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Pengaruh Molases Pada Amoniasi Jerami Padi Menggunakan Urea Terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik In Vitro

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Abstract

The effect of molasses on ammoniated straw by using urea on dry and organic matter digestibility as in vitro ABSTRACT. Aimed of this research was to find out the optimal level of molasses addition to improve quality, dry matter and organic matter digestibility of rice straw ammonization process. Materials used were rumen fluid of fistula cattle, grind of rice straw, water, urea and molasses. Research designed used Completely Randomized Design (CRD). As treatments were R0: rice straw 1000 g dry matter + 500 g water + 50 g urea + 0 percent of molasses, R1: R0 + 15 percent of molasses, R2: R0 + 30 percent of molasses. Urea and molasses dissolved in water and then entered into pollybag. All pollybag observe and let for 15 days, each treatment replicated 6 times. Variable measured were dry matter digestibility and organic matter digestibility. Research result showed that ammonization product of NH3, Acidity Level and crude fiber having decreased while crude protein content increased. Variance analysis indicated that treatments had significant effect (P
Agripet Vol 8, No. 2, Oktober 2008
15
Pengaruh Molases Pada Amoniasi Jerami Padi Menggunakan Urea
Terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik In Vitro
(The effect of molasses on ammoniated straw by using urea on dry and organic matter
digestibility as in vitro)
Muhamad Bata
1
1
Fakultas Peternakan, Unsoed Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah
ABSTRACT Aimed of this research was to find
out the optimal level of molasses addition to
improve quality, dry matter and organic matter
digestibility of rice straw ammonization process.
Materials used were rumen fluid of fistula cattle,
grind of rice straw, water, urea and molasses.
Research designed used Completely Randomized
Design (CRD). As treatments were R0: rice straw
1000 g dry matter + 500 g water + 50 g urea + 0
percent of molasses, R1: R0 + 15 percent of
molasses, R2: R0 + 30 percent of molasses. Urea
and molasses dissolved in water and then entered
into pollybag. All pollybag observe and let for 15
days, each treatment replicated 6 times. Variable
measured were dry matter digestibility and organic
matter digestibility. Research result showed that
ammonization product of NH
3
, Acidity Level and
crude fiber having decreased while crude protein
content increased. Variance analysis indicated that
treatments had significant effect (P<0.05) on dry
matter and organic matter digestibility. Orthogonal
polynomial test indicated that level of molasses
increase (P<0.05) of dry matter and organic matter
digestibility linearly. It can be concluded that
addition up to 30 percent in ammoniating of rice
straw using urea can improve quality of
ammonization and increasing dry matter and
organic matter digestibility.
Key words: digestibility, rumen, ammoniation, molases
2008 Agripet : Vol (8) No. 2: 15-20
PENDAHULUAN
1
Jerami padi merupakan limbah pertanian
yang paling banyak tersedia dan sering
digunakan sebagai pakan pada saat persediaan
rumput kurang. Produksi jerami padi bervariasi
yaitu mencapai sekitar 1215 ton per hektar
dalam satu kali panen, atau 45 ton bahan
kering tergantung pada lokasi dan jenis varietas
tanamannya, secara keseluruhan mencapai
128 juta ton untuk luas panen 10,7 juta hektar
(BPS Indonesia, 2005).
Jerami padi merupakan bahan pakan
ruminansia yang tergolong bahan pakan yang
berkualitas rendah, karena jerami padi tersusun
oleh selulosa, hemiselulosa, silika dan lignin.
Maynard et al. (1979) menyatakan bahwa
lignin yang terdapat pada dinding sel
merupakan penghalang bagi kerja enzim yang
mencerna selulosa dan hemiselulosa. Karak-
teristik Jerami adalah tingginya kandungan
serat yang tidak dapat dicerna karena
Corresponding author: muhamadbata@yahoo.com
lignifikasi selulosa yang tinggi sehingga
kecernaannya juga menurun (Nisa et al., 2004).
Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan untuk
meningkatkan kualitas jerami padi, salah satu
upaya yang murah, praktis dan hasilnya disukai
ternak adalah teknik amoniasi. Amoniasi
jerami padi menggunakan urea dapat mening-
katkan kandungan nitrogen (McDonald et al.,
2002), palatabilitas, konsumsi dan kecernaan
pakan (Ahmed et al., 2002). Dosis urea yang
ditambahkan ke dalam jerami jumlahnya
sekitar 4 6 persen dari berat jerami. Dosis
urea yang ditaburkan ke dalam jerami jika
terlalu banyak tidak akan memberikan
pengaruh signifikan terhadap nilai nutrisi pada
jerami (Ikhsan, 2005).
Penggunaan urea pada jerami padi akan
meningkatkan pH jerami amoniasi dan
peningkatan ini tidak hanya menyebabkan
Nitrogen (N) lepas ke lingkungan tetapi juga
menyebabkan ketidakseimbangan antara keter-
sediaan N dan energi pada rumen sekitar 60
70 persen NH
3
yang berasal dari amoniasi
menuju ke atmosfer yang nantinya akan
Pengaruh Molases Pada Amoniasi Jerami Padi Menggunakan Urea Terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik In Vitro (Dr. Sc. Agr. Ir. M. Bata, MS)
16
menyebabkan penipisan lapisan ozon (Taiwo et
al., 1995; Dass et al., 2001).
Upaya untuk mengatasi permasalahan
tersebut bisa dilakukan dengan penambahan
asam organik, namun demikian tidak mengun-
tungkan karena asam organik mahal. Alte-
rnatif lain adalah menggunakan bahan pakan
sumber karbohidrat fermentable, bahan pakan
tersebut diharapkan sebagai media atau sumber
energi bagi mikroba asam laktat. Mikroba
memanfaatkan NH
3
dan juga memproduksi
asam laktat yang dapat bereaksi dengan NH
3
.
Penggunaan NH
3
yang optimal dapat mening-
katkan kandungan protein kasar selain itu
dengan kondisi asam juga mudah melong-
garkan ikatan lignoselulosa yang pada akhirnya
berdampak positif pada aktifitas mikroba
rumen. Salah satu jenis bahan karbohidrat
fermentable tinggi dan mudah diperoleh yaitu
molases. Molases merupakan hasil samping
dari pembuatan gula tebu yang mempunyai
kandungan BETN dari bahan kering tinggi.
