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The Salman Mosque: The Pioneer of the Mosque Design Idea, the Driving Force Behind the Coinage of the Term ‘Campus Mosque’ in Indonesia

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This article is a part of a journey to understand the existential meaning of the Salman Mosque. One of the topics to be raised is the knowledge that the Salman mosque is capable of becoming a reformer in various fields. The focus of discussion is on the design idea and the Salman Mosque as the pioneer for coinage of the term ‘campus mosque’ in Indonesia. The design of the Salman Mosque that brought about a radical change in its beginning, established the Salman mosque as reformer. Through the qualitative approach conducted between 2011 until 2015, information was obtained through explorative interviews with the mosque architects: Achmad Noeman and those involved with the daily activities of the mosque such as: management, members of mosque units and divisions, residents of the mosque dormitory and prominent figures of society. This assessment is expected to be able to provide knowledge on the Salman mosque especially as it is associated with the term ‘campus mosque’.
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Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 143
THE SALMAN MOSQUE:
THE PIONEER OF THE MOSQUE DESIGN IDEA, THE DRIVING FORCE
BEHIND THE COINAGE OF THE TERM “CAMPUS MOSQUE” IN
INDONESIA
Dhini Dewiyanti
SAPPK, ITB
Architecture UNIKOM
Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
e-mail: dhinitan@yahoo.co.id
Bambang Setia Budi
SAPPK, ITB
Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia
Received: March 30
th
2015; Accepted: October 7
th
2015; Available Online: December 31
st
2015
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18860/jia.v3i4.2746
Abstract
This article is a part of a journey to understand the existential meaning of the Salman Mosque. One of the
topics to be raised is the knowledge that the Salman mosque is capable of becoming a reformer in various
fields. The focus of discussion is on the design idea and the Salman Mosque as the pioneer for coinage of the
term ‘campus mosque’ in Indonesia. The design of the Salman Mosque that brought about a radical change in
its beginning, established the Salman mosque as reformer. Through the qualitative approach conducted
between 2011 until 2015, information was obtained through explorative interviews with the mosque architects:
Achmad Noeman and those involved with the daily activities of the mosque such as: management, members of
mosque units and divisions, residents of the mosque dormitory and prominent figures of society. This
assessment is expected to be able to provide knowledge on the Salman mosque especially as it is associated
with the term ‘campus mosque’.
Keywords: Salman mosque, reformer, design idea, pioneering campus mosque, Ahmad Noeman
Introduction
Basically, there is no standard rule in Islam
regarding the physical appearance of a mosque as
a place of worship for Moslems. As long as the
place is clean, all places on the face of the earth
can be used as a mosque, a place for worship and
prayer to God. Islam did not directly bring physical
cultural traditions or architectural formal design,
instead Islam allows its disciples to determine their
physical choices with common sense. A strict rule
is only applied to the direction of the prayer during
the ritual worship, i.e. facing the Al-Haram
mosque or the Ka’bah in Mecca. Indonesia, as a
country with the largest Moslem population in the
world, has plenty of mosques with various
typologies, whose constructions were mostly
affected by the spread of Islam, local geography
and climate, and local culture[1].
In its history, mosque building in Indonesia
has mostly been influenced by the process of
mixing of existing cultures (acculturation)[1]. This
cultural form as the product of the acculturation
process is not only physical in nature, but also
related to ritual activity mixed with local rituals.
This is the one that makes the Islamic community
in Indonesia unique. Norms and religious beliefs
that have been embraced for generations
eventually brought an understanding that the roof
of a mosque should be dome-shaped, adorned with
ornaments in the form of calligraphy at the
interior, complete with the sign of moon and star
at the edge of the roof. Attachment to the symbol
of the mosque through the dome has become a
popular choice and has been continuously used
until today.
The Salman mosque in Bandung is a mosque
that was designed differently in a style that had
been believed by most of the Indonesian people to
be the typical style of a mosque. This mosque is
interesting to be assessed thoroughly especially to
obtain the meanings contained in the mosque that
have been ‘captured’ by its users. In the long
journey of its quest, a lot of descriptions have
144 | Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644
been revealed. However, this article focuses only
on the description of the Salman mosque as a
reformer. The focus of this article is to describe:
(1) the Salman Mosque as the pioneer of new
design in Indonesia; (2) establishment of the term
‘campus mosque’ that is more suitable for the
Salman mosque. The benefits of this research are:
(1) contribution to thinking of new perceptions
related to the ideas of the form of the mosque, (2)
the term campus mosque’.
Mosque as a Place
In principle, Moslems can pray anywhere, as
long as the place meets the requirement of purity.
The term “mosque” that we know today started to
be used when people needed a terminology to
identify the building. Etymologically, the word
mosque originated in the word “sujud” which
means obey, comply, abide with full of deference
and reverence[2]. Terminologically, a mosque is
meant as a place of worship for Moslems,
particularly a place to abide to God. From the
terminology of sujud”, mosque can be defined as
a building or an environment with a clear border
(fortress/fence) specifically constructed as a place
of worship of Moslems to God, especially to
prayer[2].
In relation to the prayer performed anywhere
and anytime by Moslems, the direction of the
prayer is similar, i.e. Al-Haram Mosque or Ka’bah
[3]. That is why, all mosque buildings must always
be directed to the Al-Haram Mosque; something
very different compared with the worship buildings
of other religions. Based on the holy Koran[4],
Moslems Shahih[5] and Bukhari[6], the main
requirements of the place for prayer are: being
clean (pure) of dirt and filth, facing toward the
kiblat (qibla), enter during the prayer time, and
not located in the area of a grave yard.
Since containing the meaning of abidance and
obedience, the essence of a mosque is to conduct
all activities related to the obedience only to God.
Therefore, mosque can be further defined as not
only a place for prostrating, purification, praying,
but also a place to conduct all activities of the
Moslems related to the obedience to God including
those outside the ritual activities [2].
