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Human short-term exposure to cell phone radiation causes changes in blood cell morphology

  • Energy Medicine University
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Does Short-term Exposure
to Cell Phone Radiation
Affect the Blood?
Blood is the essence of life. It is useful to examine the
blood under a microscope to look for any changes
in reaction to a stressor. In this exploratory study,
ten human subjects were exposed to a cell phone radia-
tion stressor. Their blood was examined under a dark-eld
microscope to look for changes, if any, from the cell phone
microwave frequency. We also investigated whether there
might be a protective effect on the blood from consuming
the recommended Weston A. Price Foundation (WAPF)
The world has rapidly changed over the past few decades with the advent
of cell phones. Almost seven billion cell phones are now used worldwide,
of which over ve billion are in developing countries. As of January 2014,
90 percent of American adults possessed cell phones, and 58 percent of
the users had smart phones.1 Due to increasing affordability along with the
many useful functions that cell phones provide, the explosion in cell phone
usage is not surprising. Indeed, they have become the leading technology
in the brave new wireless world of communications.
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The Russians
many studies
on the
effects of
and as a
have adopted
a more
guideline that
is sixty to one
hundred times
lower than
U.S. guidelines.
Are cell phones completely safe? There is
no consensus on how to address this question
with its various complex, multifaceted issues.
There are many factors to consider, such as the
duration of exposure, a person’s age, whether the
radiation dose is cumulative or not, the long-term
use over a person’s lifetime, pregnancy, and how
cell phones are being used—and stored—on the
Cell phones and smart phones are powered
by microwaves, part of the electromagnetic spec-
trum, which range from 300 to 3,000 megahertz
(MHz). The key frequencies used in cell phone
communications worldwide are 850, 900, 1,800,
and 1,90 0 MHz (1.9 gi gaH z). (A microwave oven,
which heats water and the water in food, works
on 2450 MHz.)
Cell phone and smart phones both receive
and emit these frequencies, smart phones emit-
ting far more than the old clam-shell type of cell
phone. The radiation coming to them comes from
cell phone towers, which is ambient, meaning
that it is everywhere, and we are all receiving
it, all the time. The radiation coming out of the
smart phone is of much higher intensity than
that coming from cell phone towers, unless one
happens to be located very close to a tower.
There are guidelines in the U.S. designated
for short term exposure to cell phone frequency
microwaves, dened in terms of the Specic
Absorption Rate (SAR), the rate at which energy
is absorbed by the human body when exposed
to radio frequency radiation. Specically, the
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in
the United States requires that phones sold have
a SAR level at or below 1.6 watts per kilogram
(W/kg) taken over the volume containing a mass
of one gram of tissue that is absorbing the most
signal.2 This is a guideline, not a standard, and
is solely based on heat generation by cell phone
microwaves, because microwaves are well
known to produce tissue heating. However, be-
sides heating, there are other types of biological
effects from the extremely low-level microwaves
associated with cell phones, called “nonthermal”
effects. The Russians have conducted many
studies on the nonthermal effects, which they
consider more signicant than thermal effects,
and as a result, they adopted a more stringent
guideline that is sixty to one hundred times lower
than U.S. guidelines.
Studies on the nonthermal biological effects
of microwaves have taken place mostly outside of
the U.S., on animals, cell cultures and humans,
for the past several decades. This research has
found effects at every level of organization of
life, from behavior and performance of humans
and animals, down to the molecular and genetic
levels. Studies show effects on the brain, stem
cells, reproductive organs, enzyme activities,
and sperm quantity and quality in animals and
humans. More specically, changes in calcium
transport from cells, altered enzyme activities,
increased cell proliferation of human epithelial
cells, increase in breaks in DNA in animal cells,
changes in brain blood ow in healthy people,
leakage of proteins through the blood brain bar-
rier, and decreased sperm count and motility are
some changes that have been documented. Two
re cent re views on nont hermal ef fects su m mari ze
the ndings from over two hundred scientic
papers.3, 4
Many of these nonthermal effects are con-
sidered controversial because they have not been
replicated by other researchers or published in
what are considered to be the top peer-reviewed
journals. There is also the paradox that lower
intensity microwaves sometimes produce larger
biological effects than higher intensities, known
as the biological “window” effect. The physical
mechanisms of how low-level microwaves can
cause so many different biological effects are not
well understood. There is no unifying theory that
combines the many reported biological effects
of low-level microwaves to explain the possible
health risks of cell phone radiation exposure.
