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Podcasting has become a major phenomenon within both our society and our educational system, as is evidenced by the large quantity of scientific publications on the topic. However, the study of podcasting in higher education remains in its initial phase of study. The results of research on podcasting are notably diverse and are even occasionally contradictory. Thus, this chapter performs a thorough review of the literature with the objective of developing a podcasting model that can establish the necessary guidelines for the study of podcasting. This model is key to defining control variables for sharing and incorporating research results on podcasting. Finally, the chapter proposes a list of future lines of podcasting research based on the literature review and the proposed model for creating podcasts.
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Chapter 14
Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting
in Higher Education
Vicenc Fernandez, Jose M Sallan and Pep Simo
Abstract Podcasting has become a major phenomenon within both our society
and our educational system, as is evidenced by the large quantity of scientific
publications on the topic. However, the study of podcasting in higher education
remains in its initial phase of study. The results of research on podcasting are
notably diverse and are even occasionally contradictory. Thus, this chapter per-
forms a thorough review of the literature with the objective of developing a
podcasting model that can establish the necessary guidelines for the study of
podcasting. This model is key to defining control variables for sharing and
incorporating research results on podcasting. Finally, the chapter proposes a list of
future lines of podcasting research based on the literature review and the proposed
model for creating podcasts.
14.1 Introduction
In 2005, the editors of the New Oxford American Dictionary chose a new tech-
nological tool as the word of the year: podcasting (Skira 2006). Although the
existing literature has identified a long list of uses and features of podcasts, much
remains to be studied, particularly in the field of higher education. This chapter
aims to provide an overview of how podcasting research has evolved in recent
years, particularly in higher education, and to identify remaining gaps in the
research on podcasting. In other words, this chapter intends to link current and
V. Fernandez (&)J.M Sallan P. Simo
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
e-mail: vicenc.fernandez@upc.edu
J.M Sallan
e-mail: jose.maria.sallan@upc.edu
P. Simo
e-mail: pep.simo@upc.edu
ÓSpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015
M. Li and Y. Zhao (eds.), Exploring Learning & Teaching in Higher Education,
New Frontiers of Educational Research, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-55352-3_14
305
future research on podcasting, attempting to unify the diverse perspectives that
exist on the subject.
This chapter is divided into several sections. The first chapter introduces
podcasting, how it works, its components, and how its definition has evolved in
recent years. The second section lists and describes the aspects of podcasting that
have been investigated and the results that have been obtained. As can be
observed, the research focuses on very different aspects from distinct perspectives,
sometimes arriving at opposite perspectives, despite having the same objective.
The chapter concludes with a list of podcasting’s main contributions to student
learning. Based on this literature review and input from other areas of scientific
research, such as communications or organizational behavior, a model is proposed
for the creation of new podcasts that allows for a better fit among goals established
by teachers, needs of students, and podcasts. Finally, the last section provides
several conclusions that may be useful for those researchers and/or teachers who
wish to investigate the use of podcasting in education further.
14.2 What Is Podcasting?
Meng (2005, p. 1) defines podcasting as ‘‘the process of capturing an audio event,
song, speech, or mix of sounds and then posting that digital sound object to a Web
site or blog in a data structure called an RSS 2.0 envelope (or feed). Using spe-
cialized news readers, users can subscribe to a Web page containing RSS 2.0
tagged audio files on designated Web pages and automatically download these files
directly into an audio management program on their personal computer. When a
user synchronizes their portable audio device with their personal computer, the
podcasts are automatically transferred to that device to be listened to at the time
and location most convenient for the user.’’ However, nowadays, there are new
kinds of podcasts: traditional podcasts, enhanced podcasts, and video podcasts, or
vodcasting. The enhanced podcast is similar to traditional podcasts; however, this
kind of podcast contains multimedia information, such as slides, pictures, images,
photographs, short videos, and chapters that help users to increase their perception
about the topic. Vodcasting is one of the latest innovations in the podcasting world
where it exchanges the audio of traditional podcasts for video. For this reason, it is
more usual to play this kind of podcasts on a laptop or on a PDA, with bigger
displays than MP3 players.
The increase in the number of portable music players and podcasting has been
very significant during the last few years due to five main factors (Campbell 2005):
Internet activity is pervasive; the growth of broadband has been very fast; there is a
widespread availability of the multimedia personal computer; the distinction
between streaming and downloading of media content has begun to blur; there is a
rapid adoption of portable MP3 playback devices. Podcasting offers some inter-
esting advantages, compared to other technological tools (Donnelly and
Berge 2006). The most important one is the capability for it to be used anytime
306 V. Fernandez et al.
anywhere. In a society where time is the most essential resource, this characteristic
has allowed podcasting to reach an exceptional position. The creation of small and
portable MP3 and video players has allowed users to decide where and when they
want to listen to podcasts, according to their needs. Moreover, podcasting provides
another interesting advantage: Users can do other tasks (e.g., cooking, taking notes,
driving, running, strolling, travel to work), while they are listening to them.
The results of this increase of podcasting are observed in many universities
where podcasting has been implemented at institutional level (Lee et al. 2008).
From 2002, Georgia College and State University have been introducing pod-
casting in some courses to include audio material. In 2004, Duke University
distributed MP3 players to its 1,650 first-year students, preloaded with orientation
information. Moreover, the servers of Duke University offer administrative and
academic materials in digital format via iTunesU. Later, in 2005, Drexel distrib-
uted MP3 players with photo capabilities to its students in their first academic year.
Other universities that have implemented podcasting at an institutional level are
University of California, Berkeley, Princeton University, and Stanford University.
Nowadays, existing literature has identified three academic uses of podcasting
(Donnelly and Berge 2006), which are to disseminate course content, to capture
live classroom material, and to enhance studying. Moreover, MP3 players also
offer other academic uses, such as recording field notes and supporting file transfer
and storage. However, the initial research conducted on the use of podcasting had
mainly focused on three educational areas: nursing education (e.g., Skira 2006),
medical education (e.g., Savel et al. 2007), and geography education (e.g.,
Lim 2006); nowadays, we find much recent research on podcasting in the majority
of educational sectors, such as engineering and management education (e.g.,
Berger 2007; Kao 2008; Nataatmadja and Dyson 2008; Palmer and Hall 2008).
However, there have been very few published examples of podcasting in higher
education sector to empower students and even fewer based around learner-gen-
erated podcasts. Much of this research is limited to the process of creation of
podcasting and to some general results, without considering whether the use of
podcasting fits the rest of materials on the course or the principles for good
practice in higher education. Some aspects studied by this small number of pub-
lications are the motivation of students and their attitudes for using podcasting
(Kao 2008; Nataatmadja and Dyson 2008; Shim et al. 2007), the improvement in
the efficiency of lectures after listening to podcasts (Copley 2007), the difference
between podcasts and traditional teaching materials in the learning processes
(Copley 2007), and the production of podcasts by students to generate knowledge
(Lee et al. 2008). However, the main usefulness of podcasting in higher education
is still its ability to disseminate course content, as illustrated in iTunesU and
Higher Education Podcast Repository (http://ed-cast.org/), which are the most
important repositories of podcasts in education. The use of podcasting with other
goals has not been completely developed, and there are still few empirical studies
focusing on their impact upon the learning process of students (Heilesen 2010; Lee
et al. 2009; Abdous et al. 2012). According to Jowitt (2008), the main features of
podcasting are as follows:
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 307
1. Portability, flexibility, and convenience
2. Listening anywhere at any time
3. Multitasking while moving about
4. Easy Internet access when needed
5. Listening repeatedly
6. Controlling speed of playback
7. Automatic RSS subscription
8. Free and individual choice of what to listen to
9. Special advantages for auditory learners
10. Enhances services to distance and online students.
14.3 Benefits and Drawbacks of Podcasting
A review of the scientific literature published on the effectiveness and efficiency of
podcasts within the educational community shows disparate results. As Heilesen
(2010) notes, the number of longitudinal studies that analyze the learning effects of
podcasting is scarce. Most studies have a time horizon equal to or less than a
semester, making it difficult to assess the results obtained in the learning processes.