The primary function of a mosque is a place to
perform prayer in congregation[7]. Praying in
congregation is one of the core teachings of Islam,
an order that is really stressed to the Moslems, and
even it mandatory for the men as stated in QS Al-
Baqarah: 43. Praying in congregation is the main
indicator of success in making the mosque prosper.
During the time of Muhammad, other functions
than being used for prayer dzikir related
activities and performing itikaf, the mosque can
also be used for social purposes, as a place to
study and teach wisdom (pursuing knowledge),
taking care of sick persons, and completing li’an
law, etc.
In its long history, the mosque has experienced
rapid developments, in the shape of the building as
well as its function and roles. The Nabawi Mosque
that was built by the Rasullulah SAW has at least
ten roles and functions: a place of worship (prayer
and dzikir), consultation and communication of
various problems including economy, social,
culture, education, social compensation, military
training and equipment preparation, treatment of
the war victims, peace and conflict resolution,
receiving guests (in the hall), holding prisoners and
center of information or defending the religion[2].
The functions of the mosque are detailed based
on Gazalba are: a place to pray, a place to I’tikaf,
a gathering place for Moslems, a place for religious
teaching, a place of information related to
people’s lives, a residence for students of Islam, a
place of literature, a place of baitulmal
(community fund related to Moslem’s social
welfare), a place of justice, a place of diplomacy
and peace, temporarily residence for musafir
(people who are travelling), temporary place for
poor people, a place to wed, a place to pray for
the dead, a place to develop Islamic culture
including the art of declamation[8].
The above explanation shows that the mosque
as a place, not only accommodates ritual
activities, but also non-social activities. In today’s
context, the mosque appears with various
aesthetic forms, with all its grandeur to glorify
God and effort to ‘revive’ it[9].
The Need for Worship in an Education
Facility
In 1960s, the mosque was a building that rarely
existed, particularly within the context of its
existence in big cities. At that time, the
understanding of the Indonesian people of Islam
was only limited to the understanding of religion
handed down through generations. The need of the
community for a mosque had not been realized
with a proper understanding of religion[10]. An
understanding that the main function of a mosque
is for praying in congregation for men is still
restricted to limited groups only.
In 1960, the need emerged for a place to
worship as well as to conduct da’wah (the
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 145
proselytizing or preaching of Islam) and discussion
by the students of Institut Teknologi Bandung[10].
At that time, mosques in Bandung were few and
far between, so that students had to perform
Friday prayers at the Cipaganti mosque as the
nearest mosque to the ITB campus. The Cipaganti
mosque had to be reached by walking through
valleys and rivers, as a short cut. At that time,
there was no public transportation. Figure 1 shows
the distance that had to be covered by the
students to reach the Cipaganti mosque.
Figure 1. The position of Cipaganti Mosque relative to ITB Campus
Figure 2. The Cipaganti mosque[11]
This mosque that is often called the Kaum
Cipaganti mosque is located in an area that used to
be a residential area of the European community in
Northern Bandung. It was designed by the
prominent Dutch architect, Prof. Kemal C.P. Wolf
Schoemaker. The ceremonial laying of the first
stone was held on 7 February 1993[12]. This
mosque is a combination between local
architecture design with tajug roof or three-
layered pyramid-like roof, with a canopy using a
shingle roof supported by four pillars, combined
with a small European touch[11]. The local
architecture was inspired by Majapahit era
architecture (figure 2-left). This mosque was
renovated and expanded in 1965, and figure 2 on
the right depicts the present situation.
This Cipaganti mosque encouraged some ITB
students to have their own mosque closer to their
campus to prays, discussions and other religious
activities. To address that urgent need, a
committee to construct the ITB mosque was
established, chaired by Hasan Babsel Soetanegara.
At that time, the provision of a mosque was not
mandatory in education areas, the room that could
be used was ITB West Hall (figure 3 and 4). The use
of the space was still limited to Friday prayers
only. The first Friday prayer was held on May 27,
1960 at ITB’s West Hall. with Moh. Hamron as the
preacher[13].
The West Hall as the embryo of the
construction of the Salman Mosque quite
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 145
proselytizing or preaching of Islam) and discussion
by the students of Institut Teknologi Bandung[10].
At that time, mosques in Bandung were few and
far between, so that students had to perform
Friday prayers at the Cipaganti mosque as the
nearest mosque to the ITB campus. The Cipaganti
mosque had to be reached by walking through
valleys and rivers, as a short cut. At that time,
there was no public transportation. Figure 1 shows
the distance that had to be covered by the
students to reach the Cipaganti mosque.
Figure 1. The position of Cipaganti Mosque relative to ITB Campus
Figure 2. The Cipaganti mosque[11]
This mosque that is often called the Kaum
Cipaganti mosque is located in an area that used to
be a residential area of the European community in
Northern Bandung. It was designed by the
prominent Dutch architect, Prof. Kemal C.P. Wolf
Schoemaker. The ceremonial laying of the first
stone was held on 7 February 1993[12]. This
mosque is a combination between local
architecture design with tajug roof or three-
layered pyramid-like roof, with a canopy using a
shingle roof supported by four pillars, combined
with a small European touch[11]. The local
architecture was inspired by Majapahit era
architecture (figure 2-left). This mosque was
renovated and expanded in 1965, and figure 2 on
the right depicts the present situation.
This Cipaganti mosque encouraged some ITB
students to have their own mosque closer to their
campus to prays, discussions and other religious
activities. To address that urgent need, a
committee to construct the ITB mosque was
established, chaired by Hasan Babsel Soetanegara.
At that time, the provision of a mosque was not
mandatory in education areas, the room that could
be used was ITB West Hall (figure 3 and 4). The use
of the space was still limited to Friday prayers
only. The first Friday prayer was held on May 27,
1960 at ITB’s West Hall. with Moh. Hamron as the
preacher[13].
The West Hall as the embryo of the
construction of the Salman Mosque quite
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 145
proselytizing or preaching of Islam) and discussion
by the students of Institut Teknologi Bandung[10].