Most of the studies on cell phone radiation
and biological effects are short-term exposure
studies. But some epidemiological studies sug-
gest that chronic exposure to low-level micro-
waves may increase the risk for cancer and other
tumors. In fact, the World Health Organization
(WHO) International Agency for Research on
Cancer (IARC) has classied radiofrequency
electromagnetic elds as possibly carcinogenic
to humans based on an increased risk for glioma,
a malignant type of brain cancer, and acoustic
neuroma, a benign tumor in the ear area, both
associated with wireless phone use.5 However,
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No formal
examining the
blood of
exposed to
cell phones
have been
found in the
literature to
given the potential twenty-to-thirty year latency
period of cancer development, the effect of cell
phone radiation on cancer risk as well as the risk
for other chronic health problems may not be
fully understood for many years to come.
Exposure to various electronic devices
including cell phones, cell phone towers, DECT
(digitally enhanced cordless telecommunica-
tions) and other cordless phones, and wireless
modems has been found to cause a variety of
symptoms in some people, including headaches,
anxiety and irritability, restlessness, sleep
problems, difculty in concentration, ringing
in the ears, heart palpitations and fatigue. This
is labeled Electro-Hypersensitivity Syndrome
(EHS). In 2011, the World Health Organization
(WHO) estimated that 3-6 percent of the world
population suffered from EHS. It is possible that
the percentage may grow as chronic exposure to
Wi-Fi continues.
Most studies on cell phone radiation have
tested cell cultures and animals rather than hu-
mans. No formal studies examining the blood of
humans exposed to cell phones have been found
in the medical literature to date. A small num-
ber of studies on human lymphocytes, showing
changes in cell nuclei and impaired DNA repair
have been published. In the present study, we
investigated only short-term effects of cell phone
radiation exposure on normal healthy persons.
1. Does the blood as observed under a dark-
eld microscope change after human sub-
jects are exposed to a smart phone for a short
time period?
2. Does eating a mostly WAPF-recommended
diet help protect the blood from the effects
of cell phone radiation?
An exploratory pilot study with ten nor-
mal healthy adult subjects who consumed the
WAPF-recommended diet to varying degrees
was conducted to look for an effect. This study is
an outcome type of design in which each subject
served as his or her own control. A technique
that has been called live blood analysis or whole
blood microscopy was used. Peripheral blood
samples taken from subjects before and after
different types of exposure to a cell phone were
placed under a microscope, photographed, scored
by a trained researcher using a Likert scale, and
compared. These data were analyzed to discover
which of various blood factors may have changed
in relation to exposure condition, diet, subject
age, and personal history of cell phone use. Be-
cause the sample size (N=10 subjects) was very
small, statistical tests were not done.
Prospective subjects were recruited from the
WAPF email list in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Responders were given a background question-
naire to complete to see whether they qualied.
Qualied subjects were normal healthy adults
with no chronic disorders or conditions and who
consumed the WAPF diet to varying degrees. No
prior use of a cell phone was required. Subjects
who fully participated consisted of two males
and eight females ranging from twenty-seven
to seventy-ve years of age, with a mean age
of 53.3 years. Their daily consumption of the
WAPF diet ranged from 20 to 98 percent, with a
range from two to twenty years on the diet, and
an average of 6.1 years on the diet. Eight of the
ten subjects possessed a cell phone, of which six
had a smart phone. The average number of years
that the subjects had used a cell phone was 10.8
years. Cell phone use among them varied from
none whatsoever to twenty years of daily use, and
with usage up to 3.5 hours per day. Subjects spent
an average time of 1.2 hours per day using a cell
phone. One subject claimed some sensitivity to
electrosmog, although she had not been formally
diagnosed with EHS and did not complain of any
symptoms during the trial.
Subjects completed a questionnaire about
their health, diet and personal cell phone habits.
Written informed consent was given by those
who participated in the study. Each subject re-
ceived a modest fee for participating in a three-
hour experimental session.
Live blood analysis involves examination of
a small droplet of fresh capillary blood typically
taken from the ngertip. This is observed under
an optical microscope at magnications from
600 to 1200x. A camera mounted on the micro-
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Each subject
was given
three blood
with three
different cell
scope records digital photographs of the blood
samples. This technique provides information on
the ecology of the blood, sometimes referred to
as the “biological terrain.” Live blood analysis
has traditionally been used in clinical medicine to
look for the presence of certain parasites includ-
ing the malaria organism and the spiral-shaped
bacteria that causes Lyme disease. It is a research
tool sometimes also used in holistic health as-
sessment. The size, shape, variability, and cel-
lular integrity of the red blood cells (RBCs) can
readily be seen, as well as any stickiness and ag-
gregation of the RBCs. The presence and relative
number of white blood cells and their subtypes
are noted, along with the motility (movement)
of these cells. The blood plasma is checked for
platelet aggregates, the formation of brin, the
presence of microbial and parasitic forms, as well
as particulates including cholesterol, crystals,
and various contaminants.
