia increased
with the levels of supplement and continued up to a
certain range and decline thereafter. In the present study
the average number of fruiting body in creased up to 10 %
of cow dung used as supplement and decreased thereafter.
3.6. Average Weight of Individual Fruiting
Body
The average weight of individual fruiting body in
different treatment ranged from 2.167 g to 5.283 g. The
highest average weight of individual fruiting body was
observed in 10% (5.283 g) and the lowest average weight
of individual fruiting body was in 30% (2.167 g). The
effect of supplementation on the weight of fruiting body
was comparatively higher ranged from (5.02g to 7.01g)
which may be due to environmental conditions or growing
season [19]. Table 2 shows the effect of different levels of
wheat bran with sugarcane bagasse on the yield
contributing characters of the studied mushroom.
Table 2. Effect of different levels of wheat bran with sugarcane bagasse on the yield contributing characters
Treatments
Avg. no of primordia/packet
Avg. no of fruiting body/packet
Avg. wt. of individual fruiting body (g)
T1 (0%)
75.33 b
55.33a
5.127 a
T2 (10%)
176.3 a
77.67a
5.283 a
T3 (20%)
159.0 a
64.33a
4.017 ab
T4 (30%)
148.0 a
69.67a
2.167 c
T5 (40%)
116.0 ab
65.33a
3.860 abc
T6 (50%)
146.0 a
49.00a
3.150 bc
CV (%)
24.80
24.80
24.76
Level of Significance
*
ns
*
LSD (0.05)
61.72
28.68
1.772
Means followed by same letter significantly different at 1% or 5% level of significance.
NS Not significant * Significant at 5% level; ** Significant at 1% level.
3.7. Effect on Dimension of Fruiting Body
The highest average length of stipe was observed in the
treatment 10% (1.940 cm) and the lowest length and
diameter in 50% (0.996 cm and 0.60 cm) respectively. The
highest average diameter of stipe was observed in 30%
(1.15 cm). The length of stipe of oyster mushroom on
different substrates varied from 1.93cm to 2.97cm and the
diameter ranged from 0.74cm to 1.05cm. 30% wheat bran
supplement showed the highest average diameter (6.53 cm)
of pileus and the lowest in 50% (5.68 cm). The highest
average thickness of pileus was observed in 50% (0.616
cm) and the lowest in 10% (0.380 cm). The diameter of
pileus ranged from 4.85 cm to 8.95 cm and thickness of
the pileus ranged from 0.45cm to 0.70cm due to different
substrates. The results are shown on Table 3.
Table 3. Effect of different substrates on the dimension of fruiting body of pink oyster mushroom
Length of stipe (cm)
Diameter of stipe (cm)
Diameter of pileus (cm)
Thickness of pileus (cm)
1.6201ab
0.72d
5.82d
0.38b
2
1.940a
0.86c
5.98c
0.46b
1.917a
0.97b
6.27b
0.46b
4
1.393ab
1.15a
6.53a
0.43b
1.200b
0.82d
6.34b
0.61a
6
0.9967b
0.78e
5.96c
0.45b
0.6559
0.086
0.128
0.1286
*
**
**
*
23.84
1.03
1.01
14.75
Means followed by same letter significantly different at 1% or 5% level of significance.
NS Not significant * Significant at 5% level; ** Significant at 1% level.
154 American Journal of Food Science and Technology
3.8. Biological Yield
The supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with wheat
bran had great effect on biological yield. The highest
biological yield was acounted for 10% (379.5 g) and
lowest in 30% (154.7 g). The highest yield of Oyster
mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) with the substrate
composed of 20% rice husk. The highest biological yield
was 247.3g/packet and the trend of economic yield
corresponded with different supplements at different level.