Moreover, most studies are conducted at an undergraduate level (particularly in
their initial phases), and the results should therefore be framed within this context;
for this reason, caution is necessary when extrapolating these results to a profes-
sional or business level. Lastly, note that podcasting research is found in a large
number of disciplines, such as languages, computer science, business, engineering,
nursing, psychology, library sciences, and law. Heilesen (2010) lists the three most
common ways that authors have evaluated the effects of podcasting on the learning
processes of students:
Questionnaires, work groups, and individual interviews
Evaluating access to materials or assessing the outcome of students in the
course
Controlled experiments in predesigned learning situations
Table 14.1 summarizes the main effects of the use of podcasting from empirical
studies published. Heilesen (2010) groups the results of his literature review into
two categories: studies that suggest that the use of podcasts has no effect on the
learning process (or the results are inconclusive) and studies that propose that
podcasting has positive effects.
14.3.1 Negative Results on Podcasting
We observed researchers that were skeptical about the utility of podcasting based
on their results. For example, the quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cann
308 V. Fernandez et al.
Table 14.1 Results of the main empirical studies published in scientific journals on the use of
podcasting in higher education
Authors (year) Benefits and drawbacks of podcasting
Campbell (2005) Podcasting involves a massive decline in students’ on-campus class
attendance
Read (2005) The main use of podcasting by students is to review the most
important parts of on-campus sessions
Smith et al. (2005) The benefit of podcasts is only significant when students are involved
in their creation
Brittain et al. (2006) Podcasts are a better tool for course content review, not for first-time
study, than are textbooks
Abt and Barry (2007) The use of podcasting provides little quantitative benefit over more
traditional materials; however, podcasting can be useful in the
development of generic skills if students are involved in its
development
Brown and Green
(2007)
Students mainly listen to podcasts through their computers or laptops
Cann (2007) Podcasting is not popular enough among students; therefore, its
benefit is not significant
Deal (2007) Podcasts based on the dissemination of on-campus classes do not
have significant utility for students
Fernandez (2007) Podcasting involves a massive decrease in on-campus attendance by
students
Students always download podcasts immediately before
examinations instead of doing so periodically throughout the course
Kurtz et al. (2007) The use of podcasting can improve students’ results on final projects
Malan (2007) Students are enthusiastic regarding the use of podcasting; however,
the use of podcasts by enrolled students provides little benefit in the
learning process but becomes significant for those who cannot attend
class or are not enrolled
Stolen (2007) Podcasting offers the option to learn when students have the time and
ability to do so
Evans (2008) Students are more receptive to podcasts than to more traditional
materials, such as textbooks
Carle et al. (2009) The use of podcasting for storing and distributing class discussions
improves the feedback that they receive
Fernandez et al. (2009) The combination of different kinds of teaching materials (auditory,
visual, and kinesthetic materials) allows students to improve and
enhance their learning process
The use of podcasts increases the sense of proximity between
teachers and students, increasing students’ motivation
Lazarri (2009) The benefit of podcast use is only significant when students are
involved in its creation
Podcasts based on the dissemination of on-campus sessions have
residual value
The results of podcasting are different when applied to full-time and
part-time students
(continued)
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 309
(2007) showed that podcasting is not sufficiently widespread among the majority
of students; for this reason, it has not become popular among them, and they may
reject it. The results of Deal (2007) also showed that podcasts based merely on the
spread of attendance sessions do not demonstrate a significant utility in the
learning process. These results coincide with conclusions made by Lazzari (2009),
who observed that the distribution of material through podcasts to part-time stu-
dents does not affect their learning and that the use of podcasting as a learning
support tool is therefore pedagogically neutral. McKinney et al. (2009) found that
the use of podcasting only helped student learning if they took notes and listened
to the podcasts multiple times. Moreover, these researchers observed that it was
necessary for the students to behave as if they were in a face-to-face class. In other
words, podcasting was only efficient if the students utilized it in a context
equivalent to face-to-face sessions. Campbell (2005) and Fernandez (2007) sug-
gested that the increase in Web classes via podcasting could provoke a massive
decline in attendance in face-to-face classes by students. Likewise, these
researchers observed that students only downloaded occasionally the material
during the course (particularly in the days leading up to evaluative acts) although
lecturers uploaded the classes weekly. According to Traphagan et al. (2010), the
use of podcasts also negatively affected the attention levels of students in class for
reasons similar to those encountered in the delivery of transparencies used in class.
According to their results, students decreased their level of attention due to their
perceived certainty that they would be able to experience the benefits of attending
class through podcasts.
Table 14.1 (continued)
Authors (year) Benefits and drawbacks of podcasting
Lee et al. (2009) Students mainly listen to podcasts using their computers or laptops.
As portable devices become more popular (e.g., players, mobile
phones, tablets) for accessing course content, students will begin to
utilize them for listening to educational podcasts
McKinney et al. (2009) Podcasting only provides benefits if the students take notes and listen
to the podcasts multiple times
Bongey et al. (2006) Podcast use does not result in a significant decrease in class
attendance
Heilesen (2010) Podcasting improves the academic environment
Larkin (2010) Podcast use does not result in a significant decrease in class
attendance
Kemp et al. (2010) As a review tool, podcasts decrease students’ anxiety before an
examination; however, their final examination scores do not improve
Traphagan et al. (2010) Podcasting adversely affects students’ attention levels in class
Kay (2012) The results of the use of video podcasting are notably different and
are not directly comparable
Kazlauskas and
Robinson (2012)
Students prefer in-class sessions to podcasts
310 V. Fernandez et al.
In agreement with Roschelle (2003), every new generation of educational
technology offers the opportunity to improve how teachers teach. However, Lonn
and Teasley (2009) observed that most teachers who use podcasting have not
changed their manner of teaching, as they merely upload their face-to-face classes
to the corresponding repository, which has led many students to treat podcasts as
transparencies (simple teaching materials for the review of content offered in class)
instead of treating them as a new tool offering opportunities to build new
knowledge. Palmer and Devitt (2007) indicated that podcasting is associated with
passive learning (centered only on listening to content) against recent trends based
on active teaching methodologies where the student is the central and active actor
in his/her own learning process. McGarr (2009) designated this phenomenon as
‘the worst aspects of the transmission model of learning.’
14.3.2 Optimistic Results on Podcasting
Similar to how we found a long list of authors skeptical of podcasting, we also found
scholars at the opposite extreme who consider their experiences with podcasting
successful. Duke University pioneered the use of podcasting when it provided free
iPods to all students in 2004 to ensure that they could easily access all podcasts that
were being developed at both an institutional and a course level. According to Read
(2005), 75 % of the students interviewed declared that they had, at minimum, used
subject podcasts at least once to play and review the most important parts of the on-
campus sessions during their free time. An increase in the creation and dissemination
of podcasts has subsequently been observed in various universities, including
Stanford, MIT, Yale, and UC Berkeley. This increase has been accompanied and
justified by the results obtained by a large quantity of scientific research on the
subject. For example, Kurtz, Fenwick, and Ellsworth (2007) observed higher scores
in their students’ final projects after the use of podcasting. Lazzari (2009) found that
full-time students’ involvement in the development of podcast lessons effectively
improved their learning experiences. Similar results were obtained by Smith
et al. (2005). The results of Evans (2008) suggest that students prefer podcasts before
consulting such traditional materials as textbooks or classroom sessions. Likewise,
these students also suggested that podcasts were the most appropriate tools for
reviewing content throughout the course, being favored over other more traditional
materials and even their own notes. Brittain et al. (2006) present the same results,
concluding that podcasts are a better tool for reviewing (not for initial studying)
course content than are textbooks. However, more significant results were obtained
by Barret et al. (2006), who used podcasts in cardiac auscultation training. In health
training, Stolen (2007) argued that podcasting offers students the option and ability
to develop when they have time and not when dictated by an academic calendar.