Molasses digunakan sebagai sumber karbo-
hidrat yang mudah terfermentasi pada ransum
yang kandungan seratnya tinggi, dan yang di
beri urea (Foulkes, 1986). Namun demikian
penggunaan molasses yang berlebihan dapat
berdampak pada metabolism rumen. Tujuan
penelitian in adalah untuk mengetahui berapa
banyak penambahan molasses yang optimal
pada untuk meningkatkan kualitas amoniasi
jerami padi sehingga dapat meningkatkan
kecernaan bahan kering dan bahan organik.
Manfaat yang diharapkan adalah mengopti-
malkan pemanfatan jerami padi sebagai
pengganti hijauan dan mengurangi insiden
keracunan pada ternak maupun peternak serta
permasalahan lingkungan akibat tinggi
amoniak yang dihasilkan dari amoniasi yang
menggunakan urea saja.
MATERI DAN METODE PENELITIAN
Materi Penelitian
Materi yang digunakan adalah cairan
rumen sebagai sumber inokulum yang diambil
dari sapi fistula bangsa Peranakan Fries
Holstein yang sedang laktasi ke II dan diberi
pakan yang terdiri dari hijauan dan konsentrat
dengan perbandingan bahan kering 50 : 50
dengan konsumsi bahan kering 3% dari bobot
hidup. Sapi tersebut dipelihara di Experimental
Farm Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Jenderal
Soedirman. Materi lain adalah jerami padi,
urea, air, dan molases.
Alat dan bahan yang digunakan sebagai
berikut : (1) Alat untuk amoniasi jerami padi,
antara lain: alat pemotong (pisau/gunting), alat
penggiling (blender), timbangan, ember,
tempat penyimpanan, tali pengikat dan plastik;
(2) Alat untuk in vitro antara lain: tabung
fermentor, Shaker Water Bath yang diatur pada
suhu 39
0
C, pipet, sentrifuge, karet pentil,
termos air, corong, kain penyaring, kertas
saring whatman 41, tabung erlenmeyer, tabung
gas CO
2
, termometer, pH meter; (3) Alat untuk
analisis kecernaan bahan kering dan bahan
organik yaitu oven, tanur, cawan porselin,
kertas saring whatman 41, desikator, tim-
bangan analitik. Bahan kimia yang digunakan
untuk uji in vitro adalah larutan McDougall’s,
CO
2
, HgCl
2
atau H
2
SO
4
pekat, larutan pepsin-
HCl 0,3% dan aquades.
Metode Penelitian
Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan metode
eksperimental secara in vitro yang dirancang
menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap
(RAL). (Steel dan Torrie, 1993). Setiap perla-
kuan di ulang 6 kali, perlakuan yang diuji
adalah :
R
0
= 1000 g BK Jerami padi + Urea 5% + Air
50% + Molases 0%
R
1
= 1000 g BK Jerami padi + Urea 5% + Air
50% + Molases 15%
R
2
= 1000 g BK Jerami padi + Urea 5% + Air
50% + Molases 30%
Peubah yang diamati dalam penelitian ini adalah kandungan nutrient, produksi ammonia, pH pasca amoniasi dan kecernaan bahan kering dan bahan organik menurut petunjuk Tilley and Terry (1963).
Analisis proksimat, bahan kering dan
bahan organik terhadap substrat dan residu
dilakukan menurut petunjuk AOAC (1990).
Data yang diperoleh dianalisa menggunakan
analisis ragam. Jika terdapat pengaruh perla-
kuan maka dilanjutkan dengan uji orthogonal
polinomial (Steel and Torrie,1993).
HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN
Kualitas jerami padi amoniasi
Komposisi kimia hasil amoniasi jerami
padi dengan molases maupun tanpa molases
ditera dalam Tabel 1. Kandungan serat kasar
jerami amoniasi semakin menurun sejalan
dengan bertambahnya level molases. Ini
menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan urea dan
penambahan molases pada proses amoniasi
Agripet Vol 8, No. 2, Oktober 2008
17
jerami padi mampu merenggangkan ikatan
lignoselulosa dan hemiselulosa, selain itu juga
suasana asam dari fermentasi molases oleh
bakteri asam laktat mempermudah reng-
gangnya ikatan tersebut.
Cheeke (1999),
menyatakan bahwa Kandungan serat kasar
mengalami penurunan karena teknik amoniasi
dengan menggunakan urea sebagai sumber
NPN dapat menghancurkan ikatan-ikatan
lignin, selulosa, hemiselulosa dan silika yang
merupakan faktor penyebab rendahnya daya
cerna jerami padi bagi ternak.
Kandungan serat kasar jerami amoniasi
semakin menurun sejalan dengan bertam-
bahnya level molases. Hal ini disebabkan
perlakuan urea dan penambahan molases pada
proses amoniasi jerami padi mampu mereng-
gangkan ikatan lignoselulosa dan hemiselulosa,
selain itu juga suasana asam dari fermentasi
molases oleh bakteri asam laktat memper-
mudah renggangnya ikatan tersebut.
Cheeke
(1999) menyatakan bahwa kandungan serat
kasar mengalami penurunan karena teknik
amoniasi dengan menggunakan urea sebagai
sumber NPN dapat menghancurkan ikatan-
ikatan lignin, selulosa, hemiselulosa dan silika
yang merupakan faktor penyebab rendahnya
daya cerna jerami padi bagi ternak.
Data hasil pengukuran NH
3
dan pH
pasca amoniasi ditera dalam gambar 1.