Thi s st u dy utili zed a cust om-bu ilt , dar k-eld
microscope attached to a digital video camera
system with zoom lens linked to a computer
monitor. Software was used to capture and store
microphotographs for subsequent analysis.
The blood specimen was lit by means of light
delivered through ber optics attached to the
microscope condenser to prevent sample heat-
ing. A sterile lancet was used to collect a droplet
of peripheral blood from the ngertip, which
was immediately placed on a glass microscope
slide and covered with a glass cover slip. Oil
immersion lenses at the microscope objective
and dark-eld condenser were used for image
A microphotograph of normal healthy blood
from a person consuming the WAPF diet is
shown in Figure 1. This photograph shows the
blood immediately after it is drawn. There are
round RBCs that appear uniform in size, sepa-
rated from one another, and with no debris in the
blood plasma.
Subjects fasted for at least ve hours and
refrained from exposure to cell phones for four
hours prior to individual appointments in the
study. During their three-hour experimental
session, subjects were allowed to drink only
water. Each subject was given three blood tests
associated with three different exposure condi-
tions as described below. Each blood sample was
evaluated and scored for different blood factors.
These factors include the shape of red blood cells
and membrane distortion; state of aggregation
of the red blood cells, including clumping, rou-
leaux formation (cells stuck together in rolls) and
stickiness; white blood cell shape and motility;
and the degree of early clotting factors includ-
ing platelet aggregates and presence of brin. A
Likert scale from 0 to 6 was used to score the
blood factors, in which 0 indicates an absence
of the blood factor, and larger numbers indicate
greater levels of the blood factors observed in
the blood samples. This method has been previ-
ously described in detail in other studies on diet
reported in this journal.6,7
Three blood tests were performed on each
su bject as foll ow s: (1) init ial ly, pr ior to cell phone
exposure (baseline condition); (2) following
exposure to a smart phone in receiving mode
placed in a backpack worn by the subject for 45
minutes (carrying condition); and (3) following
act iv e us e of the cel l phon e for 45 mi nut es (act ive
use condition). These are the two conditions in
which most people use a cell phone. Cell phones
can also be put in "airplane mode," in the sense
that the user cannot make a call or access the
web. However, the phone is still in communica-
tion with the nearest cell phone tower.
Ten or more typical blood microphotographs
were made for each of the three exposure con-
ditions. During the active use condition, the
subjects continually used the cell phone’s com-
munication functions to access the internet and
to make phone calls. Also, in the active use con-
dition, subjects placed the cell phone near their
Figure 1: Healthy blood showing round,
separate RBCs and clean blood plasma.
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Nine out of
ten test
subjects showed
blood changes
due to cell
phone radiation
Figure 2: Baseline condition showing normal,
healthy blood from 75-year-old female subject.
heads at least twice for approximately ve min-
utes each time during phone calls. During other
times while making phone calls, subjects used
the speaker phone mode while holding the phone
in one or both hands. Following photographic
analysis of all blood testing, the Likert scale data
were analyzed to see which factors—diet, age,
and personal cell phone habits—correlated with
any observed blood changes.
The cell phone used for subject exposure
was a particular model of a smart phone, and
the same network carrier was used throughout
the study. (Brand and model number of smart
phone and network provider used in the study
are deliberately withheld from this report.) Sub-
jects remained in the laboratory throughout the
experimental sessions. The exposure times and
phone call durations for subjects were timed and
otherwise controlled such that the cell phone ra-
diation exposure for each subject was the same as
possible for each condition. The ambient power
level of radiowaves (including microwaves) in
the laboratory, as measured by a radiofrequency
meter, was typically -45dBm corresponding to
a power density of 18 microWatts per square
meter. No other devices were present that could
be signicant sources of microwaves.
The baseline blood tests of all subjects re-
vealed normal healthy blood in almost all cases
as has been reported previously for those con-
suming the WAPF-recommended diet.6 Figure
2 shows a photograph of normal healthy blood
from a female subject, seventy-ve years old, in
baseline condition. The red blood cells (RBCs)
are mostly circular, although they appear to be
slightly sticky as some cells overlap, and the
plasma is relatively clear.
Figure 3 shows the blood from the same
female immediately after the carrying condition.
The RBCs are entirely stuck together in rouleaux-
type aggregates, which look like rolls of coins.