3.9. Economic Yield
The supplementation of sugarcane bagasse with wheat
bran increases the economic yield over control. The
highest economic yield was recorded under treatment 10%
(386.6 g) and lowest in 30% (151.9 g). The yield of
Pleurotus ostreatus responded with the levels of
supplements used with sawdust and increased with the
level of supplementation and declined thereafter.
3.10. Dry Yield
The dry yield of the oyster mushroom, grown on
sugarcane bagasse responded significantly in terms of dry
yield with the different levels of supplement (wheat bran).
The dry yield of mushroom was higher in 10% (12.47.40
g) and minimum in 0% (8.637 g). The diameter of pileus
increased the quality and yield of mushroom and highest
dry yield from mango sawdust and the range of dry yield
from 4.28 g to 29.98 g.
3.11. Biological Efficiency
The highest biological efficiency was calculated in
treatment 10% (50.59%) and lowest in 30% (20.62 %).
The biological efficiency for different substrates ranged
from 35.2 to 60.9 % and its differs due to combined
supplements with basal ingredient that results better
mushroom quality as well as Biological efficiency.
3.12. Cost Benefit Ratio
The highest cost benefit ratio was calculated in
treatment 10% (5.02) and lowest 0% (ratio 4.22) was. The
other treatments differed significantly in terms of cost
benefit ratio. The performances of substrates were
significantly differed based on benefit cost ratio, the
highest cost benefit ratio of 6.50 with wheat straw. Results
related to cost benefit ratio is provide on Table 4.
Table 4. Effect of different levels of wheat bran with sugarcane bagassee on the yield, biological efficiency and cost benefit ratio
Treatments
Biological yield (g)
Economic yield (g)
Dry yield (g)
Biological efficiency (%)
Cost benefit ratio
T
1
(0%)
156.2c
154.1c
8.637f
36.893b
4.22f
T
2
(10%)
379.5a
386.6a
12.47a
50.593a
5.02a
T3 (20%)
299.2b
293.2b
9.700e
39.890b
4.71c
T4 (30%)
154.7c
151.9c
11.34c
20.62c
4.37e
T
5
(40%)
255.4b
252.0b
10.70d
34.053b
4.86b
T
6
(50%)
276.7b
272.1b
11.82b
20.827c
4.48d
CV (%) 16.32 16.16 0.66 16.32 0.153
Level of Significance ** ** ** ** **
LSD (0.05)
75.29
73.99
0.1286
10.04
1.70
Means followed by same letter significantly different at 1% or 5% level of significance.
NS Not significant * Significant at 5% level; ** Significant at 1% level.
3.13. Effect on Proximate Composition A graphical presentation showing the effects of different
treatment on proximate composition is provide on Figure 2
as well as the data table can be seen on Table 5.
Table 5. Effect of different levels of wheat bran with sugarcane bagassee on chemical composition of pink oyster mushroom
Treatments
Moisture
(%)
Dry matter
(%)
Protein
(%)
Lipid
(%)
Ash
(%)
Carbohydrate
(%)
Crude fiber
(%)
0% 90.3
abc
9.630
cd
19.44
f
5.870
b
7.890
f
54.70
a
20.24
e
10% 89.85
c
9.530
d
23.5
e
6.343
a
8.757
d
49.01
b
22.65
c
20%
90.33ab
10.02a
25.6c
3.580f
9.510a
38.54d
21.37d
30%
90.10bc
9.190e
30.4a
3.893e
8.950c
36.97e
24.88a
40%
90.52ab
9.870ab
27.8b
4.353c
9.177b
42.55c
23.67b
50%
90.66a
9.720bc
24.5d
4.193d
8.230e
33.45f
21.23d
CV (%)
0.29
0.85
0.41
1.62
0.68
1.70
0.40
Level of Significance
*
**
**
**
**
**
**
LSD (0.05)
0.4744
0.1522
0.1908
0.1409
0.1151
1.317
0.1627
Means followed by same letter significantly different at 1% or 5% level of significance.
NS Not significant * Significant at 5% level; ** Significant at 1% level.
