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The Major Environmental Problems in Congo Brazzaville: Case of Brazzaville

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In the world in general and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, environmental issues interest and influence more and more all the actors of society namely economic policy makers, civil society and government. Congo Brazzaville in general and Brazzaville in particular, which is also one of the cities of developing countries is faced with proven degradation environment problems whose causes are mainly from human activities, natural phenomena and socioeconomic problems. This environmental degradation threatens the health of populations both urban and rural. Drastic measures must be taken against these problems. Thus, an awareness policy and necessary measures must be developed to educate, raise awareness among people to prevent potential hazards related to this issue of environmental degradation that has become worrisome and compromises already the lives of people in the city of Brazzaville particularly.
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Journal of Finance and Accounting, 2015, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1-7
Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/jfa/3/1/1
© Science and Education Publishing
DOI:10.12691/jfa-3-1-1
The Major Environmental Problems in Congo
Brazzaville: Case of Brazzaville
Koua Stephen Faller*, Pr Yang Shu Wang
School of Economics and Management, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, PR China
*Corresponding author: stephen_faller@yahoo.fr
Received January 12, 2015; Revised January 26, 2015; Accepted January 29, 2015
Abstract In the world in general and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, environmental issues interest and influence
more and more all the actors of society namely economic policy makers, civil society and government. Congo
Brazzaville in general and Brazzaville in particular, which is also one of the cities of developing countries is faced
with proven degradation environment problems whose causes are mainly from human activities, natural phenomena
and socioeconomic problems. This environmental degradation threatens the health of populations both urban and
rural. Drastic measures must be taken against these problems. Thus, an awareness policy and necessary measures
must be developed to educate, raise awareness among people to prevent potential hazards related to this issue of
environmental degradation that has become worrisome and compromises already the lives of people in the city of
Brazzaville particularly.
Keywords: environmental problems, degradation, human activities, Brazzaville
Cite This Article: Koua Stephen Faller, and Pr Yang Shu Wang, The Major Environmental Problems in
Congo Brazzaville: Case of Brazzaville.” Journal of Finance and Accounting, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015): 1-7. doi:
10.12691/jfa-3-1-1.
1. Introduction
Already in 1972, the first major world conference on
the environment ( 1), issues related to climate change were
at the center of the concerns of world leaders. 43 years
later, this dangerous issue is becoming a growing concern,
to the point that any local as well global economic
decision needs to focus on the impacts it can have on the
environment.
As for Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of Congo
commonly called "Brazza the green"(2), the environmental
degradation phenomenon becomes more apparent. Indeed,
Brazzaville, an amazing city with streets like paths leading
to villages give it a charm and a certain and obvious
originality (Masson, 2012), known environmental
deterioration manifested by the disastrous consequences
both its people as its infrastructure and landscape that used
to be green. This study focuses on the environmental
problems of Brazzaville. First, we will briefly present the
city of Brazzaville, and then we will list the various
environmental problems undermining the said town and
finally, their main causes, and some approaches of
solutions to fight against this phenomenon. These are the
objectives of this work.
1 First major global environmental conference in 1972 in Stockholm,
Sweden.
2 Nickname given to Brazzaville through streets like paths leading to the
villages, Travel Blog, road book, photos Julien Masson.
2. Methodology
The methodology used for the realization of this article
is made by combining a certain number of research
techniques namely field observations and information
retrieval. The literature search allowed us to consolidate
the necessary information on the Brazzaville environment,
which has been treated thoroughly in order to discover the
truth that the documents cover. As for the field research, it
allowed us to compare the oral and written information,
this allowed us also to take some photographs of the urban
environment of the city of Brazzaville.
3. Area of Study
Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the
Republic of the Congo also called Congo Brazzaville and
is located on the Congo River.
The city was founded on 10 September 1880 on the site
of a Bateké village by an Italo-French explorer, Pierre
Savorgnan de Brazza, after whom the city was named.
The local leader, Makoko of the Téké, signed a treaty of
protection with de Brazza which subjugated his lands to
the French Empire. The city was built four years later in
order to become a competitor with Leopoldville (now
Kinshasa) which was built by the Belgians on the other
side of the river (the Democratic Republic of the Congo).
In order to distinguish between the two African
countries with "Congo" in their names, the Republic of the
2 Journal of Finance and Accounting
Congo is sometimes called Congo-Brazzaville, as opposed
to Congo-Kinshasa (the Democratic Republic of the
Congo, known from 1971 to 1997 as Zaire, the capital of
which is Kinshasa). Kinshasa lies on the southern bank of
the Congo, across from Brazzaville. This is the only place
in the world where two national capital cities are situated
on opposite banks of a river, within sight of each other.