Figure 4 shows the blood from the same
female 45 minutes later after using the cell phone
in active communication mode. The rouleaux
have dissipated, although the RBCs are still ag-
gregated. Most RBCs are misshapen rather than
round. Many RBCs show spiky projections on
the surface, which are abnormal, spiculed RBCs
called echinocytes. This particular subject,
se ve nty-ve year s old and th e oldest person in the
study, showed the most characteristic changes in
the blood following both exposure conditions.
Figure 3: Carrying condition of 75-year-old
female subject showing all RBCs in rouleaux.
Figure 4: Active use condition of same subject
showing most RBCs are misshapen.
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In a study
exposing mice
to cell phones,
clumped RBCs
were found
after short-term
exposure, and
abnormal RBC
shapes were
observed after
longer exposure
times, which is
similar to
the results
observed in
this study.
Most of the other subjects showed similar but
less clear-cut effects. As another example, Figure
5 shows the blood from a male, age fty-ve, in
baseline condition. The red blood cells (RBCs)
are mostly round and separate, and the plasma
is relatively clear.
Figure 6 shows the blood from the same
male subject immediately following the carry-
ing condition. The red blood cells are observed
to be loosely aggregated. Some of the cells are
no longer round but misshapen.
Figure 7 shows the blood from the same
male subject immediately following the active
use condition. Every RBC appears to be mis-
shapen. Many of the cells show spikes and are
Because subjects were holding the phone
during the active use condition, their ngers re-
ceived considerable microwave radiation doses.
So we compared peripheral blood drawn from the
ngertip as well as from the toe of one female
subject, age fty-ve, in the active use condition
to determine whether the blood changes were lo-
calized or not; see Figures 8 and 9. No difference
between ngertip and toe blood was observed.
Nine out of ten subjects showed observ-
able blood changes due to cell phone radiation
exposure. One female subject, age fty-three,
did not show a signicant effect from exposure
in the study. In general, a particular sequence
of blood changes was observed for cell phone
radiation exposure in which the subjects’ RBCs
rst became sticky and aggregated, and upon
further exposure, for most subjects, the cells
became misshapen. We observed no distinct
change in other blood factors including platelet
ag g regat ion , brin, white bloo d cell morpholog y
and white blood cell motility.
To address the question of whether a higher
percentage of WAPF diet served to protect sub-
jects from blood changes, the Likert scale scores
of the blood factors were grouped together as
follows. Baseline scores were subtracted from
the carrying condition scores and also from the
active use scores to yield net blood factor changes
due to exposure. Then the net scores for rouleaux,
other red blood cell aggregates, and protein link-
age were summed and called “net RBC aggre-
gates.” The scores for RBC membrane distortions
and RBC echinocytes were also added together
and called “net RBC shape changes.” Figures 10
and 11, respectively, show the blood scores for
the carrying condition and the active phone use
Figure 5: Baseline condition of male, age 55,
showing normal, healthy blood.
Figure 6: Carrying condition of same male showing
aggregated cells and a few misshapen RBCs.
Figure 7: Active use condition of same male
subject showing all RBCs are misshapen.
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condition for each of the ten subjects, arranged
in order of percent WAPF diet. In either case,
the blood scores for the subjects show no clear
correlation with the percent WAPF diets. Thus,
it appears that a higher percentage of WAPF diet
does not offer protection against observed blood
changes following short-term exposure to cell
phone radiation.
There is a possible relationship between
the levels of change observed in the blood with
subject age and/or cell phone habits in daily life.
Figures 12 and 13 show levels of blood changes
observed in subjects immediately following the
carrying condition and the active phone use
condition, respectively, as a function of subject
age. It appears that younger subjects show less
aggregated RBCs than older subjects for the car-
rying condition (Figure 12). It also appears that
younger subjects show less aggregated RBCs as
well as less blood cell shape changes than older
subjects for the active use condition (Figure 13).
Figure 14 shows the reported use of cell phone
on the average per day for each subject. In gen-
eral, younger subjects reported using their cell
phones a greater number of hours/day than older
subjects. Unfortunately, in this small study the
distinction between age and cell phone use can-
not be separated.
Figure 15 summarizes the overall observed
effects on the blood from short-term exposure
to cell phone radiation for both the carrying
condition and active use condition. The observed
changes are substantial in magnitude. For the
carrying condition, RBC aggregates dominate,
while RBC shape changes are fewer. For the
active condition, RBC shape changes dominate,
and RBC aggregates, while present, are some-
what less pronounced.
Results show substantial changes in the
blood from short-term cell phone radiation
exposure in nine out of ten human subjects.