At that time, mosques in Bandung were few and
far between, so that students had to perform
Friday prayers at the Cipaganti mosque as the
nearest mosque to the ITB campus. The Cipaganti
mosque had to be reached by walking through
valleys and rivers, as a short cut. At that time,
there was no public transportation. Figure 1 shows
the distance that had to be covered by the
students to reach the Cipaganti mosque.
Figure 1. The position of Cipaganti Mosque relative to ITB Campus
Figure 2. The Cipaganti mosque[11]
This mosque that is often called the Kaum
Cipaganti mosque is located in an area that used to
be a residential area of the European community in
Northern Bandung. It was designed by the
prominent Dutch architect, Prof. Kemal C.P. Wolf
Schoemaker. The ceremonial laying of the first
stone was held on 7 February 1993[12]. This
mosque is a combination between local
architecture design with tajug roof or three-
layered pyramid-like roof, with a canopy using a
shingle roof supported by four pillars, combined
with a small European touch[11]. The local
architecture was inspired by Majapahit era
architecture (figure 2-left). This mosque was
renovated and expanded in 1965, and figure 2 on
the right depicts the present situation.
This Cipaganti mosque encouraged some ITB
students to have their own mosque closer to their
campus to prays, discussions and other religious
activities. To address that urgent need, a
committee to construct the ITB mosque was
established, chaired by Hasan Babsel Soetanegara.
At that time, the provision of a mosque was not
mandatory in education areas, the room that could
be used was ITB West Hall (figure 3 and 4). The use
of the space was still limited to Friday prayers
only. The first Friday prayer was held on May 27,
1960 at ITB’s West Hall. with Moh. Hamron as the
preacher[13].
The West Hall as the embryo of the
construction of the Salman Mosque quite
146 | Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644
succeeded in attracting students’ interest as a
place for worship. This could not be separated
from the role of leading student figures and
scholars at that time, so the passion to learn about
Islam started to grow within the higher education
community. The desire of the students and the
youth community for the use of campus mosque
was increasing, and this pushed the willingness to
initiate the presence of a mosque in the campus
area.
Figure 3. Friday prayer at ITB West Hall
Figure 4. Friday prayer followed by General A.H.
Nasution accompanied by Prof. T.M. Soelaiman
The Salman Mosque in The History of The
Formation
The licensing process to the campus was not an
easy process since at that time the mosque was
not part of campus planning. The process taking
place from June until July of 1964 was a process to
use the land at Ganesha Street. The license was
granted by the Rector of ITB at that time, i.e.
Prof. Ukar Bratakusuma. Due to limited funds, and
fund raising activities that were still in progress, a
prayer room (mushala) (figure 5) was constructed
and was inaugurated at the end of 1964 by the ITB
Student Council[13].
Figure 5. Mushala prior to the construction of the
Salman Mosque
On 22 June 1965, the Salman Mosque tower was
inaugurated as the milestone of the construction of
the Salman Mosque where the fund raising was still
in progress. The location was a corn field by
Ganesha Street (figure 6). The tower was first to
be constructed due to insufficient funds available
to construct a mosque[13].
Figure 6.Corn field as the site of the Salman Mosque.
Figure 7. Salman Mosque as the research location
146 | Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644
succeeded in attracting students’ interest as a
place for worship. This could not be separated
from the role of leading student figures and
scholars at that time, so the passion to learn about
Islam started to grow within the higher education
community. The desire of the students and the
youth community for the use of campus mosque
was increasing, and this pushed the willingness to
initiate the presence of a mosque in the campus
area.
Figure 3. Friday prayer at ITB West Hall
Figure 4. Friday prayer followed by General A.H.
Nasution accompanied by Prof. T.M. Soelaiman
The Salman Mosque in The History of The
Formation
The licensing process to the campus was not an
easy process since at that time the mosque was
not part of campus planning. The process taking
place from June until July of 1964 was a process to
use the land at Ganesha Street. The license was
granted by the Rector of ITB at that time, i.e.
Prof. Ukar Bratakusuma. Due to limited funds, and
fund raising activities that were still in progress, a
prayer room (mushala) (figure 5) was constructed
and was inaugurated at the end of 1964 by the ITB
Student Council[13].
Figure 5. Mushala prior to the construction of the
Salman Mosque
On 22 June 1965, the Salman Mosque tower was
inaugurated as the milestone of the construction of
the Salman Mosque where the fund raising was still
in progress. The location was a corn field by
Ganesha Street (figure 6). The tower was first to
be constructed due to insufficient funds available
to construct a mosque[13].
Figure 6.Corn field as the site of the Salman Mosque.
Figure 7. Salman Mosque as the research location
146 | Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644
succeeded in attracting students’ interest as a
place for worship. This could not be separated
from the role of leading student figures and
scholars at that time, so the passion to learn about
Islam started to grow within the higher education
community. The desire of the students and the
youth community for the use of campus mosque
was increasing, and this pushed the willingness to
initiate the presence of a mosque in the campus
area.
Figure 3. Friday prayer at ITB West Hall
Figure 4. Friday prayer followed by General A.H.
Nasution accompanied by Prof. T.M. Soelaiman
The Salman Mosque in The History of The
Formation
The licensing process to the campus was not an
easy process since at that time the mosque was
not part of campus planning. The process taking
place from June until July of 1964 was a process to
use the land at Ganesha Street. The license was
granted by the Rector of ITB at that time, i.e.
Prof. Ukar Bratakusuma. Due to limited funds, and
fund raising activities that were still in progress, a
prayer room (mushala) (figure 5) was constructed
and was inaugurated at the end of 1964 by the ITB
Student Council[13].
Figure 5. Mushala prior to the construction of the
Salman Mosque
On 22 June 1965, the Salman Mosque tower was
inaugurated as the milestone of the construction of
the Salman Mosque where the fund raising was still
in progress. The location was a corn field by
Ganesha Street (figure 6). The tower was first to
be constructed due to insufficient funds available
to construct a mosque[13].
Figure 6.Corn field as the site of the Salman Mosque.
Figure 7. Salman Mosque as the research location
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 147
The name ‘Salman’ was given by President
Soekarno
22
on May 28, 1964 when the Salman ITB
foundation delegation, headed by Prof. T.M.