With a population of 1,373,382 habitants (2007), it
covers an area of 110 km². Brazzaville is divided
administratively into seven (7) districts: Makélékélé,
Bakongo, Poto-Poto, Moungali, Ouenzé, Talangaï and
Mfilou (Pripode-CG1 Report, 2005) (Figure 1). It should
be noted that two new districts come to see the day that is
the district number 8 Madibou and the district number 9
Djiri (Law No. 9-2011 of 17 May 2011).
Figure 1. Districts of Brazzaville (Source: Pripode-CG1 Report, 2005)
4. Environmental Problems
First of all, a definitional approach of environmental
concept will elucidate our understanding. We take for
environment, "everything that surrounds us"; it is all
natural and artificial elements in which human life unfolds.
In Congo, the environment management is governed by
Act No. 003/91 of 24 April 1991 on the protection of the
environment. The National development plan of territory
(SNAT in French) also focuses on the preservation of the
environment and ecosystems. Also, the Poverty Reduction
Strategy Document (DSRP in French) places the
sustainable management of natural resources at the heart
of national priorities incorporating areas of socio-
economic development to environmental issues.
Despite all this precaution, the country, particularly in
its political capital, Brazzaville, the problems related to
environmental degradation are becoming an increasing
concern, among them we can mention sparsely: erosion,
pollution, waste, noise, water and electricity problems,
transport, deforestation, depletion of natural resources,
global warming...
4.1. Erosion
The country faces an ongoing erosion phenomenon that
disrupts the achievement of transport infrastructure.
There are generally two types of erosion: Wind
erosion and erosion by water or rain erosion.
4.1.1. Wind Erosion
It is characterized by three phases: firstly, the floor is
raised under the aerodynamic action of the wind, the
volume of the displaced sand is proportional to the cube of
the wind speed. Secondly, the transport phase, the sand
forming part of the flow is carried more or less depending
on the size and density of the particles. And finally, the
third phase, called sedimentation phase, result from both
Journal of Finance and Accounting 3
of the loss of power of the wind flow due to weather
events related to the topography and evapotranspiration of
the plant cover of the area addressed, it also depends on
both the size and density of the densest and most coarse
particles accumulating faster than finer and lighter
particles (Diamouangana, 2011). Wind erosion is less
frequent in Congo.
4.1.2. Rain Erosion
It is the most common phenomenon on the Brazzaville
site. It is the object of the evils of Brazzaville’s people.
Indeed, atmospheric precipitation is the causative factor
of the phenomenon of erosion by water. The nature of the
soil, some climate factors, slope, vegetation and man are a
set of factors that influence this phenomenon. As for the
erosion by water, there are four phases in the gully process
by water: the drop effect, sheet erosion, rill erosion and
erosion by digging (Ibid).
The city of Brazzaville undergoes fully the
consequences of the torrential rains leaving at their
passage astonishment and desolation (Figure 2). As shown
in the picture, enormous erosions emerge, destroying
homes and public infrastructures such schools and roads.
Figure 2. Landslide along a major roadway in a District in Brazzaville
The water erosion is due to anarchic housing estate, to
demographics resulting in urban expansion, rural exodus,
to deforestation, to the lack of storm water drainage
systems, of communication on the issue of erosion,
lapsing of urban development plan. Since the end of the
1970s, the rapid growth of cities (4 to 5% per year,
according to ECOM 2005) was not followed by the
construction of infrastructure and public facilities that
would respond to the demands of urban development due
to technical and financial inability of responsible services.
This is what explains the current situation, which is
characterized, first, by a significant lack of roads and
utilities on an important part of urban spaces, and
secondly, by the non-accompanying of a device performer
housing production.
4.2. Water Problems
We need to replace the water that our body eliminates
daily, but also to produce our food. That is why this
resource deserves special attention (Tietenberg et al, 2013).
If any part of the world population is sorely lacking in
fresh water, this is not the case of Congo Brazzaville in
general and Brazzaville in particular. According to
estimates, fresh water represents only 2.5% (1.4 billion
cubic kilometers) of the total volume of water available on
the planet. Of this, less than 1% (200,000 cubic kilometers)
is available for human consumption and ecosystems
(Gleick, 1993).
According to Biggs et al. (2004), in Congo, global
renewable resources are estimated at 832 billion cubic
meters, or 268 387 cubic meters per year, placing the
Congo in the category of countries with abundant water
resources.