3.13.1. Moisture Content
The moisture content of the fruiting body shows
significant difference. The moisture percent ranged from
89.85% to 90.66%. The highest moisture percent was
observed in treatment 50% (90.66%) and lowest in 10%
(89.85%). The moisture content of oyster mushroom was
grown from 87 to 87.5% on different substrates.
3.13.2. Dry Matter Content
The dry matter percentage of the fruiting body shows
significant difference. The highest dry matter was
observed in 20% (10.02 %) and lowest in 30% (9.190 %).
There are no significant differences among the treatments
when cow dung used as supplement.
American Journal of Food Science and Technology 155
Figure 2. Effect of wheat bran supplements with sugarcane bagasse on
the approximate composition of pink oyster mushroom (Dry weight basis)
3.13.3. Protein Content
The content of protein varied from 19.44 from 30.46%
(w/w) in the mushroom grown on sugarcane bagasse with
different levels of wheat bran. The highest content of
protein was found in treatment 30% (30.46 %) and lowest
in 0% (19.44 %). The protein content of oyster mushroom
was 27.2% on an average.
3.13.4. Lipid Content
The lowest lipid percentage was accounted for
treatment 20% (3.58 %) and highest in 10% (6.34 %). The
result of the present study showed that the lipid content of
the mushroom decreased as the supplements added with
the substrates.
3.13.5. Ash Content
The highest percentage of ash was observed in the
treatment 20% (9.51) and lowest in 0% (7.89). The range
of ash content was 8.28 to 9.02% in Pleurotus spp. In the
present study the ash content is as high as 12.80 might be
due to the newly introduced varieties.
3.13.6. Carbohydrate Content
The lowest percentage of carbohydrate was counted
under treatment 50% (33.45) and the highest in 0% (54.70).
Related rresearch showed that carbohydrates content
varies from 39.82 to 42.83% of in Pleurotus spp [20].
3.13.7. Crude Fiber Content
The highest percentage of crude fiber was found in 30%
(24.88) and lowest in 0% (20.24). The findings of this
present study is similar to other findings ranging from
22.87g/100g to 23.29g/100g of fiber in Pleurotus spp [20].
3.14. Effect on Elemental Content
3.14.1. Nitrogen Content
The highest percentage of nitrogen content (g/100gm)
was counted under treatment 50% (4.99) and lowest
nitrogen in 0% (3.59). The rest of the treatments were
statistically similar in respect to percent nitrogen content.
The findings of the present study match with other
research that analyzed for various nutritional parameters
and found that the range was 4.22 to 5.59 % of nitrogen on
dry matter basis in fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom [21].
3.14.2. Phosphorus Content
The highest percentage of phosphorus content
(g/mg/100gm) was counted under treatment 50% (1.077).
The rest of the treatments were statistically similar but the
lowest in 30% (0.913). But research found 0.97%
phosphorus, in oyster mushroom grown on sugarcane
bagasse based substrates [11].
3.14.3. Potassium Content
The highest proportion of potassium content (g/100gm)
was counted under treatment 40% (1.567) and lowest 0%
(1.190). On the other hand literature shows that 1.3%
potassium found in oyster mushroom grown on sawdust
based substrates [11].
3.14.4. Calcium Content
The maximum percentage of calcium content (mg/100g)
was counted under treatment 20% (23.54) and in 40%
(21.19). The findings of the present study match with the
study that found 22.15 to 33.7 mg/100g of calcium in
different oyster mushroom varieties [20].
3.14.5. Magnesium Content
The highest percentage of magnesium content
(mg/100g) was counted under treatment 20% (21.05) and
lowest in 0% (18.45). The rest of the treatments were
statistically similar but differed significantly over control
in respect to percent magnesium content. Literature shows
that 13.4 to 20.22 mg/100g of magnesium in different
oyster mushroom varieties [19]. (2).