Soelaiman, Ahmad Sadali, and Ahmad Noe’man
paid a visit to President Soekarno at the
Presidential Palace. The name Salman referred to
a smart technocrat, a friend of the Prophet from
Persia: Salman Al-Farisi who proposed an idea of
digging the earth during the khandaq trench war
which became one of the keys to the successful
defense against the enemy at that time[10].
The Salman Mosque, A Renewal of The
Mosque Idea
The Salman mosque has exerted historical
power in its journey of existence. The mosque that
was built in 1964 happened to be at the end of
Modern Architecture and the beginning of the Post
Modern Architecture era. This work by Ahmad
Noe’man was inspired by concepts from: Mies van
der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Oscar
Niemeyer, and other modern architecs. Ahmad
Noe’man also admired to the Bauhaus model[14].
He adopted the Bauhaus aesthetical concept for
his design philosophy: aesthetic born out of
simplicity[15][14]. The Salman mosque (also often
called a contemporary mosque) referred to the
design of the mosque that tried to break away
from the tradition, or at least the re-interpreted
architectural expression that had been there
already/common and developed previously[16].
Figure 7.Site plan of the Salman Mosque.
Figure 8. The Salman Mosque and Its Surrounding
Environment
The influence of the modern architecture on
the display looks simple, functional, contains few
ornaments, and emphasizes the importance of
material honesty. In the early year of its existence,
the sense of material honesty was clearly felt,
supported by environmental factor consisting of an
empty parcel of land. Some rules of modern
architecture that we could observe in the Salman
mosque can be seen in Table 1.
From this assessment, we can see the
influence and concept of the Modern Architecture
style in terms of ‘The International Style’ that was
felt at this Salman mosque. This could happen
because at that time the Indonesian socio-political
condition was showing off to the world in terms of
its technological strength and mindset.
On the one side, the aura of post-modernism is
also visible in the bold design that broke with the
tradition and appeared as reformer: the idea of a
design that was different from the previous
standard, rejected tradition and history, the idea
of expressing design through the capability of
technological advance and mindset, the idea of
design that was returned to the understanding
contained in the Koran. In this case, architects
argue that simplicity embedded in the idea of
modern architecture does not contradict Islamic
teaching. With that boldness, the Salman Mosque
appears as a generator in terms of: being the first
mosque that was bold enough to be different from
the previous mosques, the first mosque to be
situated in the context of the need of educated
people, the first building using a wide beam
structure and an open plan concept that eventually
created the free-column room. This Salman Mosque
appears to be a new reference in mosque design in
Indonesia.
The wide beam structure was used to obtain a
wide room unobstructed by columns, so that the
rows of praying worshippers can be maintained
properly. In the initial design, the roof structure
system used single direction beam plate similar to
148 | Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644
bridge beam. With a floor plan size of 25 m x 25 m,
the distance of each column is 25 m. Originally,
the dimension of the roof beam was 50 cm x 250
cm. After the beam was recalculated by Sahari in
1969, it was changed into a two-direction beam
system which is also called a grid system. With this
change, the dimension of the main beam became
40cm x 135cm. The height of the roof beam was
reduced to only 67.5% of the original height. The
calculation was conducted using the matrix
method with the help of a computer based numeric
solution. This computer program was designed by
Sahari himself using Fortran and was run using the
IBM 1130 computer owned by ITB and the Ministry
of Public Works[17]. The Salman Mosque became
the first building in Indonesia that was calculated
with the aid of a computer.
The Salman Mosque and the Term “Campus
Mosque”
In its development, this work of Ahmad
Noe’man (as a product of collaboration with
Ahmad Sadali) yielded the presence of a mosque as
a part of an educational area design. What
distinguishes this campus mosque from other
campus mosques is the users who are
predominantly young people, mainly students.
The term “campus mosque” became a new
phenomenon (if it could be called new typology)
for the naming of a mosque located within the
higher education environment. Literature search
for the definition of “campus mosque” was still
limited or even inaccurate. Some literatures state
that the term campus mosque was designated
based on the location. The name is not too
accurate for the Salman mosque considering its
location is actually outside the campus of ITB.
Table 1. Comparison showing the application of modern architectural concepts to the Salman Mosque
No
Aspect
Concept of
Modern
Architecture
Implementation of the Salman Mosque
1.
The form of
floor plan and
efficiency
idiom form follows
function
Square form of floor plan is chosen based on
efficiency. Square form is considered as the
correct form if it is related to the rows of
salat configuration, the orientation of the
worshippers led by the imam during the
prayer.
2.
The space and
its Functional
effectivity
The removal of column in the middle of the
prayer room is a decision based on
‘function’, i.e. that the rows will not be
broken during the prayer time and the
worshippers can see clearly the mihrab,
imam, and khotib when he steps down from
the rostrum.
3.
Technology is
highlighted
Technology as the
design strength
The application of new technology at that
time, i.e. pre-stressed concrete that enables
a structure with a wide beam.
4.
Platonic
Solid aplication
The application of
solid-geometric
form
The pure form of volume that seems to be
separated from its column frame structure
Solid volume in the form of massive walls or
glass that seems to be separated from its
column structure.
5.
The honesty of
form – as it is
The application of
form structure
material as it
should be without
any cover up
The application of beam and wall displaying
an image of ‘honesty’ in each connection
detail. The principle of ‘honesty’ is also
visible in the use of material.
The use of material is adjusted with the
characteristics of its material and left as it
is, nothing is concealed. The aesthetic of the
material emerged based on the nature of
that material.
6.
Simplicity
honesty in form
and materials
without
excessive
ornament
Idiom Less is More
The use of industrial material: concrete,
glass, precast concrete.
The beauty of a building is determined by
the design’s functional value and not by its
ornaments (only a few ornaments except
pastel gradation lines at the east side of the
building).
MAIN HALL
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 149
No
Aspect
Concept of
Modern
Architecture
Implementation of the Salman Mosque
7.