Despite this advantage, the rate of drinking water in the
country is insufficient. Only 40.7% of the urban
population and 14.5% of rural dwellers have access to
drinking water in 2000 due to lack of modern structures.
People make use of the rain waters, ponds, streams, rivers,
and wells which are unprotected with all water-borne
diseases (schistosomiasis, bilharzia...).
Brazzaville has a dense hydrographic network
composed of the Congo River with many streams among
which we can mention: Tsiemé, Mfoa, Djoué ... But
unfortunately, with all that potential, water is a luxury
commodity in the city. The problem of access to drinking
water arises with acuity (Allessembaye, 1994). Moreover,
the Minister of Mines, energy and hydraulics said in
march 22nd 2007, at the opening of the meeting on the
'Decade of water', that ' the Congo suffers from a paradox:
a shortage of water next to potentially abundant reserves
and unsafe water in urban areas... ". In his speech, the
Minister raises actually two problems: the lack of access
to water and its poor quality (Ofouémé-Berton, 2010).
Several areas of the city including the outlying districts
are not served in drinking water because they are away
from the distribution network. Thus, to obtain water,
urban residents use wells, drilling and even rainwater. For
districts that have access to the distribution system, water
comes out jaggedly (3). When it comes out, they have to
wait for a long time (Figure 3) to get it even if it has a
color which “makes shudder" ( 4). According to ECOM
2005, 10% of households take at least an hour to access to
a source of drinking water. Usually, women and children
perform this task.
Yet managing water as an economic good has been
recognized as an excellent way to ensure efficient and
equitable use of resources, and encourage conservation
and protection at the International Conference on Water
held in Dublin in 1992 (Lefebvre, 2011). In Congo, the
management of this resource in particular its supply was
entrusted by the National Water Distribution Company
(SNDE in French) which, despite the growing number of
subscribers (72,062 in 2008 and 74,097 in 2009
concerning the department of Brazzaville) that is to say
the revenues generated by households, does not provide
any effort to resolve this disastrous situation which
becomes the daily life of citizens.
4.3. Power Problems
Nowadays, most of the industrialized countries depend
on oil and natural gas for their energy needs. Globally,
these resources represent 56.4% of all energy consumed
(International Energy Agency, 2012).
3 Characterized by alternating good and bad times, Microsoft Encarta,
2009
4 Causing a feeling of fear or fright, Microsoft Encarta 2009.
4 Journal of Finance and Accounting
Figure 3. Thread waiting for water in Brazzaville
The Congo has huge potential of hydropower, natural
gas and oil, however, population’s access to energy in
many forms (electricity, oil and gas) is very low.
According to the results of the ECOM, in urban areas, the
most used lighting mode is the oil lamp (70.1%) followed
by electricity (27%). In rural areas, the main lighting
mode is the oil lamp at 97%. Regarding the fuel used for
cooking food, it appears that 70% of the poor use
firewood against 44.1% of middle-class. In Brazzaville,
the two categories represent 36.3% and 17.4%,
respectively.
Like water, electricity is also managed by a state
company, the National Electricity Company (SNE in
French). Congo has two hydroelectric dams
(Moukoukoulou (74 MW) and Djoué (15MW)), a gas
plant at Djéno (25 MW) and a thermal power plant in
Pointe Noire. However the production is insufficient to
cover the electricity needs of the country, therefore, the
country has to import almost 60% of its electricity from
the Inga dam in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
The electricity problem is a headache for the Congolese
in general. The electrical network dating from years,
cannot serve the population living in peri-urban areas into
electricity (Balkiabiya, 2008). Indeed, transportation and
distribution networks are very old. Thus, the power cuts
phenomenon has become routine and an integral part of
Congolese’s life. It should be noted that this situation
continues for years and is becoming normal that no longer
surprises the Congolese because, by dint of lamenting
without finding satisfaction, many have developed
nervous problems. Hence, aggressive behavior towards the
company’s agents who, despite their bad management of
the electric network are always in the lookout when it
comes to unpaid bills. Faced with this situation, wood and
charcoal are used as the main source of energy especially
in cooking. Also, generators, solar plates, gas and oil
lamps ... become fashionable.
Despite the existence of several hydroelectric dams, gas
plant, and thermal power plant and recently the
construction of a new hydroelectric dam, especially the
dam of Imboulou (5), the city of Brazzaville and Congo in
general still facing the problems of electricity until this
day. From the point of view of housing comfort, just 28%
of Congolese households have electricity (including 27%
by subscription to the National Company). Access to
electricity presents a clear discrimination between poor
and non-poorhouseholds.
