Package integrity testing

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The food packaing tests, its designs and other features of packaging are discussed. Product, process, distribution cycle and cost of packaing must be considered before choosing the package for the product. Migration testing and package integrity testing are also investigated.

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... However, a major limitation of LSPIT is the limit of length to diameter (slenderness) ratio (L/D) of the pile shaft that should be usually not greater than 40. Albrecht and Cannon (1993), Paikowsky and Chernauskas (2003), and Ni, Isenhower and Huang (2012) discussed the advantages and limitations of the LSPIT. ...
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This paper presents the performance of low strain pile integrity test (LSPIT) based on data collected from selected piles in Lagos and Port-Harcourt industrial cities of Nigeria. Two types of piles were considered in this paper, namely bored piles (BP) and auger cast-in-place piles (ACIP). A brief review of LSPIT was carried out and the case studies were introduced. Wireless pile integrity tester (PIT-W) manufactured by Pile Dynamics Incorporation was applied for data collection and analysis. Basically, seven major categories of LSPIT can be introduced based on velocity curves reflection. These categories of piles are well detailed in the result section as AA, AB, ABx, PFx, PDx, IVx and IR. The classification above improves existing ones because information is available on precise pile length at which, soundness and defects of pile can be detected. Results obtained from case studies indicated that tested piles were primarily of the AA, AB, PFx and PDx categories/type. The study areas were chosen because most of the industrial application of piles in Nigeria can be found in these two cities. Summarily, all tested BP were structurally sound, about 78% of the all tested piles (BPs and ACIPs) were reported to be structurally sound, while 22% have impedance changes indicating slight soil intrusion, negligible voids within concrete mass without severe effect on the structural soundness of piles and they were typically ACIPs. The term ‘anomaly’ in this paper is used to describe piles with slight positive reflection for small necking, voids, cracks, etc.
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Package integrity is a primary measure of a package’s ability to keep the contained product inside and to keep potential contaminants out. In this study, injecting and vacuum dye penetration methods were applied for the assessment of the package integrity of retortable flexible pouches having various sizes of micro-channels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of dye penetration as a physical test that can be incorporated into a stability protocol and compare the results of the dye penetration test with those from the bacterial aerosol challenge test. The study found a direct correlation between the results of the vacuum dye penetration test and those of the microbial test. The critical leak size that can ensure the flexible package integrity was 15 μm. To detect defective pouches, the dye vacuum testing had a sensitivity similar to that of bioaerosol challenge test.
As the biotech industry evolves, there are mounting concerns about transportation, security, and robustness of cell-culture media, intermediate, or bulk drug substance (BDS). Safe, stable, and closed systems are needed when sterile products are shipped in single-use bags. In this article, the authors look at the limitations of validation for a single-use shipping system, and provide perspective on what shipping validation means
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