From a different perspective, Lee and Chan (2007) and Fernandez et al. (2009)
show additional benefits of using podcasting. According to Lee and Chan (2007),
podcasting can significantly reduce feelings of loneliness when studying, increasing
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 311
the sense of belonging to a group or community of students. Fernandez et al. (2009)
suggest that the use of podcasts increases the sense of proximity between teachers
and students, which accordingly increases students’ motivation. Carle et al. (2009)
obtained similar results for motivation and participation of students after intro-
ducing podcasts into a course. According to Lazzari (2009), podcasts created,
edited, and delivered by students can be a form of developing teamwork, promoting
collaboration, creating and structuring (through roles) group work, and developing
a social network within a course.
14.3.3 Other Notable Results Concerning Podcasting
As is true in most areas of education, no aspect is completely black and white, and
podcasting is no exception. Various studies on podcasting show that its use
simultaneously demonstrates benefits and drawbacks. Abt and Barry (2007)
observed that podcasts provide better benefits than other traditional teaching tools
(e.g., textbooks) but that the difference between podcasts and traditional teaching
tools was very small. Research conducted by Malan (2007) obtained interesting
results: The use of podcasts was received by students in a highly satisfactory
manner. Students also assessed positively the utility of podcasting in their learning
process. However, Malan (2007) observed that the final benefit of using podcasts
in a course was notably low, arriving at the conclusion that podcasting was mainly
beneficial to those students who could not attend on-campus sessions or could not
enroll. In contrast to the results of Traphagan et al. (2010), Bongey et al. (2006)
and Larkin (2010) found that the use of podcasts did not involve a significant
decrease in class attendance. According to Kazlauskas and Robinson (2012), the
majority of students preferred on-campus sessions, for which reason the use of
podcasting simply occurred when on-campus sessions could not be attended.
Brown and Green (2007) reported that the majority of students listened to
podcasts using their computers or laptops, rather than music players (e.g., iPods).
Lee, Miller, and Newnham (2009) replicated this research and obtained the same
results. According to these researchers, this finding is observed because students
do not perceive educational podcasts in the same way as music or audio to which
they normally listen. Additionally, because all other course materials were avail-
able through a computer or laptop, students associated the learning methods of
educational podcasts with computers and laptops. Lee et al. (2009) also suggested
that as technology progresses and students can access all their materials through
portable devices (e.g., players, phones, and tablets), the use of podcasts will
migrate from computers to these devices. Kemp et al. (2010) observed that as a
review tool, podcasts can decrease student anxiety before an examination; how-
ever, final grades do not significantly improve.
Piñeiro-Otero (2012) and Borges (2009) recently presented a compilation of the
possible advantages of using educational podcasts for students. (1) Cognitive
advantages: The use of podcasts is capable of enhancing student competency in
312 V. Fernandez et al.
communication and personal relationships, collaborative learning and interpreta-
tion, analysis, and selection and distribution of content. (2) Student involvement:
Performing activities with podcasts can promote independent learning. (3) Student
self-management: Students must plan their work given the asynchronous nature of
the podcast (in downtime and leisure). (4) Access to teacher directions: Teachers
can offer the necessary guidelines such that students can listen to clarifications or
explanations of classroom material at any time and place. (5) Continuity of study:
Podcasts can improve students’ ability to manage and utilize podcast content on a
regular basis. (6) Comprehension: Given the possibilities for repetition, podcasts
facilitate the comprehension of certain content while reinforcing learning of this
content. (7) Anxiety reduction: Podcasts can decrease student anxiety regarding
the content of a certain subject or at the time of evaluation, as the student is able to
review these contents at any time.
Throughout the literature review, audio podcasts have not been significantly
differentiated from video podcasts. Kay (2012) conducted a review of only video
podcasts and obtained interesting results, grouped into four categories: reasons for
utilizing video podcasts, attitudes toward video podcasts, behaviors of the students,
and learning results. As Kay (2012) states, reasons for using video podcasting are
diverse: review of course content before examinations, class preparation, clarify-
ing explanations, note-taking, improvement in on-campus classes, choosing place
and time to study according to the needs of the students, and even virtual atten-
dance for classes that students have not been able to attend. However, reasons for
not using video podcasts have also been identified: technical problems (e.g., file
size, download time, unavailability of mobile devices, lack of knowledge of
podcasts), lack of interaction, lack of knowledge of their existence, and excess of
teaching material, which causes students to state that they were too busy to view
them. From the perspective of attitudes, video podcasts have been described as
enjoyable, motivating, interesting, and stimulating; at the same time, they are
graded as useful, helpful, effective, very positive about creating podcasts, and easy
to use. However, a number of students commented that they preferred increases in
on-campus classes over increases in the number of podcasts. It is noteworthy that
no study reported negative emotional attitudes in the use of video podcasts. Highly
diverse results have been obtained on the behavior of students toward the use of
video podcasts from studies showing a decrease in the number of students that
attended class to studies demonstrating the exact opposite. The results same apply
to their use. Various studies observed that the number of downloads, viewing of
weekly podcasts, and students who utilized them was high, while another large
number of other studies showed that students did not regularly watch the podcasts
and simply used them right before final examinations. Finally, regarding learning
results, many studies show that the use of podcasting positively affects study
habits, leading to more independence, self-reflection, efficient test preparation, and
better review. Moreover, students who viewed video podcasting obtained higher
scores in tests than did students who studied by traditional approaches, and the
students who studied by podcasting improved their teamwork, technology skills,
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 313
and teaching skills. However, numerous other studies show no significant impact
of podcasting on learning, test scores, and target behaviors.
After analyzing the results obtained in prior investigations, we observed that
podcasting is a concept, methodology, or tool sufficiently broad and flexible that
the results of two or more studies cannot be compared until a framework for
comparison has been established. For example, we cannot compare podcasts based
on the simple recording of classes to podcasts used specifically to explain a
concept. Likewise, podcasts based on the recording of classes where the majority
of students regularly attend are not comparable to the recording of classes that
students have difficulty in attending. Furthermore, several aspects have been
identified in the development of podcasts that may not provide any benefit to
students. Therefore, the development of a methodology is proposed for the crea-
tion, editing, and distribution of podcasts with two objectives: (1) to remove all
elements of podcasting that, as detected in the literature, can be harmful to the
student learning process and (2) to establish a reference framework that will later
allow for the analysis and comparison of experiences performed with podcasts.
14.4 Considerations Before Creating a Podcast
Before introducing a methodology for the creation, editing, and distribution of a
podcast in higher education, it is necessary to discuss and analyze certain aspects,
which are detailed below.