The
monumental
impression in
the form of the
change from
geometrical
approach to
sculptural
approach.
expressive/
monumental form,
display the
texture, and
curved-lines and
the use of brut
concrete.
The sculptural approach is seen in the use of
geometry and curved lines on the western
concrete wall and its columns. The roof with
curved lines. The use of white brut concrete
on the mihrab wall. Mihrab is a niche in the
wall of a mosque. It indicates the qibla (the
direction of the Kaaba in Mecca)
8.
The
implementation
of open-ended
concept
The use of wide
glasses
The use of folding doors and large window
seems to connect the inner room with the
outer room, and makes the room seems wide
Figure 6.The position of the Salman Mosque relative to
the ITB Campus.
Research into campus mosques at some
campuses has brought some understanding of the
references to designate the term “campus
mosque”. To be designated as campus mosque, the
mosque should meet the following criteria:
1. A campus mosque has worshippers
predominantly consisting of the campus
community: students, faculty members, and
non-academic staff. The general public usually
comprises of communities near the mosque.
2. A campus mosque has a management team
consisting of the campus community: students,
lecturers, and alumnae.
3. A campus mosque has activities related to the
scientific fields of the campus.
4. A campus mosque has a management team
related to the regeneration process since it is
related to limited duration of study.
5. A campus mosque is located on campus or near
the campus area.
6. A campus mosque has room facilities that can
be used by the campus community and vice
versa, as long as they do not disturb each
other. For this purpose, usually rooms at the
mosque can be used in a flexible way, in terms
of time and the management of the room
pattern. The minimum amenities required are:
Since it is related to campus activities, the
atmosphere of the mosque is not too different
from the atmosphere of campus which shows
learning activities.
Table 2. Room Facilities.
Spatial Facility
Type
Nature
Function
Main hall
Primary
Public
place of worship
Mezzanine
Primary
Public
Place of worship for women
Mosque terrace
Supporting
Public
Extension of the place of worship and various activities.
Yard
Supporting
Public
Extension of the place of worship and various activities.
Mosque court
Supporting
Public
Place to wait, sit, have a drink, and sometimes used for seminars
Library
Supporting
Public
Library
Canteen
Supporting
Public
Eat
Multi function room
Supporting
Public
lecture, reception, general lecture, extension of Friday prayer
Shops
Supporting
Public
Business area
Offices
Supporting
Semi Public
Rented office
Class rooms
Supporting
Public
Specific course with limited participants.
Minimarket
Supporting
Public
Business area for the cooperative
Management room
Supporting
Semi Public
Working room of unit and division and management of the mosque
Organization room
Supporting
Semi Public
Working room for unit and division and management of the mosque
Main executive board
room
Supporting
Private
Private working room and private library.
Storage room
Supporting
Private
Storage for mattresses, blankets, and equipment
Ablution room and Toilet
Service
Public
Ablution and Toilets
A. The position of the Salman Mosque
B. ITB campus area
C. Ganesha Park
A
B
C
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 149
No
Aspect
Concept of
Modern
Architecture
Implementation of the Salman Mosque
7.
The
monumental
impression in
the form of the
change from
geometrical
approach to
sculptural
approach.
expressive/
monumental form,
display the
texture, and
curved-lines and
the use of brut
concrete.
The sculptural approach is seen in the use of
geometry and curved lines on the western
concrete wall and its columns. The roof with
curved lines. The use of white brut concrete
on the mihrab wall. Mihrab is a niche in the
wall of a mosque. It indicates the qibla (the
direction of the Kaaba in Mecca)
8.
The
implementation
of open-ended
concept
The use of wide
glasses
The use of folding doors and large window
seems to connect the inner room with the
outer room, and makes the room seems wide
Figure 6.The position of the Salman Mosque relative to
the ITB Campus.
Research into campus mosques at some
campuses has brought some understanding of the
references to designate the term “campus
mosque”. To be designated as campus mosque, the
mosque should meet the following criteria:
1. A campus mosque has worshippers
predominantly consisting of the campus
community: students, faculty members, and
non-academic staff. The general public usually
comprises of communities near the mosque.
2. A campus mosque has a management team
consisting of the campus community: students,
lecturers, and alumnae.
3. A campus mosque has activities related to the
scientific fields of the campus.
4. A campus mosque has a management team
related to the regeneration process since it is
related to limited duration of study.
5. A campus mosque is located on campus or near
the campus area.
6. A campus mosque has room facilities that can
be used by the campus community and vice
versa, as long as they do not disturb each
other. For this purpose, usually rooms at the
mosque can be used in a flexible way, in terms
of time and the management of the room
pattern. The minimum amenities required are:
Since it is related to campus activities, the
atmosphere of the mosque is not too different
from the atmosphere of campus which shows
learning activities.
Table 2. Room Facilities.
Spatial Facility
Type
Nature
Function
Main hall
Primary
Public
place of worship
Mezzanine
Primary
Public
Place of worship for women
Mosque terrace
Supporting
Public
Extension of the place of worship and various activities.
Yard
Supporting
Public
Extension of the place of worship and various activities.
Mosque court
Supporting
Public
Place to wait, sit, have a drink, and sometimes used for seminars
Library
Supporting
Public
Library
Canteen
Supporting
Public
Eat
Multi function room
Supporting
Public
lecture, reception, general lecture, extension of Friday prayer
Shops
Supporting
Public
Business area
Offices
Supporting
Semi Public
Rented office
Class rooms
Supporting
Public
Specific course with limited participants.
Minimarket
Supporting
Public
Business area for the cooperative
Management room
Supporting
Semi Public
Working room of unit and division and management of the mosque
Organization room
Supporting
Semi Public
Working room for unit and division and management of the mosque
Main executive board
room
Supporting
Private
Private working room and private library.
Storage room
Supporting
Private
Storage for mattresses, blankets, and equipment
Ablution room and Toilet
Service
Public
Ablution and Toilets
A. The position of the Salman Mosque
B. ITB campus area
C. Ganesha Park
A
B
C
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 149
No
Aspect
Concept of
Modern
Architecture
Implementation of the Salman Mosque
7.