3.14.6. Sulfur Content
There was no statistical difference among the
treatments in terms of percent sulfur content. But the
highest percentage of sulfur was counted under treatment
30% (0.04300) and the lowest in 0% (0.02300).
3.14.7. Iron Content
The maximum percentage of iron content (g/100g) was
counted under treatment 50% (43.58) and lowest in 0%
(40.52). 33.45 to 43.2 mg/100g of iron are found in
different oyster mushroom varieties in other research [20].
3.14.8. Zinc Content
The highest percentage of zinc content (g/100g) was
counted under treatment 20% (16.98) and lowest iron in
30% (14.45). This was more or less similar to other studies
[20]. A comparison of the results can be retrieved from
Table 6.
3.15. Correlation Study
A significant and positive correlation between average
number of fruiting body and biological yield was observed
when wheat bran was supplemented with sugarcane
bagasse (Figure 3). The relationship showed a quadratic
equation as y = 3.223x+48.75 (R2 = 0.143**). Where y =
biological yield and x = average number of fruiting body.
The majority of total variation in biological yield of the
oyster mushroom can be explained by this equation. The
R2 value indicated that 14.30% of biological yield of Pink
oyster mushroom (Pleurotus djamor) was attributed to the
average number of fruiting body.
156 American Journal of Food Science and Technology
Table 6. Effect of different levels of wheat bran with sugarcane bagassee on elemental contents of pink oyster mushroom
Treatments
N
(%)
P
(%)
K
(%)
Ca
(%)
Mg
(%)
S
(%)
Fe
(%)
Zn
(%)
0%
3.59d
0.95bc
1.19d
21.24e
19.29d
0.023a
40.52d
14.75 d
10% 4.23
c
1.07
a
1.55
a
23.08
b
18.45
e
0.032
a
42.30
b
16.55
b
20%
4.56b
1.01ab
1.39c
23.54a
21.05a
0.030 a
43.57a
16.98 a
30%
4.07c
0.91c
1.44bc
22.15d
20.24b
0.043 a
41.54c
14.45 e
40%
4.85a
1.04a
1.56a
21.19e
19.44c
0.035 a
42.19b
15.56 c
(50%)
4.99a
1.07a
1.51ab
22.78c
20.34b
0.025 a
43.58a
14.65 de
CV (%)
2.36
3.95
3.83
0.19
0.38
7.15
0.33
0.87
Level of Significance ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
LSD (0.05) 0.1908 0.08136 0.09965 0.08136 0.1409 0.05753 0.2508 0.2441
Means followed by same letter significantly different at 1% or 5% level of significance.
NS Not significant * Significant at 5% level; ** Significant at 1% level.
Figure 3. Relationship between average numbers of fruiting body with
biological yield as influenced by different levels of wheat bran
supplemented with sugarcane bagasse
A highly significant and correlation between average
weight of individual fruiting body and economic yield was
observed when wheat bran was supplemented with
sugarcane bagasse (Figure 4). The relationship between
average weight of individual fruiting body and economic
yield could be expressed by the equation y = 32.79x +
122.6 (R2 = 0.188*) where y = economic yield and x =
average weight of individual fruiting body. The R2 value
indicated that 18.80% of economic yield of pink oyster
mushroom (Pleurotus djamor) was attributed to the
average weight of individual fruiting body.
Figure 4. Relationship between average numbers of fruiting body with
biological yield as influenced by different levels of wheat bran
supplemented with sugarcane bagasse
4. Conclusion
The effect of 10% wheat bran as supplement with
sugarcane bagasse were higher on growth, yield, biological
efficiency and benefit cost ratio (BCR) of pink oyster
mushroom (Pleurotus djamor) that required shorter days
to full colonization as compared to the other treatments . It
also proved to be better in terms mycelial running rate,
length of stipe, average weight of individual fruiting body
as well as average number of primordia and fruiting body.