4.4. Global Warming
Climate change is a global environmental problem that
already threatens life of people around the world. The
National Climatic Data Center (NOAA) shows that the
global temperature rose by 0.8 degree since the beginning
of the industrial era. Between 1980 and 2010, this growth
was 0.6 degree and the month of november 2012 marked
the 333rd consecutive month in which the temperature
was higher than the average recorded for the same period
in the 20th century. Also, according to International
Energy Agency, the use of fossil energies has increased
the level of emissions of CO2.
5 New hydroelectric dam inaugurated on May 7, 2011.
Journal of Finance and Accounting 5
In fact, since the industrial revolution, we reject huge
amounts of gases that enhance the greenhouse effect.
Therefore, emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise
despite the fact that the consequences could be
catastrophic and irreversible on the whole of humanity.
We know for example that forests contribute to the
conservation of soils, climate regulation both regional and
global ... (Ott-Duclaux-Monteil, 2013), but, that does not
prevent forests and small forests to be overexploited all
around the world.
The use of wood and charcoal as energy, common in
the Brazzaville region causes the destruction of peri-urban
forest ecosystems that provide climate control. Also, the
explosion of population and the government urbanization
policy called "accelerated Municipalisation" cause several
devastating effects on the environment by the
phenomenon of pollution. Statistics show that the
distribution of emissions of CO2 in 2000 was: energy
Industries: 65.93%; transport: 29.78%; residential: 0.51%.
Ultimately, the effects of climate change in the
Republic of Congo are mainly reflected by: (1) a general
decrease in annual rainfall throughout the country, (2) a
general increase of maximum temperatures of about 0,
76˚C and 0, 69C for minimum temperatures and (3) a
general decrease in flow streams, rivers and their
tributaries. Added to this, natural disasters manifested by
winds, floods, torrential rains causing erosions and
landslides that cause damage to schools and hospitals and
leaving many homeless.
4.5. Noise Pollution
Noise pollution is the cause of many conflicts as well as
in Western cities than African cities. Despite the existence
of laws regulating noise pollution in Congo Brazzaville,
especially the Law number 003/91 of 23 April 1991 on the
protection of the environment, which in Article 11
prohibits noise causing nuisance to neighbors or harmful
to human health, Brazzaville is among the noisiest capitals
in Africa. Indeed, these excessive noises come mainly
from drinking places, churches (revivalist), gaudy street
vendors, the honking of buses and taxis. It should also be
noted, Maya-Maya airport located in bandaged areas and
the railway crossing an important part of the city cause
serious nuisance problems to the population. Hence the
appearances of many diseases such as blood pressure,
sleep disorders, overstrain, anxiety, aggressiveness....
4.6. Transports
Urban mobility in the southern countries has difficult
character to understand with the northern countries’
analysis repositories. Beyond the specific complexity
inherent in any system of individual’s mobilities, major
southern cities have their own operating logic [Godard,
2002].
The road network of Congo, with about 17 300 km long,
includes only 1235 km of paved roads, has deteriorated
and suffers from lack of maintenance.
Transports are among the major problems faced by
Congolese in general and Brazzaville’s population in
particular. This unpleasant situation is a major headache
especially as moving from one neighborhood to another
requires hours of waiting, also, you have to take two or
three buses to get there. Indeed, drivers section itineraries
set by the municipal authorities, which is at the origin of
the phenomenon of "short routes (demi-terrain in French)"
(6), phenomenon caused by traffic jams.
Very few households, whether they are poor or not,
have moving means. The movement means that
households have the most is the bicycle (6.2%), in semi
urban areas (12%) and rural (11%) (ECOM, 2006).
The spatial growth of Brazzaville and the explosion of
its population have led to an increase in demand for
transport. This increase in demand, is added, roads mostly
in total disrepair and poorly maintained, and collective
transport in very poor condition. There are indeed in
Brazzaville as in all other major cities of Congo, three
different modes of transport: (1) Individuals taxis with a
capacity of four places, the amount of the race varies
between 1.45 and 2.72 USD; (2) Common taxis, commonly
called "100-100" (7), with a capacity of six, the amount of
the race is 0.27 USD; (3) The public mini buses, known as
"hiace" with nineteen passengers capacity, and larger public
buses, commonly called "Coaster" with a capacity of thirty-one
passengers, the amount of the race is fixed at 0.27 USD
(Table 1) (Audard et al, 2012). This sector is managed by
individuals, but it is strictly regulated by the state.