The
monumental
impression in
the form of the
change from
geometrical
approach to
sculptural
approach.
expressive/
monumental form,
display the
texture, and
curved-lines and
the use of brut
concrete.
The sculptural approach is seen in the use of
geometry and curved lines on the western
concrete wall and its columns. The roof with
curved lines. The use of white brut concrete
on the mihrab wall. Mihrab is a niche in the
wall of a mosque. It indicates the qibla (the
direction of the Kaaba in Mecca)
8.
The
implementation
of open-ended
concept
The use of wide
glasses
The use of folding doors and large window
seems to connect the inner room with the
outer room, and makes the room seems wide
Figure 6.The position of the Salman Mosque relative to
the ITB Campus.
Research into campus mosques at some
campuses has brought some understanding of the
references to designate the term “campus
mosque”. To be designated as campus mosque, the
mosque should meet the following criteria:
1. A campus mosque has worshippers
predominantly consisting of the campus
community: students, faculty members, and
non-academic staff. The general public usually
comprises of communities near the mosque.
2. A campus mosque has a management team
consisting of the campus community: students,
lecturers, and alumnae.
3. A campus mosque has activities related to the
scientific fields of the campus.
4. A campus mosque has a management team
related to the regeneration process since it is
related to limited duration of study.
5. A campus mosque is located on campus or near
the campus area.
6. A campus mosque has room facilities that can
be used by the campus community and vice
versa, as long as they do not disturb each
other. For this purpose, usually rooms at the
mosque can be used in a flexible way, in terms
of time and the management of the room
pattern. The minimum amenities required are:
Since it is related to campus activities, the
atmosphere of the mosque is not too different
from the atmosphere of campus which shows
learning activities.
Table 2. Room Facilities.
Spatial Facility
Type
Nature
Function
Main hall
Primary
Public
place of worship
Mezzanine
Primary
Public
Place of worship for women
Mosque terrace
Supporting
Public
Extension of the place of worship and various activities.
Yard
Supporting
Public
Extension of the place of worship and various activities.
Mosque court
Supporting
Public
Place to wait, sit, have a drink, and sometimes used for seminars
Library
Supporting
Public
Library
Canteen
Supporting
Public
Eat
Multi function room
Supporting
Public
lecture, reception, general lecture, extension of Friday prayer
Shops
Supporting
Public
Business area
Offices
Supporting
Semi Public
Rented office
Class rooms
Supporting
Public
Specific course with limited participants.
Minimarket
Supporting
Public
Business area for the cooperative
Management room
Supporting
Semi Public
Working room of unit and division and management of the mosque
Organization room
Supporting
Semi Public
Working room for unit and division and management of the mosque
Main executive board
room
Supporting
Private
Private working room and private library.
Storage room
Supporting
Private
Storage for mattresses, blankets, and equipment
Ablution room and Toilet
Service
Public
Ablution and Toilets
A. The position of the Salman Mosque
B. ITB campus area
C. Ganesha Park
A
B
C
150 | Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644
Figure 7. The development of the Campus Mosque in Indonesia
Salman Mosque as The Pioneer of Campus
Mosques in Indonesia
Figure 7 shows the development of campus
mosques in Indonesia. The presence of mosque in
educational areas was seldom encountered in the
1960s, and became plentiful in 2000s. Due to the
limited display of figures, only a few mosques can
be displayed.
A number of mosques in campus areas, were
designed by Ahmad Noe’man, such as campus
mosques at the Indonesia University of Education
(UPI), Bandung Islamic University (UNISBA),
Lambung Mangkurat University, Bogor Agricultural
University (IPB) that all show technological
advances in their era.
The presence of the Salman mosque inspired a
number of mosque design ideas that in the end
appeared in a more bold and contemporary shape,
usually expressing “the face” of its campus so that
it shows the unity of existing themes. The Salman
Mosque also inspired some mosque management to
use the help of architect in planning and designing
the mosque. This had never happened before,
since previously a mosque had been built together
by the community and led by someone considered
to be experienced in constructing buildings. That is
why a mosque in Indonesia used to be built based
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 151
on tradition and knowledge handed down through
generations.
A campus mosque appears to be a mosque that
collaborates with the campus in terms of the
spiritual education for its students. The campus
mosque appears as a symbol of intellectuality
combined with religiosity. The presence of campus
mosques usually becomes a partner of the campus
management. It is called partner because not all of
campus mosque management fall under the
campus organization structure. One example is the
Salman mosque. With separate management, the
management of the Salman mosque has the power
and flexibility and is more agile in managing
activities within the mosque.
As the pioneer of the presence of other campus
mosques, the Salman mosque often becomes a role
model, particularly in terms of design ideas and
mosque management. As a place for worship,
Salman mosque is quite successful in livening up
activities so that it appears to be a mosque that is
always full of activities. This is in line with the
objective of the construction of a mosque which in
the Koran called making mosque prosper. The
Salman mosque as a reference is not only intended
for campus mosques, but mosques in general and it
used Salman as a guideline in its management.
The Role of Ahmad Noeman and Ahmad
Sadali
The design of the Salman mosque cannot be
separated from its architect: Ahmad Noe’man. He
was born into a family whose father was a member
of the management team of the Muhammadiyah
Islamic Organization which often constructed
schools and mosques. Based on childhood
experiences, he often accompanied his father to
see a mosque under construction, young Ahmad
Noe’man decided to become a building expert.
His formal educational background brought
Ahmad Noe’man to enroll in ITB which at that time
was called Technische Hoogeschol Bandung. Since
there was no Architecture Department, Noe’man
had to enroll at the Civil Engineering Department.
He was also involved in the military, although he
only served as translator of the Dutch language.
Then, after the Department of Architecture was
opened in 1950, in 1952 Noe’man asked permission
from his military supervisor to study at the
Architecture Department. He graduated in 1958.
During his study at the Architecture Department,
he had the chance to meet lecturers from
“Kentucky Contact Team” who brought along the
ideology of modern architecture. Returning from
the US he brought books with modernist themes.