Penambahan molases dalam proses amoniasi
jerami padi mampu memperbaiki kualitas
amoniasi dilihat dari menurunnya produksi
NH
3
dan pH pasca amoniasi. Produksi NH
3
menurun dari 12,2 mM (R0) menjadi 5,2 mM
(R2) dan pH dari 7 (R0) menjadi 5,5 (R2). Hal
tersebut disebabkan karena molases merupakan
karbohidrat fermentable yang digunakan
sebagai energi bagi pertumbuhan bakteri
pembentuk asam laktat dan asam laktat yang
dihasilkan bereaksi dengan NH
3
. Selain itu
bakteri juga dapat memfiksasi NH
3
sebagai
sumber N untuk perkembangbiakannya se-
hingga mengurangi jumlah amonia (NH
3
) yang
terlepas. Hal tersebut sesuai dengan penelitian
sebelumnya yang menyatakan bahwa
penggunaan onggok basah yang mengandung
asam laktat sebagai sumber karbohidrat
fermentable pada amoniasi jerami padi dapat
meningkatkan fiksasi NH
3
(Kartika, 2007;
Krisma, 2007; Ridho, 2007). Adanya fiksasi
NH
3
tersebut diperkuat bahwa kandungan
protein perlakuan penambahan molases (R1
dan R2) lebih tinggi dari perlakuan tanpa
penambahan molases (R0) walaupun kandu-
ngan R2 menurun sedikit dari R1 tetapi
penurunannya tidak begitu drastis, hal tersebut
juga membuktikan bahwa penambahan mola-
ses mampu mengikat NH
3
yang lepas. Selain
itu juga Dass et al. (2001) menyatakan bahwa
penambahan asam pada amoniasi jerami padi
terbukti dapat menangkap amonia yang ter-
lepas sebesar 30 persen. Yunus et al. (2000)
menyatakan bahwa penambahan molases pada
silase Clover-grass berfungsi untuk mening-
katkan produksi asam laktat dan menurunkan
asetat dan juga amonia-N.
12.2
7
7.8
6
5.2
5.5
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Rataaan
Produksi
NH3 (mM)
dan pH
pasca
amoniasi
0 15 30
Level Molases (%)
Gambar 1. Rataan Produksi NH
3
dan pH Pasca
Amoniasi
Regresi Linier
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
0 15 30
Level Molases (%)
Kecernaan Bahan Kering
Gambar 2. Kurva Respon Kecernaan Bahan Kering
Y = 29,5904 + 0,1276 X
(r
2
) = 89,52 %
Pengaruh Molases Pada Amoniasi Jerami Padi Menggunakan Urea Terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik In Vitro (Dr. Sc. Agr. Ir. M. Bata, MS)
18
Regresi Linier
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
0 15 30
Level Molases
Kecernaan Bahan Organik
Gambar 3. Kurva Respon Kecernaan Bahan
Organik
Kecernaan bahan kering dan bahan organik
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa
kecernaan bahan kering berkisar dari 29,97 ±
2,66 persen (R0) sampai dengan 33,80 ± 1,72
persen (R2). Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan
bahwa perlakuan penambahan molases dalam
amoniasi jerami padi berpengaruh nyata
(P<0.05) terhadap kecernaan bahan kering
pakan. Uji lanjut orthogonal polinomial me-
nunjukkan bahwa penggunaan molases pada
amoniasi jerami padi mempunyai respon linier
dengan persamaan Y = 29,5904 + 0,1276 X
(r
2
=89,52; r = 0.94616979).
Peningkatan kecernaan amoniasi jerami
padi yang ditambahkan dengan molases
disebabkan karena molases digunakan sebagai
sumber energy untuk berkembangbiakan
bakteri rumen sehingga mampu memanfaatkan
NH
3
. Selain itu suasana asam tersebut mampu
merenggangkan ikatan-ikatan serat yang ada
pada jerami padi, sehingga mikroba rumen
mampu menghidrolisis dan memfermentasi
selulosa, hemiselulosa dan karbohidrat lainnya
yang ada pada jerami tersebut. Amoniasi yang
hanya menggunakan urea juga dapat mereng-
gangkan ikatan-ikatan ester antara lignin dan
hemiselulosa maupun ikatan polisakarida
sehingga memberi peluang mikroba rumen
atau enzim untuk memfermentasi isi sel atau
komponen nutrien lainnya. Hal tersebut
didukung oleh kandungan serat kasar dari hasil
amoniasi yang mengalami penurunan yaitu dari
33,96 persen (R0); 30,65 persen (R1) menjadi
24,25 persen (R2). Data selengkapnya dapat
dilihat pada Tabel 1. Ali et al. (1993)
menyatakan bahwa peningkatan kecernaan
amoniasi jerami padi yang diensilase dengan
Corn Steep Liquor memungkinkan dipengaruhi
renggangnya ikatan-ikatan labil alkali yang ada
diserat jerami padi. Selain itu peningkatan
kecernaan bahan kering juga disebabkan oleh
peningkatan aktivitas mikroba sebagai akibat
peningkatan pengikatan N dari kandungan
protein ransum (Tabel 1) atau sumber N
lainnya.
Tabel 1. Kandungan Nutrien Hasil Amoniasi
dengan Penambahan Molases
Perlakuan
Air
(%)
BK
(%)
% BK
PK (%)
SK (%)
Abu (%)
R
0
33,07
66,93
8,105
33,96
24,22
R
1
33,47
66,53
10,122
30,65
22,77
R
2
33,20
66,80
9,345
24,25
21,71
Amoniasi jerami padi yang langsung
diberikan ternak akan menyebabkan ketidak-
seimbanangan N yang akan menyebabkan
degradasi N tinggi karena dalam jerami padi
mempunyai kekurangan yaitu rendahnya
karbohidrat fermentable sehingga banyak N
yang terlepas yang akan menyebabkan nilai
kecernaan bahan rendah. Oleh karena itu
pemberiannya harus diimbangi dengan karbo-
hidrat fermentable yang akan mengoptimalkan
kinerja mikroba rumen sehingga mikroba dapat
mengkonversikan amoniak menjadi protein
mikroba yang akan meningkatkan nilai
kecernaan bahan. Harini (2008) bahwa pro-
duksi NH
3
mengalami penurunan dan sintesis
protein mikroba mengalami peningkatan seja-
lan dengan peningkatan penambahan molases.
Selain itu juga dilaporkan terjadi penurunan
produksi VFA dan peningkatkan sintesis
protein mikroba. Hasil tersebut membuktikan
bahwa memang pada awal penambahan
molases, VFA dapat diman-faatkan langsung
oleh mikroba rumen sebagai sumber energi
untuk memanfatkan NH
3
sebagai sumber N
untuk sintesis protein mikroba sehingga
nilainya mengalami penurunan. Semakin
rendah VFA berarti semakin banyak pula VFA
yang digunakan sebagai sumber energi oleh
mikroba rumen untuk sintesis protein mikroba.