Table 1. Characteristics of modes of land public transport in
Brazzaville
Modes
Type of
vehicle
Seating
capacity
Fare (cost of
travel)
Private taxis
Toyota
Corolla
4 persons USD 1.45-2.72
Public taxis
Toyota
Corolla
6 persons USD 0.27
Public mini
buses
Toyota Hiace 19 persons USD 0.27
Larger public
buses
Toyota
Coaster
31 persons USD 0.27
4.7. Waste
The increase in population leads to an increase in
consumption and therefore an important work of the waste
management (Nzoussi, 2014). For example, according to
the UN, 90% of sewage and 70% of industrial waste from
developed countries are dumped in the wild without any
treatment. The volume of waste is increasing and available
space to store them safely and without contaminating
groundwater decreases more and more (Tietenberg and
Lewis, 2013). For industrialized countries, reduce, reuse
and recycle are an effective response to fight against this
phenomenon affecting seriously both Western capitals that
are faring as best they can than capitals of the developing
countries which are most as the dumps of garbage,
commercial and industrial waste ...
The Congo produces several types of waste: banal
industrial waste, special industrial waste, household waste
and biomedical waste. In Congo, approximately 70% of
waste produced are biodegradable and 30% divided
between the industrial and hospital waste. These waste
mingle in the dumps (ECOM, 2006).
From "Ponton the beautiful"(8) (known as Pointe-Noire)
to "Brazza the green", none of the two capitals today
6 Phenomenon characterized by sectioning itineraries by drivers.
7 Nickname given to taxis generally in poor condition serving the
suburbs
8 Nickname given to Pointe-Noire, the economic capital of Congo
Brazzaville.
6 Journal of Finance and Accounting
deserves qualifiers "beautiful" or "green" because the
waste give another decoration to these cities. For example,
the remarkable presence of plastic bags everywhere
contributes to environmental degradation and loss of
biodiversity.
Indeed, waste give another form to the city of
Brazzaville. In most areas especially near markets, schools,
garbage is thrown in the streets, streams, ditches, abandoned
and unoccupied places; especially as waste management is
not assured by the municipality, also, spills are not
controlled by the competent authorities (Figure 4).
Generally there is no landfill site throughout the city that
leaves room for dumps. The pickups are occasional, often
at the request of the city dweller (Samba, 2007).
Figure 4. open pit waste in Brazzaville.
Now, more than 85% of the population have no more
access to adequate garbage collection service (ECOM,
2006). To strive against this phenomenon that sometimes
becomes unbearable because of odors, urban dwellers use
all opportunities that arise to them to get rid of their waste:
incineration without precaution, burial or abandonment in
the immediate vicinity, vacant lots, in gutters, along the
streets or rivers crossing the city, or they make calls to
"pousse-posseurs"( 9 ) for a small sum (0.18USD to
0.54USD) whom at their turn, will discharge them in
illegal dumps.
4.8. Pollution
Pollution comes in many forms: air pollution (the most
serious form in the capitals of the industrialized countries
such as Beijing), water pollution and soil pollution (the
most common form in the capitals of developing countries
including Brazzaville).
The air pollution is the most famous of all type of
pollution. It is caused mainly by the gases and particles
released into the atmosphere by automobiles, by
9 Individual with a wheelbarrow to transport household
waste
incineration of garbage, the putrefaction of garbage
littering the streets, industries, the use of wood and
charcoal, generators ... The World Health Organization
(WHO) estimates that nearly 7 million people died
prematurely in 2012, one in eight people in the world, due
to exposure to pollution air. The air pollution has become
a major environmental risk to health in the world (Our
Planet, 2014).
Pollution of soil, as we said above, is the most popular
form in Brazzaville because of piles of garbage we find
everywhere in the neighborhoods, the use of chemical
fertilizers for agriculture, release of toxic industrial waste.
As for water pollution directly related to soil pollution,
it is through the discharge of waste water from households,
hospitals and industries in nature. These waters, either
rejected in parcels or dumped in the streets eventually
evaporate by depositing rubbish they contain (Vennetier,
1991) and they usually finish their race in the oceans via
rivers.
4.9. Deforestation
Wood and charcoal provide by forest are the main
sources of energy for Brazzaville’s citizens especially in
cooking and heating. This dependence on wood has
Journal of Finance and Accounting 7
resulted in the disappearance of small forests of the city
making soils most vulnerable against degradation
processes because, forests, contribute to the conservation,
also in the regulation of that global and regional climate.