RBC aggregation and stickiness were mainly
observed following 45 minutes of exposure to a
smart phone in receiving mode worn by subjects
in a backpack. By contrast, RBC morphologi-
cal (shape) changes including the formation of
echinocytes (spiky cells) were dominant after
subjects actively used the phone for an additional
45 minutes. It appears that RBC stickiness with
clumping is the rst stage of the cell phone radia-
tion effect. Subsequently, the RBC aggregates
tend to break apart, and then cell shape changes
occur, in which echinocytes and other misshapen
cells are observed. Not all subjects showed both
types of changes. The difference in net RBC
aggregates between the carrying and the active
use conditions are not signicant for this small
sample, as indicated by the overlap in the error
bar values in Figure 15. However, the differences
in RBC shape changes between the carrying and
the act ive use cond iti ons appe ar to be signi ca nt.
Such blood morphologies—RBC clumping
and misshapen cells—are frequently observed in
ill persons or those eating less-than-optimal di-
ets.6,7 Echinocyte formation has been associated
with aging RBCs and diseases such as cirrhosis
Figure 8: Active use condition of female subject,
age 55, fingertip blood showing RBCs in rouleaux.
Figure 9: Active use condition of same female sub-
ject, toe blood showing RBCs in rouleaux.
Such blood
blood cell
clumping and
are frequently
observed in ill
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It would be
important to
explore whether
symptoms such
as fatigue
and poor
may result
from the
blood changes
that we
observed in
this study.
of the liver.8 In a study exposing mice to cell
phones, clumped RBCs were found after short-
term exposure, and abnormal RBC shapes were
observed over longer exposure times,9 which is
similar to the results observed in this study.
It is possible that the changes in RBC shape
that we observed may be related to functional
changes in cell membrane permeability. Other
studies have reported changes in RBC mem-
branes following exposure to microwaves, too.
Low-power microwave radiation increased
membrane permeability and destabilized the
cell membrane in rabbit RBCs, and also caused
the shedding of particular membrane proteins.10
Similar effects showing changes in membrane
permeability have been reported for human
RBCs.11 Some, but not all, studies show a loss
of hemoglobin from RBCs irradiated with cell
phone frequency microwaves, indicating greater
membrane fragility.12 However, these are in vitro
studies in which blood taken from the body was
directly exposed to microwaves.
The observation that peripheral blood
taken from a nger and toe of the same subject
showed the same blood changes in response to
cell phone radiation exposure suggests that the
blood changes we observed are systemic. This
deserves further study to investigate whether the
observed blood changes are consistent through-
out the human body.
The blood effects observed in this study
could not conclusively be correlated with the
percentage WAPF diet that subjects consumed.
Thus, it appears that the WAPF diet did not have
a substantial protective effect. However, the per-
centage WAPF diet was self-reported by subjects
and is somewhat unreliable. This study was an
initial small exploratory study and did not com-
pare the WAPF diet to other diets in a controlled
trial. Thus, we cannot draw rm conclusions on
the role of diet.
We did not investigate how long these blood
changes last after the cell phone radiation ex-
posure period ends. However, because subjects
refrained from using a cell phone for four hours
prior to the study, we can surmise that the blood
recovers within four hours. The onset, revers-
ibility, recovery time, and chronicity of these
blood changes need further investigation.
It is probable that the blood changes that
we observed would affect blood circulation.
RBC aggregation has been widely studied, and
its importance is well established in the mi-
crocirculation. RBCs that are stuck together in
rouleaux or other aggregates increase the blood
viscosity, and this affects the passage of RBC
through the microvessels throughout the body.13
RBC shape and deformability are also relevant
to blood ow. The typical round disk shape of
normal RBCs is considered optimum for blood
ow. The shape of the echinocytes might impair
bloo d ow, an d oxygen release fro m echin ocy t es
is known to be impaired.14 It would be important
to explore whether symptoms such as fatigue and
poor concentration, characteristic of EHS, may
possibly result from the blood changes that we
observed in this study.
It is not known whether repeated or chronic
Figure 10. Net blood factor scores for the phone
carrying condition show no clear relation to % WAPF diet.
Figure 11. Net blood factor scores for the active use
condition show no clear relation to % WAPF diet.
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exposure to cell phone radiation produces similar
effects on the blood as observed in this study.
However, we found that older subjects who re-
portedly use cell phones less in daily life than
younger subjects showed greater levels of blood
changes. It is possible that younger subjects may
simply have greater resilience to cell phone radia-
tion than older subjects. It is also possible that
because younger subjects receive more regular
exposure, they have become habituated, i.e., less
sensitive to it. Their reactivity is diminished, and
they may be unable to respond to it appropriately
as a stressor due to various long-term changes
in their bodies from repeated exposure. Further
studies comparing different groups of users by
age and cell phone habit could resolve these is-
This is a small short-term study with ten
subjects tested in single experimental sessions.