14.4.1 Types of Podcasts
Voegele and Card (2006) identified three types of podcasting: administrative
podcasts used to distribute, for example, general information, rules, and guide-
lines; special events’ podcasts that broadcast lessons of guest lecturers, confer-
ences, awards, and honors; and class podcasts, defined by their involvement in any
learning process within a course. According to McGarr (2009), class podcasts can
be subdivided into three categories: substitution podcasts, characterized by simply
recording classes in the course or substituting them (e.g., Gannod et al. 2008;
McKinney and Page 2009; Smith and Fidge 2008); supplementary podcasts,
which offer summaries of classes or materials in addition to what is provided and
discussed in class (e.g., Mathiasen and Schrum 2008; Nathan and Chan 2007;
Edirisingha et al. 2007b; Bell et al. 2007; Maag 2006) elaborated by the same
teachers or by other agents external to the course; and creative podcasts, created
and edited by students (e.g., Earp et al. 2006; Frydenberg 2006; Lazzari 2009; Lee
et al. 2008). This taxonomy is notably similar to that proposed by Hew (2009) who
suggested the existence of lecture podcasts, supplementary podcasts, and student
projects. Harris and Park (2008) spoke of the adoption of podcasting based on four
314 V. Fernandez et al.
variables: teaching, service, marketing, and technology. Meanwhile, Kay (2012)
suggested the existence of four types of podcasts: class-based podcasts, which
involve recording entire classes (e.g., Heilesen 2010); enhanced podcasts, created
based on PowerPoint with audio explanations included (e.g., Holbrook and
Dupont 2010); supplementary podcasts, which aim to increase student learning
through administrative support, actual demonstrations, class summaries, textbook
chapters, or any other material that allows students to expand knowledge of the
course topics (e.g., McGarr 2009); and worked examples’ podcasts, which provide
explanations of specific course problems (e.g., Crippen and Earl 2004). A more
elaborate classification of podcasts is proposed by Carvalho et al. (2008), who
suggested a taxonomy in which dimensions of type, media, length, author, style,
and purpose are added. Table 14.2 shows a description of each dimension.
Table 14.2 Description of the taxonomy dimensions proposed by Carvalho et al. (2008)
Dimensions Description
Type Informative (concepts, analysis, synthesis, description of tools or equipments,
reading of excerpts/poems, etc.)
Feedback/comments (to students’ assignments and group work)
Guidelines (to fieldwork and to practical work; recommendations about studying,
group dynamics, reflective learning, etc.)
Authentic materials, such as interviews, news, and radio programming, etc.
Medium Audio (the most common)
Video (also called audiocast, enhanced podcast, vodcast, and screencast), which
combines images and audio
Length Short (1–5 min)
Moderate (6–15 min)
Long ([15 min)
Note Podcasts should not take more than 30 min if conveying detail and facts.
Long podcasts generally cause a loss of attention and a subsequent decrease in
comprehension
Author Lecturer
Student
Other (experts, local community, and representatives)
Style Style is related to the degree of formality adopted
Formal
Informal
Note A podcast should have a beginning, middle, and an end, three important
parts in keeping students’ attention. It is important to engage students and is
better to keep content short and simple, and clear and concise Hendron (2008)
Purpose Inform
Analyze
Develop
Motivate
Mediate for reflective learning
Etc.
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 315
Zhang et al. (2006) suggested that when designing teaching materials with
audio, it is necessary to decide whether it may be segmented, that is, if the material
can be divided into smaller parts, each with its own significance, such that the user
has an easier time searching for and displaying the necessary sections. In this
sense, Fernandez et al. (2011) suggested that one of the main drawbacks of using
audio and/or video material is that students have difficulty locating the sections
that they want to review. At the same time, users cannot do a quick read of content
as they can with a text. In this case, processing speed depends on the creator of the
multimedia material.
14.4.2 Podcasting Applications in Higher Education
With podcasting, classes, interviews, and reports from workshops can be con-
ducted and utilized for student individual learning, group learning, or any other
need teachers may have (Lazzari 2009) without significant effort or technical skill.
However, Brittain et al. (2006), Evans (2008), McKinney et al. (2009), Lonn and
Teasley (2009), and Moss et al. (2010) showed that students’ main use of podcasts
is to review concepts and themes discussed in classes that they attended, rather
than to assimilate new concepts or substituting concepts with sessions that they
could not attend; however, many other applications for podcasting exist in higher
education. Heilesen (2010) summarized the main uses of podcasting reported in
scientific journals:
Replacing on-campus classes with podcasts and taking advantage of on-campus
classes for more active activities, such as discussions, laboratories, or group work
(e.g., Gannod et al. 2008).
Producing podcasts that describe only facts, theories, and methods to have more
time in on-campus classes for in-depth discussions (e.g., Smith and Fidge 2008).
Visualizing real situations (e.g., Mathiasen and Schrum 2008)
Introducing concepts through discussion between two or more experts on the
subject (e.g., Nathan and Chan 2007).
Interviews and discussions to solve problems (e.g., Edirisingha et al. 2007a).
An audiovisual course newsletter (e.g., Bell et al. 2007).
Delivery of student projects through podcasting (e.g., Lazzari 2009)
Creation of podcasts by students that summarize theory for their classmates
(e.g., Frydenberg 2006).
14.4.3 General Aspects
Podcasting can be categorized as an m-learning strategy for teaching and learning;
therefore, several concerns must be considered when using podcasts in higher
education according to Flannigan and Calandra (2005):
316 V. Fernandez et al.
Quality: While content is important in podcast development, it is also necessary
to devote effort to technical quality, such as sound and image quality or content
organization. It is necessary to remember that podcasts can be reproduced on
many different devices with different characteristics.
Authenticity: Authenticity comes into play when thinking about who is making
the podcast and why.
Freedom of Speech: Podcasting has many uses, ranging from simple expla-
nations of a concept or descriptions of a situation to opinions of individuals or
organizations. For the latter, the question of individual freedom of speech is
especially relevant.
Technical Support: The use of podcasting implies the need for technology for
its creation, storage (server), download (bandwidth), syndication, and mainte-
nance. Moreover, a certain level of training is necessary for podcast creators
and users. If a certain type of podcast is desired, podcast experts’ help in
editing will be needed.
Copyright: Often overlooked by many podcast creators is the need to request
permission for the use of material, similar to music and images.
Censorship: Like many other course materials, podcasting is not regulated, and
content may not be suitable for students.
Privacy: As creators and users, teachers and students should establish the
privacy level of the material developed during the course, regardless of the
creator.
14.5 Methodology for the Design, Editing, and Distribution
of Podcasts in Higher Education
The creation of a podcast is divided into three parts: design of the podcast, which
includes strategic aspects; editing, which consists of technical and technological
paragraphs; and distribution of material, which is accompanied by other possible
teaching materials. Figure 14.1 shows a simple representation of the phases and
steps that should be followed when creating a podcast in higher education.
14.5.1 Podcast Design
As with most projects, design is essential and key to its success. A review of
publications on podcasts shows that in the majority of instances, absolutely no
comments are made on the design of the podcast, or it is discussed superficially.
This fact leads many investigators to question the reason for such disparate results
in the use of podcasting. Podcasting is ineffective in and by itself, as is the case
with most teaching materials. To be effective, podcasting must be combined with
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 317
other materials within a teaching methodology and a specific context. The pod-
cast’s design aims to frame the podcast within a course to synergize with other
elements of the student learning process and to prevent it from becoming a harmful
element in learning.
In addition to creating a coherent podcast design, specifying its content in
writing is recommended. In the same course, we can use different types of pod-
casts, but detailing the design will avoid confusion between them. Moreover, this
approach will be a benchmark for improvement throughout the course or for future
updates. The design of a podcast can be divided into three parts: (1) the general
context of the course, (2) the essence of the podcast, and (3) the characteristics of
the podcast. Each of the elements that should form part of the podcast design is
described below and is accompanied by a detailed description of how to achieve it
and a justification of its importance.
14.5.1.1 Course General Context
Teachers must not forget that a teaching podcast in higher education is an element
that should improve student learning processes within a subject. Therefore, we
must clearly and concisely establish the context where the podcast will be
developed and used. For this reason, two aspects of the course are specified: course
objectives and type of students.