4.10. Depletion of Natural Resources
The forests of the Congo Basin are threatened. This
forest area, the second in the world after the Amazon is
the victim of illegal trade in tropical timber. This is also
the case of Brazzaville’s small forests which gradually
disappear. Or tropical forests are the richest reservoirs of
biodiversity on the planet.
5. Conclusion and Recommendations
This study, regarding environmental problems in
Brazzaville has allowed us to address the environmental
issue of the capital city of Congo. Erosions, the various
forms of pollution, waste, noise pollution, deforestation,
the depletion of resources, global warming, water and
energy issues, and transportation, human activities are the
main cause of these problems as well as natural
phenomena, without forgetting the ineffectiveness of
government policies. However, human activities in the
environmental degradation processes are at the same time
direct, indirect and cumulative (Diamouangana, 2011). In
most developing countries, we are witnessing a race of
irresponsible use of natural resources without considering
the consequences it may cause on the environment. In this
perceptive, every economic decision had to consider the
consequences beforehand it would generate on the
environment.
Draconian policies must be undertaken against these
phenomena. In the fight against erosion governments must
fight against the uncontrolled construction on land at high
risk, develop a policy of good management of rainwater,
encouraging the protection and restoration of soil and
finally, afforestation that is to say the hardiest ground
cover, densest and most durable on the slopes summits to
avoid tearing the high slopes. Policies of creation of
drilling for drinking water in rural areas must be
implemented; programmes of infrastructure development
of drinking water supply and adequate sanitation systems
must be also established.
To fight against the emission of greenhouse gases, it
would decide the accelerated elimination of old vehicles,
reducing the prominence given to the private car, giving
more space for public transport. Encourage the production
and consumption of recyclable or biodegradable products.
Reduce, reuse and recycle waste while creating good
conditions of storage. Improving citizens' lives by
allowing them access to basic services such as health,
education, water, transport...actively fighting against
poverty by creating jobs.
Above all, public authorities at the local level, regional
as global, non-governmental organizations (NGOs),
international organizations should take their responsibilities
in this dangerous issue of environmental degradation that
compromises already life of people around the world. So
they face a requirement, that of developing an awareness
policy especially in underdeveloped countries where
human activities are the cause of the deterioration of the
environment.
Acknowledgments
I would like to express my special appreciation and
thanks to my supervisor Professor Yang Shu Wang and
Doctor zhu ya Li, for encouraging my research and for
allowing me to grow as a research scientist. I would like to
thank also my family and friends especially Nzoussi
Hilaire Kevin, Andrianjatovo Njaranirina Simone Bernard
and Moussounda Kounga Ernest Claude for counsels and
encouragements.
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Article
This article owes its inspiration to a series of photos that poetically documents the street lighting conditions in Brazzaville and which was taken by the Congolese photographer Baudouin Mouanda (born 1981). The first section reviews the provision of electricity and street lighting systems in sub-Saharan Africa as an expression of state power and weakness through infrastructural visibility and invisibility. Its aim is to provide a qualitative background and to enhance the situational understanding of the second, site-related section of the article which focuses on Brazzaville, the capital city of the Republic of Congo. Here Mouanda’s visual series is interpreted in light of conceptions of the ‘shadow’ and the ‘non-complete’, usable in trying to grasp the urban formations and lived realities in the global South.
Article
In this article a model is proposed that could be used as a basis for ecological planning of natural resources. The role of people as part of the ecosystem is emphasized, and the various factors that should be considered in such planning are discussed. An understanding of ecological planning is dependent on the study of human activities in, and the nature of, natural ecosystems. It also depends on the fact that people are a part of nature, and as a result nature is of value to humans. Realizing the importance of this principle is a prerequisite to studying nature and also for an understanding of the various steps in the ecological planning approach. Realization of these values is often through a series of activities that may result in a negative environmental impact. Nature is described as an interacting group of natural features and processes. In this study both the features and processes are described as natural resources. The use of these natural resources obviously affects them, and if this use is to continue over a long period, both the activity and the resource must be understood if they are to be maintained in a productive state. In order to limit impact and maintain value, a planning aid called zoning is used to assist in the understanding of the processes involved.
Peri-urban growth in a city of the third world: case of the western suburbs of Brazzaville
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Allessembaye D., Peri-urban growth in a city of the third world: case of the western suburbs of Brazzaville, synthesis report No. 9, University of Chad Ndjamena, 1994, 21
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