Modern architects such as Le Corbusier, Mies van
der Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright, and others, inspired
Noe’man’s work.
The nuance of modern architecture which at
that time was followed by young architects,
including Ahmad Noe’man, made it hard for the
Salman mosque to escape from the influence. The
appearance and expression of the Salman mosque
avoided the previous form of mosques based on
tradition and traditional myths. His view on Islamic
architecture is that it is an architecture that is in
line with the Islamic principles of architecture and
not derived from culture or tradition. It could
happen that the existing culture or tradition is not
in line with the principles and values of Islam. In
the Koran or Hadits, no one has ever mentioned
that Islamic architecture should follow certain
“forms” that are considered sacred. Because of
Islamic universality, it so happens that the basic
principles of modern architecture do not
contradict the values of Islam, so it is quite right
that those architecture rules are used in designing
a mosque. Mosque architecture should express its
Islamic fire.
Modern views and thoughts on Islamic
architecture will depend on the view and
interpretation of the architect. Holding on to Al-
Baqarah chapter [2:170] and guidance of Hadits as
stated by Imam Bukhari become the main strength:
“And if that something is the business of your
world, then you are the one who knows it (you are
entitled to determine)”, so a belief emerged that
it is the designer who has the right to determine
and translate it to the design without being bound
to the thought of tradition and previous culture.
One of the principles he held on to strongly
was ijtihad (the use of reason to arrive at a
knowledge of truth in religious matters), i.e.,
making a breakthrough based on science, without
imitation. Architecture enables to “appear
differently” or “different from others”, and away
from the bond of the existing thought, tradition
and culture. This is the core of the thought
underlying the performance of the Salman mosque
that made it unique. So in this view, form and
style becomes the right of the architect to
translate it into the application of his design. As a
result, Islamic architecture becomes more
innovative, modern and keeps growing because it
is not bound to certain forms that could make it
stagnant. However, normatively, this freedom
should not contradict the principles and values of
Islam.
By freeing itself from traditional and cultural
bonds and returning to the principles and values of
152 | Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644
Islam, there is a strong possibility that new forms
and symbols will appear as in the contemporary
mosque architecture, the Salman mosque. The
Salman mosque has tried to present new symbolism
in mosque architecture in Indonesia that used to
be myths.
Finally, new symbolism appeared which does
not start with classical symbols such as mountains,
trees, Meru, Wantilan, temples, etc. A view on the
mosques contemporary symbolism has shifted to
the understanding of the individual architect who
translated Islamic values into a building
construction. In other words, order, space and the
form of architecture seem to be the problems of
each architect in implementing it.
In the end, the Salman mosque determined
the activities and career of Ahmad Noe’man. Most
job orders that came to him consisted of mosque
designs. No wonder that plenty of mosques came
from his creativity: the At-Tin Mosque at the
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, the Al Furqon mosque
at the Education University of Indonesia (UPI)
Bandung, the Asy-Syifa Mosque at the Faculty of
Medicine Padjajaran University Bandung, the Al-
Asyari Mosque (Bandung Islamic University), the
Lambung Mangkurat Mosque in Banjarmasin, the Al
Akbar Great Mosque Surabaya, the Amir Hamzah
Mosque at Ismail Marzuki Park (TIM) Jakarta, the
Islamic Center Jakarta, the Syekh Yusuf Mosque in
Cape Town South Africa and the Indonesian
Mosque in Sarajevo, Bosnia. No wonder he is also
known as the “architect of a thousand mosques”.
Out of the many mosques he has designed,
the Salman mosque is the one that is the most
impressive. In addition to being the first work of
his career, it is also because of the involvement of
his brother Ahmad Sadali in the design of the
mosque. Ahmad Sadali who was also an artist,
expert in the field of Islamic calligraphy and
lecturer in the Fine Arts Department ITB, was the
one who challenged Noe’man not to create an
“ordinary mosque”. Discussions between these two
siblings produced a creation that at that time
became a hot topic within the world of
architecture. The touch of Ahmad Sadali (who died
in 1987) in the design of the Salman Mosque is
visible at the front wall of the mosque (fig.8), a
game of color gradation. At the beginning of his
work, the color used for the gradation was green,
which then was changed to orange. In early 2014,
the color was changed back to green.
The collaboration of these two persons was felt
when Ahmad Noe’man acted as creator (fig.9) and
Ahmad Sadali as filler (fig.10). The creator was the
one who materialized the building and the filler
was the one who organized activities within the
building. Along with Muhammad Imaduddin Abdul
Rahim of Bang Imad, both organized activities of
the mosque so that at that time they could boost
the spirit of Islam to the young generation in
Indonesia with the teaching of tauhid lectures”.
The touch of technology combined with a touch of
modesty (instead of excessive art) was capable of
making the Salman mosque to have an aesthetic
value based on that modesty.
Figure 8. Salman Mosque
Figure 9: Ahmad Noeman,
March 2013
Figure 10: Ahmad
Sadali, 1924-1987
Conclusion
The Salman mosque as the initiator of the
new idea of design in Indonesia was made possible
by the political and social nuances during the
1960s. The progressive way of thinking of the
mosque designer happened to be in line with the
political climate at that time that strongly
supported ideas of building design that emphasized
on technology and newness. The Salman mosque
Journal of Islamic Architecture Volume 3 Issue 4 December 2015 • ISSN 2086-2636 • e-ISSN 2356-4644 | 153
was built in an era where the influence of Modern
Architecture was happening all over the world. The
work and thinking of leading figures such as Walter
Gropius, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Corbusier
became ponts of reference for other architects,
including Ahmad Noe’man. Other factors are:
rejection of the old style, materials, rejection of
details or ornaments, modest building forms, an
emphasis on honesty in structure and materials, a
thick roof line, continuous windows, open-plan
rooms and managed space (landscape), so it
cannot be denied that it relied on the ideas of
Modern Architecture.