Course Objectives
The objectives must be developed to state the type of behavior that students should
have to establish that the objective was met. Bloom (1956) established the tax-
onomy for distinguishing three main domains: (1) cognitive (intellectual knowl-
edge and skills), (2) psychomotor (physical skills), and (3) affective (feelings and
attitudes). These factors were further subdivided to give rise to another series of
objectives of increasing complexity. In higher education, we will focus on the
cognitive aspect, which is divided as follows:
Knowledge: Recall data or information.
Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and
interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one’s own
words.
Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an
abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in
the workplace.
Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its
organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and
inferences.
318 V. Fernandez et al.
Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts
together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or
structure.
Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.
Type of Students
As Lazzari’s work (2009) demonstrated, the type of student affects the efficiency
of podcasting. Therefore, we must identify the type of podcast that best suits the
needs of the students. Students can be divided based on two criteria in the existing
literature: face-to-face students, semi-distance students, blended students (e.g.,
Lazzari 2009), and undergraduate students and graduate students (e.g., Fernandez
et al. 2009). This classification is justified in the next section.
14.5.1.2 Essence of the Podcast
After establishing the framework in which the podcast will be developed and
utilized, the next step is podcast design.
Fig. 14.1 General outline for creating a podcast
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 319
Objective of the Podcast
Copley (2007) and Herrington and Kervin (2007) indicated that the use of any
technology is more efficient when the objective is clear and rational to students and
consequently to teachers. Therefore, it is important and essential to specify the
objective of podcasting. The literature has shown that on few occasions, respon-
sible teachers who introduce podcasting in their courses specify or explain its
purpose (Lonn and Teasley 2009). Many possible objectives exist when intro-
ducing podcasting in higher education (e.g., Carvalho et al. 2008), which can be
divided into four large groups segmented by two variables: podcasts that aim to
substitute or duplicate an activity or material that already existed (e.g., recording
of a class) versus podcasts that aim to supplement some material or previous
dynamic (e.g., viewing an interview with an expert on the subject) and podcasts
whose objective is centered on a highly particular aspect of the course (e.g., step-
by-step description of a procedure) versus podcasts with more transverse content
(e.g., reflection on the utility of the course in the workplace). The type of podcast
should be consistent with the type of student enrolled in the course. Various
studies suggest that the recording of entire classes is only significantly beneficial
for those students who cannot attend class, such as semi-distance or blended
students (e.g., Kazlauskas and Robinson 2012).
Type of Podcast
Based on the taxonomy developed by Carvalho et al. (2008), podcasts can be
classified into four types.
Informative: concepts, analysis, synthesis, description of tools or equipments,
reading of excerpts/poems, etc.
Feedback/Comments: to students’ assignments and group work.
Guidelines: to fieldwork and to practical work, recommendations about
studying, group dynamics, reflective learning, etc.
Authentic materials, such as interviews, news, radio programming, etc.
Author of the Podcast
Undoubtedly, the choice of podcast author(s) will be one of the most important
decisions in designing a podcast. Likewise, this choice will be determined by the
type of student and by the objective of the podcast, which was previously speci-
fied. We find three types of podcasts: podcasts created by teachers, podcasts
created by students, and podcasts created by third parties outside the course.
Podcasts created by teachers offer great opportunities because they allow for the
creation of a type of material capable of explaining aspects that were difficult to
explain until recently, such as methodologies or heuristics; these podcasts are able
320 V. Fernandez et al.
to respond to objectives located at the base of Bloom’s pyramid (1956). However,
according to the existing literature, the most significant results in the student
learning process occur when the student is placed at the center of the learning
process and is involved in the creation of the podcast. This type of podcast (i.e.,
created by students) attains the objectives located at the top of Bloom’s pyramid
(1956). Podcasts created by third parties outside the course are often useful mainly
as supplementary (nonessential) course material and as a way to connect to
society.
Fit with Other Teaching Materials
Copley (2007) and Herrington and Kervin (2007) indicated that the use of any
technology is more efficient when integrated into course curricula. The use of new
technological tools for learning must involve the partial or complete redesign of
the subject’s functioning (Roschelle 2003), as the learning process not only con-
sists of the sum of materials and activities but also serves as a process of inter-
action of all of these elements. If new material is simply added to a subject without
considering the synergies that can occur with other materials and activities, a
contrary saturation effect can occur. Under these circumstances, a sense of dis-
heartenment and discouragement appear toward the subject due to an excess of
material that the student cannot structure in a clear and simple manner. However,
Lonn and Teasley (2009) note that the majority of teachers who use podcasting
have not changed their teaching style, as they only upload on-campus classes to the
corresponding repository.
14.5.1.3 Features of the Podcast
The next phase in the design of a podcast is its features: style, length, media and
technology, and materials.
Style
Style is related to the degree of formality adopted. Edirisingha et al. (2007a)
mentioned that to make podcasts more interesting, they may incorporate informal
learning content such as people’s experiences, and opinions. ‘‘A friendly tone
invites students to learn and helps to build intimacy with the speaker’’ (Edirisingha
et al. 2007a, p. 165).
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 321
Length
Carvalho et al. (2008) suggested three types of videos: short (1–5 min), moderate
(6–15 min), and long ([15 min). According to their results, podcasts should not
take more than 30 min if conveying details and facts. Long podcasts generally
result in a loss of attention and a subsequent decrease in comprehension. More-
over, the results of Fernandez et al. (2011) suggested that moderate and especially
long podcasts present other difficulties or drawbacks from the student’s perspective
compared to more traditional teaching materials. Students can perform a quick
reading of a text and can even improve their reading skills for performing this task
faster and better. However, the rate of reproduction of podcasts is determined by
its creator, meaning that the student is unable to accelerate or decelerate the
listening process and, consequently, learning of the material. Related to the above
points, searching for a comment or quote in a text is also normally performed
quickly and simply (for future searches, it can be underlined), whereas identifying
a comment or quote in an audio or video podcast is more complicated, requiring
listening to the entire podcast again. This fact can cause a low assessment of
podcasting by students if they are not properly fitted with other course materials.
Media
There are two types of podcast: audio podcasts (the most common so far) and
video podcasts (also called audiocasts, enhanced podcasts, vodcasts, and screen-
casts), which combine images (still or moving) with audio. Some examples of
video podcasts are those created from transparencies, those based on recordings of
computer screens (e.g., to explain the functioning of software), or those that simply
record a real situation (e.g., a class or interview). Terenzini (1999) suggested that
teachers should respect and consider students’ diverse talents and ways of learning.
Conner et al. (1996) stated that there are four types of students: (1) visual learners,
(2) auditory learners, (3) kinesthetic learners, and (4) tactile learners. Whether it is
more interesting to create an audio or video podcast depends on the objective of
the podcast, the devices the students have for visualizing it, and the type of
students.
Technology and Materials
Lastly, teachers must consider the technology, materials, and effort required for the
creation of podcasts. If the podcasts are created by students, a tutorial should be
considered, considering (1) where to acquire the necessary software for editing
podcasts for each existing operating system (or at least for the three most common
systems: MS Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux), (2) how to use this software, and
(3) recommendations for editing (see the next section for more detail). Likewise,
one ought to be aware of the kind of technical support that exists for editing and
322 V. Fernandez et al.
distributing podcasts. Another aspect to consider here is the need to ask for per-
mission to use other people’s material, such as music and images, or to decide
whether all material utilized should be open access. Along this line, the type of
license for podcasts should be specified (e.g., copyright, creative commons).
Finally, it is recommended that the podcast references all material used for its
creation, such as books, articles from scientific journals, and Web pages.
14.5.2 Editing a Podcast
According to Lazarri (2009), aspects that should be considered when developing a
podcast are (1) quality of the podcast (production environment: recording and
editing), (2) quality of the product (content and communication style), and (3)
quality of the distribution environment (paratext and management). To organize
this chapter, it is proposed that podcast editing discusses the first two points
(technological aspects of editing and technical aspects of editing), while podcast
distribution involves the third point.