Oleh karena itu dapat dikatakan bahwa dengan
semakin banyaknya level penambahan molases
yang mengandung karbohidrat fermentable
maka akan menga-kibatkan aktifitas mikroba
rumen menjadi optimal untuk memanfaatkan N
dari jerami padi amoniasi. Ketersediaan
karbohidrat fermentable sebagai sumber energi
pada akhirnya dapat meningkatkan kecernaan
bahan kering.
Agripet Vol 8, No. 2, Oktober 2008
19
Rataan kecernaan bahan organik yaitu
R0: 31,12 ± 2,56; R1: 31,81 ± 2,14 dan R2:
35,13 ± 1,81. Hasil analisis ragam menun-
jukkan bahwa perlakuan penambahan molases
pada amoniasi jerami padi berpengaruh nyata
(P < 0.05) terhadap kecernaan bahan organik
pakan. Uji lanjut orthogonal polinomial
menunjukkan bahwa level penggunaan molases
pada amoniasi jerami menun-jukkan respon
linier dengan persamaan garis Y = 30,6827 +
0,1336 X dengan koefisien determinasi (r
2
)
87,49 persen dan koefisien korelasi (r) =
0.93537319.
Nilai kecernaan bahan organik pakan
pada perlakuan R0 sebesar 30,68 persen
meningkat menjadi 34,69 persen pada perla-
kuan R2. Kecernaan bahan organik maksimal
diperoleh pada perlakuan penambahan 30
persen molases dalam amoniasi jerami padi.
Hal tersebut diduga disebabkan karena material
organik dari molases lebih banyak terfermen-
tasi dibandingkan pada perlakuan tanpa
molases. Kecernaan bahan organik meningkat
disebabkan oleh jumlah mikroba yang mening-
kat sebagai akibat dari tepatnya keter-sediaan
nitrogen yang disediakan oleh amoniasi jerami
padi yang ditambah molases untuk sintesis
protein mikroba. Jumlah mikroba yang bertam-
bah banyak menyebabkan material bahan
organik yang terfermentasi oleh mikroba
rumen menjadi VFA semakin banyak.
Kejadian yang terjadi pada kecernaan
bahan organik serupa dengan yang terjadi pada
kecernaan bahan kering. Ranjhan (1977) me-
nyatakan bahwa kecernaan bahan kering erat
kaitannya dengan kecernaan bahan organik
karena sebagian besar bahan kering terdiri dari
bahan organik, perbedaan keduanya terletak
hanya pada kadar abu. Suwandyastuti (1991)
juga menyatakan bahwa bahan pakan yang
mempunyai kandungan nutrien sama memung-
kinkan kecernaan bahan organik mengikuti
kecernaan bahan keringnya.
KESIMPULAN
Penambahan molases dalam proses
amoniasi jerami padi sampai dengan level 30%
mampu meningkatkan kualitas amoniasi mela-
lui fiksasi NH
3
yang akhirnya mampu
memeperbaiki kandungan nutrien jerami padi,
penurunan pH dan NH
3
pasca amoniasi dan
meningkatkan kecernaan bahan kering dan
bahan organik.
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... Amoniasi yang baik yaitu tidak menunjukkan adanya jamur dan pH yang dihasilkan sekitar 7-8 atau basa. Hal ini mendekati dengan penelitian Bata (2008), bahwa jerami padi yang diberi urea 5% menghasilkan pH sebesar 7,8-5,5 dan semakin tinggi pH jika urea yang digunakan pun tinggi. ...
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This study aimed to determine the effect and optimal levels of urea in ammoniated cassava peel waste on color, aroma, texture, presence or absence of mold, pH, and temperature. This research was conducted on April 6—28th 2021 at the Nutrition and Animal Feed Laboratory, Department of Animal Husbandry, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung. The experimental design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments were cassava peel waste (P0), cassava peel waste with the addition of 1.5% urea (P1), cassava peel waste with the addition of 3% urea (P2), and cassava peel waste with the addition of 4.5% urea (P3 ). The data obtained were analysed using analysis of variance and continued with the Orthogonal Polynomial test. The result of the analysis of variance showed that the urea levels were significantly different in terms of color, scent, fungus, and pH, while texture and temperature were not significantly different. The results of the study on ammoniation of cassava peel waste with the optimal level of urea for color was 3.6%/kg dry matter of cassava peel waste, the optimal urea level for scent variable was 3.44%/kg dry matter cassava peel waste, the optimal urea level for fungus variable was 7.51%/kg dry matter cassava peel waste, and the optimal urea level for pH variable was 4.67%/kg dry matter of cassava peel waste. Keywords: ammoniation, cassava peel, color, aroma, texture, presence or absence of fungus, pH, and temperature
... hal ini diduga karena pemberian level tapioka sudah cukup memberikan cadangan nutrisi yang cukup untuk bakteri asam laktat (BAL) karena kandungan water soluble carbohydrate tepung tapioka yang dicerna oleh BAL sudah cukup banyak untuk dijadikan sumber energi dan berkembangbiak menghasilkan asam laktat. Bata (2008) menyatakan bahwa bahan yang mengandung karbohidrat dapat digunakan sebagai energi bagi pertumbuhan bakteri yang terdapat pada bahan sehingga membentuk asam laktat dan penurunan pH. ...