Neither experimenter blinding nor control groups
were used. However, it was a preliminary study
designed to look for any acute effects on the
blood. Apparently it is among the rst studies of
its kind to document visual effects on peripheral
blood following short-term human exposure to
cell phone radiation. It achieved its goal. Larger,
controlled studies should be conducted to expand
on these results.
In support of this study, certain controls
were used. Subject fasting, exposure to cell
phone radiation, and exposure to ambient
electrosmog from the local environment were
controlled. An unbiased method of selecting
and photographing the blood specimens near the
sample center to avoid edge effects was used.
The researcher has many years of experience
in blood microphotography and developed a
Likert scale to reliably score blood factors using
a well-trained eye. The blood changes recorded
by microphotography are objective and visually
How can we protect ourselves from cell
phone radiation? Various commercial devices are
being sold with claims of protection. However,
controlled trials on these products are lacking.
They need testing by independent laboratories and publications in peer-
reviewed journals to establish their validity. The method used in this study
could be adapted to test such devices for a protective effect on the blood.
The exposure of over 80 percent of the world’s population to cell phone
radiation makes this a potentially immense problem that needs more public
health champions to raise awareness and educate people. Many users wear
microwave transmitters attached to their heads, or carry cell phones in
pockets or on hips. These devices remain active, even when turned off,
still communicating with the nearest cell phone tower. Pregnant women,
and of course, children, are believed to be the most vulnerable to cell
phone radiation, the latter due to their thinner skulls, developing brains
and other organs.15 Yet half of the children in the U.S. as well as many
children around the world use cell phones regularly.
In light of the se ndings an d th ose from other st u die s on the biological
effects of cell phone frequency microwaves, the evidence suggests that
their safety is uncertain. Meanwhile people may choose to reduce their
Figure 12. Net blood factor scores in subjects after carrying cell phone
vs. subject age.
Figure 13. Net blood factor scores in subjects after
active use of the cell phone vs. subject age.
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exposure to cell phones by changing their habits and usage. The public
should demand more independent testing—outside of the industry. More
funding should be made available to clarify the nonthermal biological ef-
fects of cell phone radiation and to investigate long-term effects, too. This
would help establish appropriate safety standards with a solid scientic
The authors of this study wish to keep their name and afliation con-
Figure 15. Blood changes observed for the whole group, averaged, for
the 2 exposure conditions: carrying and active use. Error bars indicate
standard error.
Figure 14. Cell phone habits for each subject as self-reported daily
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tion Rate For Cell Phones: What it Means for
You. March 12, 2014.
3. Belyaev I. Non-ther mal biological effects of micro-
waves. Microwave Review, Novemb er, 20 05, 13 -29.
4. Be har i J. Biol og ica l re spo nse s of mobil e ph one fre -
quency exposure. Indian Journal of Experimental
Biology, 2010, 48, 959-981.
5. World Health Organization (WHO), IARC Clas-
sies Radiofrequency electromagnetic elds as
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Objective: To investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on some hematological parameters of Male white mice. Methods: In this study two experiments were used as short-term and long-term experiments. Short-term experiments were carried out in 80 male white Balb/c mice exposed to two types of mobile phone for a period time up to 60 min a day for 2 weeks. Long-term experiments were carried out in 30 male white Balb/c mice exposed to two types of mobile phone for a period time up to 90 min a day for a month, two months, three months. Result: The present result found that a decline in hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells count, in addition to the platelets count after short and long exposure to both types of mobile phone (Alcatel, Nokia). It was observed that the average number of white cells and lymphocytes increased significantly, indicating the increase to the body's immune response to radiation. Also, when exposed to both devices (Alcatel, Nokia) for 15 minutes, the red blood cells began to take a role of formation due to an increase in the viscosity of the blood and the ability of the cells adhesion. Increased duration of exposure to 30-minute to both devices revealed disparities in the sizes of red blood cells with the appearance of a large proportion of cells with pale colors due to lack of hemoglobin. In the group exposed for 45 minutes showed clearly the influence of mobile phones on examining blood smears which observed a proportion variation in the cell sizes with the emergence of forms of abnormal forms, including pellets cleft with many areas empty of red blood cells, With increasing in of exposure duration to 60 minutes, red blood cells appeared completely different from the natural form and took the forms resem-bling the eye and tear that appear in the case of anemia. After three months of exposure to both types of mobile phone showed pathological changes in red blood cells where gripped the outer membrane of the red corpuscle changes and become serrated. Conclusion: Exposure to electromagnetic fields is responsible for the variations of some hematologi-cal parameters in rats.