14.5.2.1 Technical Aspects of Editing
There are three key technical elements in the production of a podcast: voices,
images (in the case of a video podcast), and music or other sound effects.
Voices
Because voice is the main communication asset in podcasting, various aspects
should be considered when applying it. According to Lampton (2011), the speaker
should use his/her natural voice, speaking instead of reading, demonstrating vigor,
enthusiasm, and engagement with the theme. The importance of explaining con-
cepts and ideas through phrases instead of long paragraphs should also be high-
lighted. O’Kelly (2011) suggested that the speaker speaks at a tempo that listeners
can understand. Comprehension speed differs, depending on whether the podcast
only includes audio or feature images. Comprehension speed is also not the same if
the speaker is visible in the podcast. If the speaker is talking about complex
concepts, it is important to give the listener a moment to grasp the material or
provide examples to prevent silence. Exaggerating movements of the mouth and
lips is also recommended to ensure clear articulation of points. To achieve correct
diction and communication speed, O’Kelly (2011) suggested listening to voice
recordings, as someone’s voice can only be changed if the person knows how he or
she actually sounds. Upon hearing it, the speaker can decide whether it is nec-
essary to slow down, accelerate, speak more clearly, take a deeper breath, or
change the tone of the voice. Lastly, O’Kelly (2011) recommended drinking plenty
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 323
of water and tea with honey. Staying properly hydrated is essential to achieving the
greatest potential with voice.
Images
‘A picture is worth a thousand words.’’ This popular phrase often justifies the use
of images in podcast design; however, it is necessary to consider several aspects
before including them. Firstly, Li (1999) recommended that all elements be visi-
ble. Because video podcasts can be played on devices of different screen sizes
(from iPods of 240 x 240 pixels to personal computers with resolutions of 2880 x
1800 pixels), the podcast screen size should be decided based on what type of
screen (or range resolution) the listener should stream the podcast, and the images
should be designed accordingly. Both Li (1999) and Bourne (2007) expressed that
too many ideas should not be put in the same image because the listener should
concentrate on the audio explanation more than reading and understanding the
image. A common mistake made by inexperienced presenters is attempting to say
too much. Likewise, everything in the image should be explained. Li (1999)
suggested not including too much math in the images, as it is difficult to follow in
presentations of medium or long durations. Lastly, Bourne (2007) encouraged that
visual effects be used moderately and only when necessary to improve the effi-
ciency of communication.
Music and Other Sound Effects
The use of music and other sound effects (Bourne 2007) can be a resource when
creating podcasts. However, music does not always offer significant improvements
in student learning; therefore, a thorough review of reasons for introducing these
elements in podcasting should be first conducted. Excessive use of music or sound
effects can make the podcast difficult to follow for the listener (Fernandez
et al. 2009).
14.5.2.2 Technological Aspects of Editing
Given the technological advances, particularly in informatics, that society has
undergone in recent years, most people have all of the necessary material for
creating an audio and video podcast using a simple computer, regardless of the
operating system. The existence of a large amount of open-access software for
podcast editing and online tools for podcast distribution allows for the creation and
distribution of podcasts in a simple manner with quite professional results.
However, a certain level of support from technology experts remains necessary to
achieve certain communication standards.
324 V. Fernandez et al.
14.5.3 Distribution of a Podcast
The last step is the distribution of the podcast, which consists of three parts: (1)
where to upload the podcasts, (2) where to syndicate the podcasts, and (3) how
listeners download the podcasts. The first step is to decide where on the Web the
podcast will be uploaded. There are several options: If only students from the
course should have access to the podcasts, they can be uploaded to the course
intranet. Otherwise, an external server must be established. Currently, a large
number of free servers offer this type of service. The second step consists of
deciding where the podcasts should be syndicated. Undoubtedly, the most well-
known and popular place is iTunes (or iTunes University), which offers an
extensive manual explaining how to create a channel and syndicate podcasts.
However, other syndication repositories also exist, such as the Higher Education
Podcast Repository. Lastly, listeners can access podcasts in many different ways,
such as through direct links that appear in the course intranet, through a blog
linked to the podcast (a common practice in the publication of podcasts), or
through feed readers, such as iTunes, SongBird, Google Reader, and Juice. This
last decision will largely depend on the students’ knowledge of podcasting.
14.6 Discussion and Future Lines of Research
A review of the literature shows that the study of the efficacy and effectiveness of
podcast use is still in its infancy. The results of many scientific studies on pod-
casting are inconsistent. As occurs in the majority of novel constructs in the field
of social science research, early development is unstructured. This lack of orga-
nization complicates the possibility of creating a common knowledge base that
allows for the discovery of all elements, as well as the progressive understanding
of its efficacy and efficiency. In other words, we find ourselves in a situation of
anarchical expansion of podcasting knowledge. Following several years of this
type of expansion, we believe it is time to change the current situation and begin to
investigate podcasting in a more structured form. This chapter attempts to link the
current period characterized by this uncontrolled expansion with a new era where
research is performed in such a manner that allows for the comparison of results
and the creation of a solid knowledge base. With this aim, a review of the literature
has been developed to justify the current research situation on podcasting and as a
base model for the creation of podcasts in higher education. This model may also
be adapted to other educational levels.
The objective of the developed model is twofold. First, this model standardizes
the process of podcast creation for all teachers who hope to introduce it into their
courses. In this manner, podcast creators will have all elements necessary for
success. Moreover, the explicit definition of most elements that compose the
model in scientific articles would allow for the comparison and aggregation of
14 Past, Present, and Future of Podcasting in Higher Education 325
results along the same lines. Although it seems excessive to include the majority of
these elements in one article, it is the only way to acquire and subsequently to
create a consistent knowledge base on the use of podcasting. In conclusion, the
essential elements for analyzing results of podcast use are: course objectives, type
of students, podcast objective, type of podcast, podcast authors, fit with other
teaching materials, style utilized, length of podcast, media, technology and
materials, voices used, images incorporated, and music.
As can be concluded from the above statements, considerable research and
investigation into podcasting remains. Future research on the use of podcasting can
be divided into three lines of investigation. The first relates to the results of podcast
use. Various authors note that podcasting efficacy is not reflected in the final
results of the course, despite positive feedback received by the students. Therefore,
the results must be analyzed from four different perspectives: efficacy on course
skills, effectiveness on course skills, generic skills (e.g., ability to speak in public
and present results), and affective aspects (e.g., feelings and attitudes).
The following two lines of research are strongly related to the model proposed
above. On the one hand, it is necessary to investigate how the various podcast
elements affect results of podcast use (in any of the four aspects listed above).
Topics such as type of podcast, author, duration, style, or media should be ana-
lyzed under the same control variables that can be extracted from the model itself.
On the other hand, it is necessary to continue researching the context wherein
podcasting is utilized. Some studies (e.g., Lazzari 2009) have suggested that the
efficacy of podcasting depends largely on the type of student. Likewise, Fernandez
et al. (2009) also observed the importance of podcasts’ fit with other course
materials and activities. It is possible that teachers’ teaching methodology
becomes a moderating variable of the efficacy and/or efficiency of podcast use.
The quantity of podcast elements, the large number of contextual aspects of a
course, and their interaction make the study of podcasting complicated and
laborious. Nevertheless, the majority of researchers, even the most skeptical,
recognize the need to continue researching this topic.
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... NutriPodcast was developed by Fernandez et al. (2015). The strategy to foster NutriPodcast included three fundamental stages: (1) designing, (2) editing, and (3) distribution (Fernandez et al., 2015). ...
... NutriPodcast was developed by Fernandez et al. (2015). The strategy to foster NutriPodcast included three fundamental stages: (1) designing, (2) editing, and (3) distribution (Fernandez et al., 2015). Each stage is described in detail below. ...