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan berbagai level tapioka terhadap kondisi kimia (pH, Bahan Kering, N-Amonia, Asam Laktat dan Nilai Fleigh) dan mikrobiologi (Populasi bakteri asam laktat) silase ampas tahu. Bahan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah ampas tahu, tepung tapioka, dan probio-FM. Alat yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah kain pemeras, selotip, pH meter, termometer, plastik bening bervolume 2 kg, karet, tali plastik, baskom, dan timbangan. Metode penelitian ini dilaksanakan dalam 3 tahap yaitu persiapan alat dan bahan, pembuatan silase dan analisis kualitas silase secara fisik. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 4 perlakuan dan 5 ulangan. Perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah berbagai level penggunaan tapioka sebagai akselerator dalam silase ampas tahu yaitu : T0 (0%), T1 (3%), T2 (6%) dan T3 (9%). Data yang dihimpun dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam, apabila terdapat hasil yang berpengaruh nyata pada perlakuan maka dilanjutkan dengan uji DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan tapioka sampai 6% berpengaruh nyata (P<0.05) terhadap Bahan Kering, Nilai pH dan Nilai Fleigh, namun tidak nyata (P>0.05) terhadap kandungan N-Amonia, asam laktat dan populasi bakteri asam laktat silase ampas tahu. Hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan 6% tapioka sebagai akselerator mampu menghasilkan silase ampas tahu berkualitas, yang ditandainya dengan populasi bakteri asam laktat, dan asam laktat yang tinggi, pH asam serta nilai NF yang cukup baik.
... Urea dengan rumus molekul CO (NH 2 ) 2 banyak digunakan dalam ransum ternak ruminansia karena mudah diperoleh, harga murah dan sedikit keracunan yang diakibatkannya dibanding biuret (Hanafi, 2004). Penggunaan urea dalam proses amoniasi jerami dibatasi sampai maksimal 6% (4%-6%) dari berat kering jerami (Bata, 2008), sebab bila terlalu berlebihan dapat menyebabkan keracunan pada ternak. ...
Article
As an effort to improve the knowledge and skills of farmers in rural areas, service activities have been carried out with the topic "Training on Bali Cattle Feed Making Techniques in the Patut Patuh Patju Farmer Group, South Ampenan Village, Ampenan Sub-district, Mataram City". This service activity was held on the grounds that farmers in Ampenan Selatan Village often have difficulty meeting the needs of their livestock for forage, especially during the dry season, so this sometimes has an unwanted negative impact such as the occurrence of cases of death and disease in livestock as a result of declining livestock conditions. This is due to the ignorance of the farmers in an effort to overcome the shortage of forage during the dry season. This community service activity will be carried out with three methods, namely the lecture, written and demonstration methods. With the lecture method delivered on the understanding and explanation of silage and Ammoniation Fermentation (Amofer). Through the written method, it was delivered by giving a brochure containing how to make silage and make Amofer rice straw. Meanwhile, with the demonstration method, the farmers immediately practiced the preservation and processing method with Silage and Amofer technology. Based on the results of monitoring during the activity, the results of the questions and answers and the enthusiasm of the participants, it was seen that the farmers had just realized the importance of the role of nutrition for livestock, were willing to apply feed preservation and processing technology, and it could also be seen that they had no difficulty in adopting the material provided. So overall this activity can be said to be quite successful. Recognizing the limitations of breeders in terms of conservation and feed processing which is an alternative for providing feed in the dry season, the service team suggests that this kind of activity should be continued so that the expected livestock production can be achieved.
... For improving quality, rice straws are treated with urea or calcium hydroxide or by supplementing rice straw with protein result increasing intake and degradability, compared to feeding untreated rice straw alone [8]. The use of ammoniated rice straw using urea ensiled with fermentable carbohydrate sources such as cassava pulp and supplemented with concentrates can optimize the function of the rumen as indicated by increased rumen fermentation products [9], [10], digestibility and nutrient balance, and increased growth of local cattle of Ongole Crossbred Cattle from Java Island [11]. However, there is no information or limited data for native cattle in other islands as described before such as BF, BT, M and SO cattle for fattening using rice straw ammoniation and concentrate. ...
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Native beef cattle breeds in Indonesia such as Bali Timor (BT), Bali Flores (BF), Madura (M), and Sumba Ongole (SO) come from different regions with different types of feed because of the different environmental ecosystems. This situation results in native cattle breeds having different microbial compositions and functions. The purpose of this study was to find native cattle breeds fed ammoniated rice straw and concentrate having the highest productivity and feed efficiency. The material used was four native beef cattle breeds with a weight of 210-250 kg and age of 3.5-3.7 years. There were ten for each native cattle and they were fed concentrate and ammoniated rice straw. The amount of concentrate fed was 2% of body weight, while ammoniated rice straw was prepared ad libitum. Randomized Block Design with an initial body weight of cattle as a group was used in this research. Covariance analysis showed that the breed of native cattle had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed efficiency (FE), digestibility of dry matter (DMD), organic matter (OMD), neutral detergent fiber (DNDF), acid detergent fiber (DADF) and gross energy (DGE). BF cattle were higher (P <0.05) in nutrient digestibility compared to the other three local cattle breeds and among the three breeds had relatively similar (P > 0.05). In contrast to nutrient digestibility, ADG of SO and M cattle were higher (P < 0.05) followed by BF and BT cattle, respectively. The FC of BT and BF cattle were similar (P > 0.05), but it was high (P < 0.05) compared to M and SO cattle. The conclusion is SO and M cattle have good ability when fattened using ammoniated rice straw and concentrate.
... Urea dengan rumus molekul CO (NH2)2 banyak digunakan dalam ransum ternak ruminansia karena mudah diperoleh, harga murah dan sedikit keracunan yang diakibatkannya dibanding biuret (Hanafi, 2004). Penggunaan urea dalam proses amoniasi jerami dibatasi sampai maksimal 6% (4%-6%) dari berat kering jerami (Bata, 2008) sebab bila terlalu berlebihan dapat menyebabkan keracunan pada ternak. ...
Article
As an effort to improve the knowledge and skills of rural breeders, community service activities have been carried out with the topic "Training on Feed Processing from Agricultural Waste in Moyo Mekar Village of Moyo Hilir Sumbawa." This service activity was held on the grounds that breeders in Moyo Mekar Village often experience difficulties to meet the needs of their livestock for forage, especially during the dry season, so this sometimes has an unwanted negative impact, such as the occurrence of cases of death and disease in livestock as a result of the declining condition of the livestock. This is due to the ignorance of the breeders in their efforts to overcome the shortage of forage during the dry season. This community service activity has been carried out using three methods, namely lecture, written and demonstration methods. With the lecture method, it was conveyed about the understanding and explanation of how to preserve and treat agricultural waste. Through the written method, it is conveyed by giving brochures to the breeder members. Meanwhile, with the demonstration method, the breeders directly practice ways of preserving and treating agricultural waste. Based on the results of monitoring during the activity, the results of questions and answers and the enthusiasm of the participants, it was seen that the new breeders realized how important the role of nutrition was for livestock, the availability of applying preservation and feed processing technology, and it could also be seen that they had no difficulty in adopting the material provided, then Overall this activity can be said to be quite successful. Recognizing the limitations of the breeders in terms of preservation and processing of feed which is an alternative for providing feed in the dry season, it is suggested that this kind of activity should be continued so that the expected livestock production can be achieved.