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The effect of low-level, 2.45 GHz microwaves on human erythrocyte membrane was studied by measuring the induced hemolysis of the exposed erythrocytes at different power densities (0.025-10.000 mW/cm2). A significant increase of the hemoglobin loss by the microwave-exposed erythrocytes compared to controls was observed. Red blood cell count was essentially the same in irradiated and control samples while the mean cellular hemoglobin concentration decreased in the exposed samples. These observations indicate that the hemoglobin loss from the microwave-irradiated cells is due to the membrane permeabilization of the exposed erythrocytes rather than to their lysis.
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The aim of this paper is to overview the diverse biological effects of non-thermal microwaves (NT MWs) and complex dependence of these effects on various physical and biological parameters. Besides dependencies on frequency and modulation, the available data suggest dependencies of the NT MW effects on intermittence and coherence time of exposure, polarization, static magnetic filed, electromagnetic stray field, genotype, gender, physiological and individual factors, cell density during of exposure and indicate that duration of exposure may be not less important than power density (PD) for the NT MW effects. Further evaluation of these dependencies are needed for understanding the mechanisms by which NT MWs affect biological systems, planning in vivo and epidemiological studies, developing medical treatments, setting safety standards, and minimizing the adverse effects of MWs from mobile communication.
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High frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are widely used for transmitting of radio and TV signals, in wireless communications, etc. A huge number of people are exposed so the possible risk to human health from telecommunication technologies could be significant even if biological effects are slight. The study of the biological effects of RF EM radiation could contribute to better understanding of the possible health hazards. The levels of released hemoglobin serve as an indicator of hemolysis, caused by increased membrane fragility. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in hemoglobin release after invitro exposure of human erythrocytes to GSM900 electromagnetic field. Erythrocyte suspensions with two different cell concentrations (hematocrit 20% and 40%) were exposed to EM radiation from GSM mobile phone (carrier frequency 902MHz, 2W output power in pulse) for 20min in two different positions in relation to telephone antenna: Position 1 is in the centre of the major lobe of the azimuth antenna pattern and Position 2 is between major and back lobes. Alterations in hemolysis were registered 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60min after the treatment. Hemolysis was determined by measuring the absorbance of hemoglobin at 413nm in the supernatant obtained by centrifuging the suspensions. Hemolysis was expressed as hemoglobin concentration. Our data indicated decrease in the hemoglobin level in irradiated suspensions. The GSM900 EMF exposure probably stabilized erythrocyte membrane and caused reduction in the hemolysis depending on the EMF parameters, on the suspension water content (hematocrit) and on the time elapsed after irradiation.
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The influence of the shape of the red blood cell during stomatocyte-echinocyte transformation on its deformability was studied by microsieving through pores with diameters of 2.6, 4.5, and 6.9 micron. A stomatocytic transformation was produced by chlorpromazine (0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 mmol/L) and an echinocytic transformation by sodium salicylate (7.5, 30, and 120 mmol/L). For spherostomatocytes, an increase in filtration resistance through 2.6 and 4.5 micron pores was observed, whereas for spheroechinocytes, a decrease in filtration resistance through 2.6 micron pores was found. Larger pores (6.9 micron) were not sensitive to those shape changes. The changes in deformability can be explained by the fact that the surface area of (sphero)-stomatocytes decreased, whereas that of (sphero)-echinocytes increased; the cell volume remained essentially constant. Echinocytes produced by 24-hour adenosine triphosphate depletion differed from drug-induced echinocytes: they had an increased cell volume at constant surface area and consequently an increased filtration resistance through 2.6- and 4.5-micron filter pores. Shape changes with spicule formation are therefore not a homogeneous entity, and cell geometric factors (eg, surface area and volume) must be assessed with care. The viscosity of red cell suspensions at a hematocrit level of 45% was higher for drug-induced echinocytes than discocytes or stomatocytes at all shear rates tested. We conclude that the normal discocyte represents an optimum shape for the flow in vivo since a stomatocytic transformation could impair the passage through the microcirculation (decrease in cell filterability) and an echinocytic transformation could impair the flow in larger vessels (increase in blood viscosity).
Notwithstanding the recent classification of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, including those employed by cellular mobile telephones, as possibly carcinogenic to humans, the question of whether there could be some cancer risk associated with use of cell phones remain confused and ever more controversial.