... Several topics were divided into two episodes, depending on the length of the discussion (since the maximum duration was 20-30 minutes per episode). Although there is no specific method to develop a podcast, the methodology used to develop NutriPodcast was according to Fernandez et al. (2015) as depicted in Figure 1. Discussion regarding each of the methodology stages is described below. The designing stage of a podcast is considerably important to determine its success and audience acceptability. ...
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Podcasts have become more popular in Indonesia recently. Studies have shown that video podcasts, which incorporate education and entertainment aspects, are effective as a medium to study language and medical subjects among students and clinicians. This study aims to analyze video podcasts' utilization in nutrition education and how they can engage viewers from the general community. This paper further aims to describe the development of a video podcast, NutriPodcast, as an innovative media to educate the community regarding nutrition topics. The number of audience views was calculated by utilizing the analytical feature on social media. The methodology to develop the podcast consisted of three stages: design, edit, and distribution. The design stage of the podcast refers to planning the style and length of the podcast and determining the media to be used. The editing stage includes both technological and technical aspects, such as hardware and software equipment. YouTube was chosen as the platform to upload the video podcast. The number of views of the podcast on YouTube was comparable to that of another previous podcast research. Most viewers used smartphones to access video podcasts. People from the 25-34 age group (55.2%) and females (51.5%) made up more than half the proportion of the viewers. It can be concluded that a video podcast provides an opportunity to facilitate a community seeking nutrition and health information.
... Finally, audience orientation and the mode of delivery play a key role. Since voice is the primary medium for podcasts, several points have to be considered, as speaking instead of reading or demonstrating engagement with the topic (Fernandez et al., 2015). ...
... Several students suggested that they learn "best" when they can incorporate all four senses to learn. This is consistent with the literature, which describes the combination of different learning styles as beneficial for the learning process (Fernandez et al., 2015). Clearly, students recognized and appreciated the new learning opportunity in addition to other learning resources and methods at use in the study program. ...
... Furthermore, they found the podcasts useful for repeating content. This perception corresponds to previous findings, which show that students mainly use podcasts to review the most relevant aspects of a session (Fernandez et al., 2015) or something already learned (Lazzari, 2009). Similarly, it has been suggested that they are more appropriate for course content review than for first-time study (Brittain et al., 2006) and to deepen one's understanding when studying for tests and examinations (Wei & Ram, 2016). ...
Chapter
Podcasting, as an educational tool, is becoming increasingly prominent. This research sought to understand how podcasting could be used to support active student engagement in higher education, coming largely from a constructivist learning theory perspective. The case study focused on the practical implementation of student-created podcasting in a blended learning context. Data was gathered in the form of student feedback and interviews. Overall findings were that the students did find the experience engaging and appreciated the variety of learning opportunities. It will be necessary for instructors to ensure that students understand how to create quality podcasts and also recognize their responsibility to deliver quality content to their peers.
... Um diesen zu erreichen, müssen Studierende zum ersten Mal eigenständig in einer umfangreichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeit ihr Wissen sowie ihre Fähigund Fertigkeiten unter Beweis stellen (Schütz & Röbken, 2016;Sonnentag, 2006 (1), die im Internet archiviert und verfügbar ist (2), sodass sie für einen Computer automatisch zugänglich (3), downloadbar ist (4) und auf ein portables Endgerät übertragen werden kann (5) (Vogele & Gard, 2006). Ein Podcast besteht aus mehreren erscheinenden Mediendateien, die Episoden genannt werden (Stöber & Göcks, 2009 (Fernandez et al., 2015;Heilesen, 2010 ...
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Die Coronapandemie stellt Hochschulen vor bisher ungeahnte Herausforderungen. Digitalisierung und Online-Lehre bestimmen das Bild, während Campus und Seminarräume verwaisen. Welche Auswirkungen haben diese Veränderungen auf Studierende und Lehrende? Werden Diskriminierung und Exklusion durch digitale Lehre verstärkt oder gemindert? Und wie können Hochschulleitungen auf das »New Normal« reagieren? Die Zusammenführung von Forschungsergebnissen, Lessons Learned und Best Practice-Beispielen zeigt, wie sich Hochschulen – und Hochschullehre – durch die Erfahrungen aus der Pandemie verändern, und bietet Impulse für eine nachhaltige Hochschulentwicklung.
... Um diesen zu erreichen, müssen Studierende zum ersten Mal eigenständig in einer umfangreichen wissenschaftlichen Arbeit ihr Wissen sowie ihre Fähigund Fertigkeiten unter Beweis stellen (Schütz & Röbken, 2016;Sonnentag, 2006 (1), die im Internet archiviert und verfügbar ist (2), sodass sie für einen Computer automatisch zugänglich (3), downloadbar ist (4) und auf ein portables Endgerät übertragen werden kann (5) (Vogele & Gard, 2006). Ein Podcast besteht aus mehreren erscheinenden Mediendateien, die Episoden genannt werden (Stöber & Göcks, 2009 (Fernandez et al., 2015;Heilesen, 2010 ...
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Full-text available
Der Beitrag betrachtet im Sinne von Lessons Learned die Durchführung des Moduls »Grundlagen der Kommunikation, Gesprächsführung und Beratung« im Bachelorstudiengang Soziale Arbeit der Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz. Nach der Aussetzung des Präsenzunterrichts im Frühling 2020 wurde das Modul mit 200 Studierenden und zehn Dozierenden ab der fünften Einheit im digitalen Setting realisiert. Die Überlegungen zur Gestaltung des Beratungslernens werden am Beispiel von zwei Teilgruppen näher erläutert, die didaktisch verschieden gearbeitet haben. Anschließend werden Potenziale und Herausforderungen des Transfers eines handlungsorientierten Moduls in ein Online-Lernsetting anhand verschiedener Aspekte reflektiert. So möchte der Beitrag Impulse dafür geben, wie didaktisch vielfältiges Beratungslernen auch im digitalen Setting möglich ist und wo Herausforderungen sichtbar werden.
... 11 The term enhanced podcasts has been used in the literature to refer to podcasts that incorporate the use of videos and pictures alongside audio. [11][12][13] The use of enhanced video podcasts may be an effective and efficient way to standardize the curriculum in the surgical clerkship. During this time, medical students have many responsibilities, including inpatient rounding, seeing patients as consultations in the emergency department and taking overnight in-hospital call. ...
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Background: Educational videos have become valuable resources and can address some of the pitfalls of traditional learning. To ensure clerkship students have adequate exposure to curriculum objectives, a series of objective-aligned self-directed learning video podcasts covering core surgical concepts were developed by medical students and surgical residents. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the video podcasts in the surgery clerkship rotation. Methods: Nineteen video podcasts were created, housed at www.surgicaleducationportal.com, and distributed to third-year medical students completing their surgical clerkship. A 10-question multiple-choice quiz was administered before and after students viewed each video, and they were also asked to complete a satisfaction survey. Results: A total of 302 paired pretests and posttests were completed. There was a mean increase of 2.7 points in posttest scores compared with pretest scores (p < 0.001). On a Likert scale from 1 to 5, with 5 being excellent, students rated the usefulness of the videos as 4.3, the quality of the content as 4.3 and the quality of the video as 4.2. Ninety-eight percent of students would recommend these videos to their classmates. Conclusion: Video podcasts are an effective modality for engaging medical students and may improve standardization of learning during their surgical clerkship.