Sugarcane bagasse as supplement with wheat bran also
had a great effect on proximate composition and mineral
content of Pleurotus djamor. In this experiment more than
one treatment performed better in case of benefit cost ratio.
Therefore, 10% wheat bran supplemented with sugarcane
bagasse can be recommended to pink oyster mushroom
growers. In addition, it will be an economically effective
due to highest yield and abundant availability throughout
the year.
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374.
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Fruits and vegetables are specially valued in human diet as these contain micronutrients, fiber, potassium, vitamin C, which work as antioxidants within the body as well as bio-functional components. Minerals and heavy metals content of ten tropical fruits namely Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota), Stone-apple (Aegle marmelos), Indian- gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica), Guava (Psidium guajava), Bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi), Elephant-apple (Dillenia indica), Tamarind fruit (Tamarindus indica), Mango (Mangifera indica), Litchi (Litchi chinensis), Strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa) were determined according to standard methods to address their concentration. Results of this study suggest that the selected tropical fruits are rich source of minerals. Tamarind fruit is an ample source of iron, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Highest amount of manganese found in Mango, 06.16 ± 1.19 mg. Highest amounts of copper, zinc and sodium found in Guava, 19.30 ± 2.12 mg, 2.07 ± 0.15 mg and 62.78 ± 1.24 mg, respectively. Highest amount of iron, potassium, calcium and magnesium found in Tamarind fruit, 2.80 ± 1.43 mg, 621.00 ± 3.26 mg, 75.00 ± 2.41 mg and 90.00 ± 1.80 mg, respectively. However, heavy metals namely arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and chromium content of ten tropical fruits were determined to assess their concentration as these days rarely any food item is spared from the malicious practice of food adulteration. The consequences of this study indicate that these tropical fruits could be potentially used in alleviating micronutrients deficiency especially for the rural populace as a potent source of minerals and the daily intake of heavy metals through fresh fruits may not constitute a health hazard for consumers because the concentrations were below than the recommended daily intake of these metals but consumers should be aware of taking fresh fruit as these amounts can be harmful if the fruits are taken in large quantities.
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Fruits and vegetables are highly valued in human diet as these contain micronutrients, fiber, potassium, vitamin C, which act as antioxidants within the body as well as bio-functional components. Physico-chemical properties, minerals, vitamin-C, minerals and trace elements and heavy metals content of eight tropical fruits {four different Banana varieties namely Bangla kola (Musa spp.), Chapa kola (Musa spp.), Sabri kola (Musa spp.), Sagor kola (Musa oranta) and four other varieties of local fruits namely Bullock's Heart (Annona reticulata L.), Lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), Indian Persimmon (Diospyros malabarica), Dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus)} were determined according to standard methods to address the nutritional composition. Results of this study suggest that the selected tropical fruits are excellent source of vitamin C, one of the major natural antioxidant, trace minerals. Vitamin-C content was ranged from 10.00 ± 1.14 mg to 217.90 ± 3.01 mg/100 g of edible portion of fruits. Highest amount of copper and zinc was found in Chapa kola (Musa spp.), 0.25 ± 0.05 mg and 0.45 ± 0.08 mg respectively, maximum amount of iron and manganese was found in Bangla kola (Musa spp.), 0.61 ± 0.10 mg and 0.08 ± 0.06 mg per 100 g of edible portion of fruits respectively. Crude fiber content of selected fruits was ranged from 1.38 ± 0.09 g to 2.99 ± 0.10 g per 100 g of edible portion of fruits. These fruits were also good source of potassium, calcium and magnesium but poor source of protein and fat and sodium. Heavy metals were found in few fruit samples, but there concentration was lower than the safe level. As a conclusion, these tropical fruits could be potentially used in alleviating micronutrients deficiency especially for the rural populace as a potent source of natural antioxidants and at the same time people should avoid consuming contaminated fruits considering their hazardous aspects.
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