Existence of low level electromagnetic fields in the environment has been known since antiquity and their biological implications are noted for several decades. As such dosimetry of such field parameters and their emissions from various sources of mass utilization has been a subject of constant concern. Recent advancement in mobile communications has also drawn attention to their biological effects. Hand held children and adults alike generally use mobile sources as cordless phones in various positions with respect to the body. Further, an increasing number of mobile communication base stations have led to wide ranging concern about possible health effects of radiofrequency emissions. There are two distinct possibilities by which health could be affected as a result of radio frequency field exposure. These are thermal effects caused by holding mobile phones close to the body and extended conversations over a long period of time. Secondly, there could be possibly non thermal effects from both phones and base stations whereby the affects could also be cumulative. Some people may be adversely affected by the environmental impact of mobile phone base stations situated near their homes, schools or any other place. In addition to mobile phones, appliances like microwave oven etc are also in increasing use. Apart from the controversy over the possible health effects due to the non-thermal effect of electromagnetic fields the electromagnetic interaction of portable radio waves with human head needs to be quantitatively evaluated. Relating to this is the criteria of safe exposure to the population at large. While a lot of efforts have gone into resolving the issue, a clear picture has yet to emerge. Recent advances and the problems relating to the safety criteria are discussed.
The literature on spiculed red cells, contains a redundant nomenclature and contradictory claims on the pathogenesis of the abnormal red cells. A resolution of these difficulties requires knowledge of the many conditions that induce crenation in normal and abnormal red cells because these artifacts have frequently been confused with spiculed cells in the patient’s circulation. The biconcave red cells (disocytes) can be transformed into crenated red cells (echinocytes) (1) by extrinsic factors (plasma incubated at 37°C for 24 hr, lysolecithin, high levels of fatty acid or physiologic levels of fatty acid in the presence of lysolecithin and many others); (2) by intrinsic factors, such as aging of red cells, which are probably related to depressed ATP; and (3) by washing in saline and the "glass effect" of observing cells between slide and cover slip. The extrinsically induced discocyte-echinocyte transformation is generally reversible by washing in fresh plasma, the intrinsically induced transformation is not. The discocyte-echinocyte transformation due to glass contact is prevented by observation between plastic cover slips. Echinocytes probably occur in various diseases, but such claims must be reevaluated because examination of fresh cells between plastic cover slips is necessary to exclude artifactual crenation during preparation of smears. Sphero-echinocytes and spherocytes may develop with higher concentration of echinocytogenic agents. The relationship of these cells to echinocytes, on one hand, and prelytic spheres, on the other, needs further clarification. The spiculed cells in the circulation of certain patients with liver disease are indistinguishable from the acanthocytes of abetalipoproteinemia. Acanthocytes can develop crenation superimposed on their own spicules and become acanthoechinocytes. It is suggested that the term burr cell for echinocyte and spur cells for the acanthocytes of liver disease be abandoned because they are redundant and do not allow for designation of the mixed forms of acantho-echinocytes which are of diagnostic importance. Speculations are presented on the pathogenesis of echinocyte formation and their importance for an understanding of the structure of the red cell membrane.
Microwave exposure (2450 MHz, 60 mW/g, CW) of rabbit erythrocytes increases Na passive transport only at membrane phase transition temperatures (Tc) of 17-19 degrees C. This permeability effect is enhanced for relative hypoxia which is characteristic of intracellular oxygen tension (pO2 less than or equal to 5 mm Hg). Neither the permeability nor the pO2 effects are observed in temperature-matched (+/- 0.05 degrees C), sham-exposed controls. In addition, at Tc, microwave exposure is observed to induce the shedding or release of two erythrocyte proteins not seen in sham-exposed controls. Moreover, the enhanced shedding of at least seven other proteins all of molecular weight less than or equal to 28,000 D was detected in the microwave-treated samples. Using sensitive silver staining we estimate that approximately 450 fg of protein were shed per erythrocyte. These results demonstrate that temperature and pO2 are important influences on both functional and structural responses of cell membranes to microwave radiation.
Experiments in rat mesenterium were carried out under conditions when both pressure gradient in the chosen microvessels and their diameters were preserved constant. All details of the hemorheological events were directly visualized and documented by usage of appropriate microscopic video techniques. Intensified RBC aggregation locally produced in individual capillaries, immediately disturbs the normal blood flow structure inside their lumina and deranges the rheological properties of blood flow in the microvessels, which slows down till a full stop. The RBC aggregates gradually grow up due to addition of new cells, which become compressed and appear homogeneous. This usually interferes with restoration of blood flow in capillaries. Further the RBC aggregates can move slowly towards veins, while the flow accelerates immediately as soon as the aggregates reach the larger venules.