... Gradualmente le istituzioni educative hanno dapprima sperimentato nuove modalità di integrazione degli strumenti del web 2.0 nell'attività didattica (per esempio sostituendo workshop e seminari con blog, video e podcasting) in modo da allargare la portata di eventi esterni (Abdous et al., 2012). Successivamente anche le istituzioni educative secondarie di secondo grado si sono interrogate sulle peculiarità educative del podcast (O'Toole, 2007;Carvalho et al., 2009;Hew, 2009;Lonn, Teasley, 2009;McGarr, 2009;Fernandez et al., 2015;Hadjianastasis, Nightingale, 2016), creando modalità alternative di fruizione delle lezioni in podcast e costruendo archivi di risorse digitali, in non pochi casi trasformati in repository di open educational resources. ...
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L’Istituto Nazionale di Statistica promuove la comprensione della realtà attraverso informazioni quantitative, riconosce il ruolo fondamentale delle nuove generazioni e l’importanza dei linguaggi non tecnici, ma rigorosi, per rendere la statistica familiare anche ai non esperti. Ha prodotto due volumi di fiabe statistiche: Le streghe di Bayes (2017) e Il pavone della pioggia (2019). Nel 2020, durante il lockdown per la pandemia di Covid-19, le fiabe diventano audio-storie: la voce narrante incornicia numeri e ragionamento di emozione e fantasia. L’iniziativa si consolida poi in occasione de “Il Maggio dei Libri”. Istat sperimenta così un nuovo modo di divulgare la scienza grazie a podcast dedicati a bambini e ragazzi, ma adatti a chiunque desideri avvicinarsi alla statistica in modo semplice e divertente. Lette dalle autrici e impreziosite dai cameo delle piccole voci narranti dei loro figli, le audio-fiabe si propongono come forma di comunicazione scientifica innovativa. Realizzate con strumenti aperti e liberamente disponibili, frutto di un fine lavoro di sound design, adattamento sonoro dei testi, speakeraggio e post-produzione, sono disponibili su Spreaker, piattaforma che amplia la presenza social istituzionale. Ascoltando una fiaba narrata, ci si immerge nel racconto e lo si vive emotivamente: si fa amicizia con la statistica in leggerezza e serenità, immersi in avventure costellate di enigmi da risolvere grazie al ragionamento statistico. È un’opportunità anche per i docenti nei percorsi didattici curricolari, sia in generale, sia nel caso di bisogni speciali o difficoltà specifiche nell’apprendimento. Particolare attenzione è stata posta, infatti, all’accessibilità, in modo che le storie, da leggere e da ascoltare, siano inclusive, alla portata di tutti.
... Podcasting [1] word is derived from combining the word iPod with broadcasting. This does not mean that it can be used to broadcast only iPods. ...
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Podcast allows recording of audio file on any topic. It is like an interview where one person questions and another person replies back to that question. Podcasting requires both the people to be present physically at one location. But recently, due to the pandemic, it is conducted online which most of the time results in poor quality of the audio. One of the reasons for the same is the presence of noise in it. This paper compares various noise reduction algorithms and also states the best algorithm to solve the above problem. We carried out our experiment on various audio files. Results were compared against various noise reduction methods and best ratio was obtained for Spectral Gating Algorithm.
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The learning styles myth is highly prevalent among (pre-service) teachers. Current findings emphasise the effectiveness of conceptual change texts for dissolving misconceptions. This benefit is explained by cognitive conflicts evoked by contrasting misconceptions and facts, encouraging the reflection of one’s own beliefs. It has not been investigated yet if and under which conditions podcasts can promote conceptual change among pre-service teachers. This study investigates whether podcasts can induce conceptual change regarding the learning styles myth among pre-service teachers. First, it is assumed that conceptual change podcasts lead to a greater decline of students’ beliefs regarding the learning styles myth compared to factual podcasts. Second, it is expected that everyday language leads to a stronger decrease of students’ beliefs than academic language as findings from science communication point to the relevance of a language adapted to the addressees for the persuasiveness of arguments. An experimental study with a 2 × 2-design (type of podcast: conceptual change vs. factual podcast; linguistic style: everyday vs. academic language) with 181 pre-service teachers was conducted. Students’ beliefs about the learning styles myth were measured immediately before and after the intervention as well as four weeks later. As assumed, students’ agreement with the learning styles myth decreased stronger after listening to the conceptual change podcasts compared to factual podcasts (p < 0,001, ηp2 = 0,07), and when the podcasts were in everyday language compared to factual language (p < 0,01, ηp2 = 0,04). Consequently, conceptual change podcasts in everyday language seem suitable for revising misconceptions among pre-service teachers.
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Pada era digital saat ini, teknologi merupakan satu produk modern yang dapat digunakan dalam segala bidang termasuk bidang pendidikan dan pengajaran. Teknologi dengan hasil produknya berupa Podcast menjadi media yang sangat diminati oleh dosen dan mahasiswa pada era saat ini diperguruan tinggi, sehingga dengan hadirnya informasi tentang Podcast dapat menjadi salah satu sumber bacaan terkait pemanfaatan Podcast dalam pembelajaran untuk meningkatkan ketrampilan Bahasa Inggris khususnya di era Pandemic Covid-19.Buku ini berbeda dari buku lainnya karena buku ini menghadirkan pengenalan produk media Podcast yang sedang banyak digunakan dilembaga pendidikan tinggi sehingga mahasiswa dapat belajar dengan Podcast untuk meningkatkan ketrampilan Bahasa Inggris. Didalam buku ini ada deskripsi dan informasi tentang landasan teori pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris serta pengenalan Podcast yang sangat cocok digunakan untuk pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris oleh dosen dan mahasiswa serta contoh produk Podcast berupa Studio Podcast.
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This paper examines how audio podcasts can be deployed by universities and other educational institutions to engage with a broader range of audiences and encourage critical discussion of contemporary issues. Using the case study of a podcast I produced, I consider how the medium is an accessible and user-friendly format that enables the generation of content aimed at a general listenership. Insight into how this approach can bring teaching and research materials to new groups of people is created by reflecting on the process of making and distributing a series (Hacker 2017). Since their emergence in the early 2000s, podcasts - as a form of internet on-demand radio – have been used by universities as an additional dissemination system. Departments and universities were early adaptors to help spread knowledge, research findings, and commentary on topics of public interest (Open Culture 2006). One of the main deployments has been to augment student learning through the recording of podcasts as an alternative or supplement to lectures or as a revision or feedback tool (Fernandez et al. 2015; Kidd 2011; Lonn and Teasley 2009). More recently, within the discipline of geography, podcasts are being recognised as a distinct tools for more inclusive research that can reach groups who do not usually follow academic discourses (Kinkaid, Brain, and Senanayake 2019). Building on these strands, this paper focuses on how a podcast can be used as an educational mechanism both for general audiences and undergraduates, which recognises diverse forms of learning and the importance of accessible materials (Ambrose et al. 2010; Towler, Ridgway, and McCarthy 2015).
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The move to increasingly flexible platforms for student learning and experience through provision of online lecture recordings is often interpreted by educators as students viewing attendance at lectures as optional. The trend toward the use of this technology is often met with resistance from some academic staff who argue that student attendance will decline. This study aimed to explore students' use of online lectures and to measure the impact of them on student attendance at lectures. A pre and post evaluation methodology was undertaken using a self administered questionnaire that gathered both quantitative and qualitative data. Overall attendance was recorded at each lecture throughout the semester. Results indicated that attendance remained high throughout the semester and while only a minority of students used the recordings, those who did found them to be helpful. Most students used them to either supplement their learning or to make up for a lecture that they had not been able to attend. This study provides evidence that contrary to popular belief, Generation Y students in general, do not aspire to replace lectures with downloadable, online versions. Many of the students in this study valued the opportunity for interactive learning provided by face to face teaching. Finally, a model that outlines the attributes that contribute to quality teaching is used to describe how this technology can contribute to positive student experiences and can enhance reflective teaching practice.
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