Modern architecture is considered to be in
line (and not in contradiction) with Islamic rules
that put forward: functionality, lack of excess, yet
capable of showing obedience to God. The ijtihad
process that follows Achmad Noe’man’s intuition
to always rely on the Koran and Sunnah has made
the building suitable as a place of activities for a
complete mosque. Although it appears in modest
form, the artistic touch as human creation still
plays a role, making the building not merely
functional, but still capable of transmitting its
aesthetic subjective value.
The Salman mosque encourage some institutes
of higher education in Indonesia to establish
mosques on their campus. This phenomenon results
in impacts in the forms of: requirement of the
demand of places for worship in the planning of
educational area in Indonesia. The Salman mosque
makes some mosque architects aware to be
creative in developing mosque ideas, and does not
contradict Islamic values. In this case, it is right
that the Salman mosque has become a pioneer in
mosque design ideas, as well as becoming the
initiator for the spread of campus mosque in
Indonesia.
References
[1] A. Rochym, Sejarah Arsitekur Islam:
Sebuah Tinjauan. Bandung: Angkasa, 1983,
p. 3.
[2] Q. M. Shihab, Wawasan Al Qur’an.
Bandung: Mizan, 1997.
[3] “al-Baqarah, 2:144, 149-150,” in al-Qur’an
[4] “al-Baqarah [2]: 125,” in al-Qur’an
[5] Shahih Muslim No. 822-826
[6] “HR. Al-Bukhari Hadith 360.”
[7] “Al-Baqarah: 43; an-Nisa: 102; HR. Ibnu
Majah.”
[8] S. Gazalba, Masyarakat Islam: Pengantar
Sosiologi dan Sosiografi. Jakarta: Bulan
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[9] I. R. Al-Faruqi and L. L. Al-Faruqi, The
Cultural Atlas of Islam. Bandung: Mizan,
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[10] A. Noeman, “No Title.”
[11] Mahatmanto, “Nieuwe Masigit Tjipaganti,”
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Rakyat, 19-Jun-2001.
[13] S. Baharudin, I. C. Basri, and S. Hidayat,
“No Title.”
[14] A. S. Ekomadyo, “Architectural
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Internationalism and Regionalism. Case
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[15] Utami, Integrasi Konsep Islami dan Konsep
Arsitektur Modern pada Perancangan
Arsitektur Masjid (Studi Kasus pada Karya
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[16] B. S. Budi, “Masjid Salman ITB, Tonggak
Arsitektur Masjid Kontemporer di
Indonesia,” Kompas, 05-Jan-2003.
[17] S. Sungkar, “Sahari:Sahari Engineer
Struktur Masjid Salman,” 2014. [Online].
Available: http://syakieb-
sungkar.blogspot.co.id/2014/01/sahari.ht
ml. [Accessed: 10-Sep-2015].
... The architectural design reflects the Islamic concepts, as applied on the selection of the building form and materials [2]. Meanwhile, Dhewiyanti and Budi focus on the design of the mosque as the pioneer of a campus mosque in Indonesia [3]. Despite the studies on Noeman's architecture and the Salman Mosque, there is very little we know about its connection to the Indonesian mosque architecture and its history as a whole. ...
... The Salman Mosque was erected several years upon the initiation of the Istiqlal Mosque construction. The name "Salman", dedicated to Prophet Muhammad's companion Salman Al Farisi, was President Sukarno's idea, which was granted during the construction team's visit to the Presidential Palace in 1964 [3]. The use of concrete and marble confirms Sukarno's modernity as found in the Istiqlal Mosque as well. ...
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Islam has a powerful influence on people’s lives, especially in Indonesia, including in a mosque architecture, where influenced by several cultures. The mosque, a place for worship for Muslims, is a building that often experiences acculturation in its building design. Cipaganti Mosque, one of the oldest mosque in Bandung, might be identified by its Java style, Sunda style, and also Europe style. However, this mosque also reflects Islamic culture which include all architectural aspects of the building. This research aims to examine the extent to which Islamic culture exists in this mosque, and how the acculturation of the three cultures with Islamic culture becomes an inseparable part of the building architecture. Using a qualitative method with a descriptive approach divided into several stages, namely observation, documentation, and data analysis, the research was able to obtain a comprehensive and objective of a variety of cultural acculturation in Cipaganti Mosque building. Finally, found that the acculturation of Islamic culture in mosques was explicit and was found to be comprehensive from all aspects of the building. This acculturation, consisting of Islamic culture, Western European culture, Javanese culture, and Sundanese culture, makes Cipaganti Mosque has a unique architectural concept and makes this building one of the cultural heritage buildings in the city of Bandung. Islam memiliki pengaruh yang kuat dalam kehidupan masyarakat, khususnya di Indonesia, termasuk dalam arsitektur masjid, yang dipengaruhi oleh beberapa budaya. Masjid, tempat beribadah umat Islam, merupakan bangunan yang sering mengalami akulturasi dalam desain bangunannya. Masjid Cipaganti, salah satu masjid tertua di Bandung, mungkin bisa dikenali dari gaya Jawa, gaya Sunda, dan juga gaya Eropa. Namun, masjid ini juga mencerminkan budaya Islam yang mencakup semua aspek arsitektur bangunan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji sejauh mana budaya Islam ada di masjid ini, dan bagaimana akulturasi ketiga budaya tersebut dengan budaya Islam menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari arsitektur bangunan. Dengan menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan deskriptif yang terbagi dalam beberapa tahapan yaitu observasi, dokumentasi, dan analisis data, penelitian ini mampu memperoleh gambaran yang komprehensif dan objektif tentang berbagai akulturasi budaya pada bangunan Masjid Cipaganti. Akhirnya, ditemukan bahwa akulturasi budaya Islam di masjid-masjid secara eksplisit dan ditemukan menyeluruh dari semua aspek bangunan. Akulturasi budaya yang terdiri dari budaya Islam, budaya Eropa Barat, budaya Jawa, dan budaya Sunda ini menjadikan Masjid Cipaganti memiliki konsep arsitektur yang unik dan menjadikan bangunan ini sebagai salah satu bangunan cagar budaya di kota Bandung.
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