... Amoniasi merupakan salah satu perlakuan alkali untuk meningkatkan nilai cerna jerami padi. Menurut Bata (2008) jerami padi yang diberi perlakuan urea 4% dan disimpan selama 4 minggu terjadi peningkatan daya cerna dari 35% menjadi 43,6% dan kandungan nitrogen total dari 0,48% e-ISSN: xxxxx-xxxx-xxxx menjadi 1,55%. Langkah yang coba dilakukan adalah dengan memanfaatkan limbah pertanian terutama jerami padi karena Desa Montong Are merupakan daerah pertanian dimana jerami padi sering tidak dimanfaatkan bahkan terbuang. ...
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Teknologi pengolahan pakan merupakan dasar teknologiuntuk mengolah limbah pertanian, perkebunan maupun agroindustri dalam pemanfaatannya sebagai pakan. Pengolahan pakan disini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas, utamanya efektifitas cerna, utamanya untuk ternak ruminansia serta peningkatan kandungan protein bahan. Beberapa alternatif pengolahan dapat dilakukan secara fisik (pencacahan, penggilingan dan atau pemanasan), kimia (larutan basa dan atau asam kuat), biologis (mikroorganisme atau enzim) maupun gabungannya. Pengolahan cara fisik dan biologis memerlukan tenaga dan investasi yang cukup tinggi dan dalam skala besar, sering kali menjadi tidak berjalan. Cara kimia dengan “amoniasi” dirasa merupakan cara yang paling tepat dalam pengolahan ini, karena mudah dilakukan, murah, tidak mencemari lingkungan dan sangat efisien. Pelatihan pembuatan amoniasi jerami dilakukan di Desa Montong Are, Kecamatan Kediri, Kabupaten Lombok Barat bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan teknologi inovasi petani peternak tentang penggunaan jerami padi sebagai pakan dan bagaimana meningkatkan kualitasnya. Kualitas jerami padi termasuk total nitrogen dan daya cerna dapat ditingkatkan dengan teknologi amoniasi menggunakan urea. Penggunaan urea adalah 4% untuk 100 kg jerami padi atau 4 kg untuk 100 kg jerami padi. Kegiatan ini dilakukan pada hari Kamis, 30 Agustus 2018. Metode yang digunakan adalah instruksi langsung dan praktik kepada petani. Hasil dari kegiatan ini menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan para petani telah ditingkatkan dan para petani ingin menerapkan jerami padi yang telah diamoniasi sebagai pakan alternatif untuk ruminansia. Kata kunci: jerami padi, amoniasi urea, kualitas pakan
... Amoniasi merupakan salah satu perlakuan alkali untuk meningkatkan nilai cerna jerami padi. Menurut Bata (2008) jerami padi yang diberi perlakuan urea 4% dan disimpan selama 4 minggu terjadi peningkatan daya cerna dari 35% menjadi 43,6% dan kandungan nitrogen total dari 0,48% menjadi 1,55%. ...
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Full-text available
ABSTRAK. Teknologi pengolahan pakan merupakan dasar teknologiuntuk mengolah limbah pertanian, perkebunan maupun agroindustri dalam pemanfaatannya sebagai pakan. Pengolahan pakan disini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kualitas, utamanya efektifitas cerna, utamanya untuk ternak ruminansia serta peningkatan kandungan protein bahan. Beberapa alternatif pengolahan dapat dilakukan secara fisik (pencacahan, penggilingan dan atau pemanasan), kimia (larutan basa dan atau asam kuat), biologis (mikroorganisme atau enzim) maupun gabungannya. Pengolahan cara fisik dan biologis memerlukan tenaga dan investasi yang cukup tinggi dan dalam skala besar, sering kali menjadi tidak berjalan. Cara kimia dengan “amoniasi” dirasa merupakan cara yang paling tepat dalam pengolahan ini, karena mudah dilakukan, murah, tidak mencemari lingkungan dan sangat efisien. Pelatihan pembuatan amoniasi jerami dilakukan di Desa Montong Are, Kecamatan Kediri, Kabupaten Lombok Barat bertujuan untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan teknologi inovasi petani peternak tentang penggunaan jerami padi sebagai pakan dan bagaimana meningkatkan kualitasnya. Kualitas jerami padi termasuk total nitrogen dan daya cerna dapat ditingkatkan dengan teknologi amoniasi menggunakan urea. Penggunaan urea adalah 4% untuk 100 kg jerami padi atau 4 kg untuk 100 kg jerami padi. Kegiatan ini dilakukan pada hari Kamis, 30 Agustus 2018. Metode yang digunakan adalah instruksi langsung dan praktik kepada petani. Hasil dari kegiatan ini menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan para petani telah ditingkatkan dan para petani ingin menerapkan jerami padi yang telah diamoniasi sebagai pakan alternatif untuk ruminansia.______________________Kata Kunci: jerami padi, amoniasi urea, kualitas pakan ABSTRACT. Feed processing technology is the basis of technology for processing agricultural, plantation and agro-industrial waste in its use as feed. Feed processing here aims to improve the quality, especially the effectiveness of digestion, especially for ruminants and to increase the protein content of the ingredients. Some processing alternatives can be done physically (counting, milling and or heating), chemical (basic solutions and or strong acids), biological (microorganisms or enzymes) or a combination thereof. Processing of physical and biological methods requires a high amount of energy and investment and on a large scale, often becomes inoperative. The chemical method with "ammonia" is felt to be the most appropriate way in this processing, because it is easy to do, inexpensive, does not pollute the environment and is very efficient. The training for making ammunition for hay is carried out in Montong Are Village, Kediri District, West Lombok Regency, aimed at increasing the knowledge and technology of farmers' innovations about the use of rice straw as feed and how to improve its quality. The quality of rice straw including total nitrogen and digestibility can be improved by ammoniation technology using urea. The use of urea is 4% for 100 kg of rice straw or 4 kg for 100 kg of rice straw. This activity was carried out on Thursday, August 30, 2018. The method used was direct instruction and practice to farmers. The results of this activity indicate that farmers' knowledge has been improved and farmers want to apply amoniated rice straw as an alternative feed for ruminants.______________________Keywords: rice straw, urea ammoniation, feed quality.
... The area of the rice straw is quite wide and spread, proper management is needed. But rice straw as feed has a limiting factor i.e. low crude protein, high crude fiber, lignin, and cellulose content [1][2][3]. Rice straw contains crude protein about 3.80 % [4] and fiber around 39.81 %, lignin around 15 % [5] and silica about 10 % to 15 % [6,7]. The high fiber content will delay the hydrolysis process by fermentatation, i.e. microbes enzyme in rumen resulting lower absorption [8][9][10]. ...
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The rice straw has potential to be used as an alternative ruminant feed. However, it has limiting factors i.e low crude protein, high crude fiber, lignin, cellulose, and silica content. To overcome the limiting factors, immersion in a solution of alkaline (lime) or fermentation by using inoculum microbial cellulolytic and lignocellulolytic ( Trichoderma mutan AA1 and Aspergillus niger .). The research method was experimental, with four treatments and repeated five times. Completely randomized design was used and if there are differences among treatments a further test with DMRT was carried out (level 1 % and 5 %). These treatments were T0: The rice straw without t fermentation; T1: Fermented with A. niger ; T2: Fermented with T. mutan AA1; T3: Fermented with a combination A. niger and T. mutan AA1. The results showed that the rice straw fermented with A. niger and T. mutants AA1 very significantly increased the cellulose and decreased lignin content. The highest cellulose reached on T3 (20.297 %) followed by T2 (18.191 %), T1 (17.712 %) and T0 (16.747 %), respectively. While the lowest content of lignin reached on T3 (14.793 %), followed T2 (26.063 %), T1 (26.421 %) and T0 (38.164 %).
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Rice straw was an agricultural by product that has potential to be used as forage for ruminant. Ammoniated is technology, commonly to improve the nutrient quality of rice straw. Adding microorganisms to improve the process of rice straw ammoniation could be applied. The aim of this study was to improve the quality of ammoniated rice straw by adding Bacillus circulans and to know the best concentration of B. circulans in ammoniation process. Completely Randomized Design with five treatments and four replications: 1) rice straw (control, RS); 2) ammoniated rice straw with 0% B. circulans (ARS); 3) ammoniated rice straw with 0.075% B. circulans (ARS 0.075): 4) ammoniated rice straw with 0.1% B. circulans (ARS 0.1) and 5) ammoniated rice straw with 0.125% B. circulans (ARS 0.125). Incubation process was applied for 21 days. Results showed that ammoniated rice straw with B. circullans had improved the quality of rice straw such as increased ammonia (NH3). Ammoniated rice straw with 0.1% B. circulans was the best treatment by increased organic matter (OM) and decreased Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) content. Added 0.1% B. circulans also increased crude protein (CP), RFV index and ammonia (NH3). Rice straw ammoniated by adding 0.1% B. circulans could improve nutrient quality and fiber utility of rice straw biomass.
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The experiment was conducted for a period of 56 days with twelve Bangladeshi bull calves of average body weight of 127.20±11.34 kg. The calves were divided into 3 groups having 4 animals in each. The animals were fed urea-treated rice straw designated as A) 4% urea-treated rice straw, B) 4% urea+4% soybean-treated rice straw and C) 4% urea+6% soybean-treated rice straw. In addition, all the animals were supplied 2 kg green grass, 350 g Til-oil-cake and 100 g common salt per 100 kg body weight of animals. Straw was treated with 4% urea solution and soybean meal at 4 and 6% were added to treated straw and kept for 48 h in double layer polythene bags under anaerobic condition. Urea treatment improved crude protein (CP) content of rice straw from 2.68 to 8.70% and it was further increased by 10.74 and 12.12% with the addition of 4 and 6% soybean meal. Dry matter (DM) intake (kg) was higher (p<0.05) in C (4.2) followed by B (4.1) and A (4.0). Crude protein intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in group B and C than group A. Total live weight gains were 20.2, 24.8 and 25.6 kg for calves of group A, B and C respectively (p<0.01). The addition of soybean meal to treated rice straw did not affect the coefficients of digestibility of DM, OM, EE and NFE. However, CP and CF digestibility were significantly higher in group B and C (p<0.05). The values for digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible ether extract (DEE), digestible nitrogen free extract (DNFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in diet C and B in comparison to diet A, but there were no significant difference in digestible organic matter (DOM) and digestible crude fibre (DCF) value among the groups. It may be concluded that 4% urea treated rice straw can be fed to growing bull calves with 2 kg green grass and a small quantity of concentrate without any adverse effect on feed intake and growth. Moreover, soybean meal at 4 and 6% can be added to urea treated rice straw at the time of treatment for rapid hydrolyzing of urea, which resulted an improvement in nutrient digestibility and better utilization of rice straw for growth of growing bull calves.
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Influence of different levels of corn steep liquor (CSL) on chemical composition of urea treated wheat straw (UTWS) and its dietary effect on nutrient intake, digestibility, milk yield and its composition were studied. The 5% UTWS was ensiled with 0, 3, 6 and 9% CSL on dry matter (DM) basis. Total nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of UTWS ensiled with 0, 3, 6 and 9% CSL increased linearly with the increasing level of CSL. Increase in NDF content was due to increased neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen contents. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 35% UTWS ensiled without CSL (control), 45 (WS45), 55 (WS55) and 65% (WS65) UTWS ensiled with 9% CSL, respectively. Dry matter, NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes by lactating buffaloes fed diets containing varying levels of UTWS ensiled with or without CSL remained similar across all treatments. However, DM, NDF and ADF intakes as a percent of body weight and digestible DM, NDF and ADF intakes were higher in animals fed WS65 diet compared to those fed other diets. Apparent DM, crude protein (CP), NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher in diets containing UTWS ensiled with CSL compared to control. These differences may be attributed to higher rates of degradability of UTWS ensiled with 9% CSL than that ensiled without CSL. The 4% fat corrected milk and CP were statistically higher with WS65 diet compared to other diets. Percent milk fat, solid not fat and total solid remained unchanged across all treatments.
Wheat straw was treated on laboratory scale with 4% urea at a moisture level of 50% along with different amount of HCl to fix various levels of ammonia (30, 40, 50 and 60%) and stored for 4 weeks. Result revealed a significant (p<0.01) increase in CP content of the samples where HCl was added The CP content of the straw was only 7.8%, which increased to 14.1, 16.0, 15.0 and 15.2% with the addition of acid. Similarly the concentrations of NDF, ADF and hemicellulose was significantly different due to HCl addition. The level of HCl recommended was to trap 30% ammonia as there was not significant difference in CP content of straw due to addition of 4 levels of acids. Results of in vivo experiment conducted on nine buffaloes divided randomly into three groups of three animals in each revealed no significant difference in the intake of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose in group I (ammoniated straw), group II (HCl treated ammoniated straw) and group III (HCl treated ammoniated straw + 1 kg barley grain), but the intake of CP was significantly (p<0.01) more in group III as compared to other 2 groups. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP was significantly (p<0.01) more in groups where HCI treated straw was fed as compared to only ammoniated straw fed group, whereas there was no significant difference in the digestibility of NDF, ADF and cellulose in 3 groups. Intake was significantly higher of nitrogen (p<0.05), calcium (p<0.01) and phosphorus (p<0.01) in group III as compared to other two groups. Animals in all the 3 groups showed positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance, though the balances of all the 3 nutrients were significantly higher in group III as compared to other 2 groups. Rumen fermentation study conducted in 3 rumen fistulated buffaloes in 3x3 latin square design offering the same 3 diets as in group I to III revealed that rumen pH was alike statistically in 3 groups and at various time intervals, The mean ammonia-N concentration was significantly (p<0.01) more in group II and III as compared to group I. The mean TVFA concentration (mM/100 ml SRL) were 6.46, 7.84 and 8.47 in 3 groups respectively and different statistically (p<0.01). Results revealed no significant difference in the activities of carboxy methylcellulase, urease or protease at both the time of sampling (0 h and 4 h) in all the 3 groups of animals. (Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 2001. Vol 14, No. 11 : 1542-1548).
To standardize proper formulation of urea and molasses, the former to increase crude protein content of tropical grass and the latter for improving its silage quality, we examined the fermentation quality of silage of fresh and wilted napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) with different levels of urea and molasses with or without lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Silage was made of napiergrass with conditions of fresh young (Exp. 1),young wilted for half day (Exp. 2) and fresh mature (Exp. 3). Chopped plant materials of about 1cm length were ensiled into a laboratory silo and incubated for one month at 25°C. The treatments were the combination of 0, 0.2 and 0.6% of urea and 0, 2 and 5% of molasses (fresh material basis) with or without LAB inoculation. After opening the silo, pH, organic acids, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and total nitrogen (TN) were determined. Addition of molasses significantly (p<0.01) lowered pH values in three experiments. Though molasses addition increased lactic acid production even at a higher level of urea, pH values at 0 and 2% molasses were significantly increased by urea in fresh and wilted young silages, but in fresh mature silage it occurred only when molasses was not added. VBN/TN at 0.6% urea were decreased significantly by the highest molasses in three experiments. Significant increases in TN by the increasing of urea addition were observed at all levels of molasses in wilted young and fresh mature silages. In conclusion, a combination of 5% molasses and 0.6% urea could improve the nutritive and fermentation qualities of napiergrass silage under young, wilting and mature conditions.
Article
Three step-wise experiments were conducted to determine the ability of feeds in trapping excess ammonia from urea treated barley straw. In the first experiment, shredded barley straw was treated with urea (60 g kg−1 DM) at 300 and 400 g moisture kg−1 in laboratory silos. They were stored in incubator at 26 °C for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. This was used to estimate the extent of urea hydrolysis and nitrogen retention. The second experiment measured the outflow rate of ammonia by blowing in air through treated straw into dilute H2SO4. The third experiment assessed the ability of grass and citrus pulp silages in holding ammonia.Urea hydrolysis was extensive (90–100%) but independent of moisture and treatment period (P > 0.05). About 74% of nitrogen added in the form of urea in treated straw was lost during aeration. Fermentation enhanced the ammonia holding capacity of citrus pulp. This was further improved with time and addition of molasses. It's nitrogen content was increased from 11.7 to 21.2 g kg−1 DM. This decreased to 16.0 g kg−1 DM about 5 h after gassing.Improvement in the nitrogen content of feeds with gassing suggest that dry matter and nitrogen intake by ruminants can be enhanced.
Article
A simple technique for the determination in vitro of the dry- or organic-matter digestibility of small (0·5 g) samples of dried forages is described. It involves incubation first with rumen liquor and then with acid pepsin. Using 146 samples of grass, clover and lucerne of known in vivo digestibility (Y), the regression equation Y= 0·99 X– 1·01 (S.E. ± 2·31) has been calculated, where X=in vitro dry-matter digestibility. This technique has been used for the study of the digestibilities of plant breeder's material, of the leaf and stem fractions of herbage and of herbage consumed by animals.
Effect of Urea Treatment of Wheat Straw on Disappearance and rate of passage through Reticulo-Rumen of Buffalo
  • C S Ali
  • M Sarwar
  • R H Siddiqi
  • R F Hussain
  • T Khaliq
  • S U R Chaudhry
  • A R Barque
Ali, C.S., Sarwar, M., Siddiqi, R.H., Hussain, R. F., Khaliq, T., Chaudhry, S.U.R. and Barque, A.R., 1993. Effect of Urea Treatment of Wheat Straw on Disappearance and rate of passage through Reticulo-Rumen of Buffalo. Pak. Vet. J. 13: 74