Conference Paper

COMMUNITY BASED DATA TRANSFER VIA MULTIPLIER AGENTS

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Crises and disasters occur all over the world with the highest impact on the most vulnerable in society. Generating a trusted status of information out of a multitude of reliable and relevant data about a critical situation is a priority for effective and coordinated disaster management and relief measures delivered by governmental organizations (GOs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Data gathering, processing, information visualization and (internal as well as external) dissemination for decision support and mitigation is performed via a number of different channels. The QuOIMA-project, funded by the Austrian Security Research Program KIRAS, focused on the various possibilities to use publicly available, open source data generated in the sphere of traditional (online distributed) and social media. This interactive gathered, multi-channel data, tapping the wisdom of crowds on the broadest possible level, could be used as vital and relevant input for situation awareness and decision support in disaster management. It could also foster and maintain active, bidirectional, participatory

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Social media are changing the way people communicate both in their day-to-day lives and during disasters that threaten public health. Engaging with and using such media may help the emergency-management community to respond to disasters.
Article
Full-text available
Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability.
Conference Paper
Based on governmental institutions and strong volunteer organizations, Austria provides a comprehensive and well developed emergency response system. As an important factor for the maintenance of the current quality standard of Austria’s protection and emergency system, the further engagement of voluntariness has to be ensured and enhanced in the light of the ongoing societal change. On the one hand, the involvement of new media provides opportunities to expand the organizations’ service portfolio to create a broader participation for citizens’ engagement; on the other hand, long lasting and formal memberships are often a challenge for the current dynamic lifestyle. To face this situation, the involvement of new media services for volunteer management in order to enable new modes of voluntary binding is a promising strategically effort. A new process called “crowdtasking” dedicated to the improvement of volunteer management applying new media is discussed; new processes of volunteer management are presented by exemplary initiatives of humanitarian non-governmental organizations, such as the Austrian Red Cross.
Book
Preface Gender? Why Women?: An Introduction to Women and Disaster by Elaine Enarson and Betty Hearn Morrow Perspectives on Gender and Disaster The Neglect of Gender in Disaster Work: An Overview of the Literature by Alice Fothergill Gender Inequality, Vulnerability, and Disaster: Issues in Theory and Research by Robert Bolin, Martina Jackson, and Allison Crist The Perspective of Gender: A Missing Element in Disaster Response by Joe Scanlon Social Construction of Gendered Vulnerability Eve and Adam among the Embers: Gender Pattern after the Oakland Berkeley Firestorm by Susanna M. Hoffman A Comparative Perspective on Household, Gender, and Kinship in Relation to Disaster by Raymond Wiest "Men Must Work and Women Must Weep": Examining Gender Stereotypes in Disasters by Maureen Fordham and Anne-Michelle Ketteridge Women and Post-Disaster Stress by Jane C. Ollenburger and Graham A. Tobin Balancing Vulnerability and Capacity: Women and Children during Philippine Disasters by Zenaida G. Delica Domestic Violence after Disaster by Jennifer Wilson, Brenda D. Phillips, and David M. Neal Case Studies of Women Responding to Disaster Gender, Disaster, and Empowerment: A Case Study from Pakistan by Farzana Bari Women in Bushfire Country by Helen Cox "Floods, They're a Damned Nuisance": Women's Flood Experiences in Rural Australia by C. Christine Finlay Disaster Prone: Reflections of a Female Permanent Disaster Volunteer by Carrie Barnecut Women's Disaster Vulnerability and Response to the Colima Earthquake by Carolina Serrat Vinas Gender Differentiation and Aftershock Warning Response by Paul W. O'Brien and Patricia Atchison Reflections from a Teacher and Survivor by Diane Gail Colina Women Will Rebuild Miami: A Case Study of Feminist Response to Disaster by Elaine Enarson and Betty Hearn Morrow Women in Emergency Management: An Australian Perspective by Doone Robertson Women's Roles in Natural Disaster Preparation and Aid: A Central American View by Letizia Toscani The Role of Women in Health-Related Aspects of Emergency Management: A Caribbean Perspective by Gloria E. Noel Conclusion: New Directions Toward a Gendered Disaster Science--Policy, Practice, and Research by Elaine Enarson and Betty Hearn Morrow References Index
Conference Paper
Traditional and social media are known to be of great benefit for crisis-and disaster communication. In the past majority of cases, however, these media have been collected, processed and analyzed separately. Previous research focused mostly on aspects of communication within a single medium and a single channel only (typically Twitter). Little work has been carried out on the investigation of cross-media communication and communication-patterns during such events. Consequently, individual corpora have been gathered for a single medium (typically a collection of tweets) and for a single language only (typically English). Subsequent processing is likewise often limited to the same single language. To arrive at a more complete picture of events, we argue that the different types of media should be combined and that the resulting cross-media as well as multimedia and multilingual approach will yield superior information and insights compared to approaches based on individual media only. We identify several key issues which merit further attention and investigation. Our interest lies primarily in the communication and -patterns arising before, during and following a disaster involving the full spectrum of media and diversity of languages and how to best link these to allow for effective and efficient crisis-communication and improved situational awareness to first responders.
Article
Social media sites have proven useful in disaster relief for information propagation and communication. Crowdsourcing applications based on social media applications such as Twitter and Ushahidi provide a powerful capability for collecting information from disaster scenes and visualizing data for relief decision making. This article briefly describes the advantages and disadvantages of crowdsourcing applications applied to disaster relief coordination. It also discusses several challenges that need to be addressed to make crowdsourcing a useful tool that can effectively facilitate the relief progress in coordination, accuracy, and security.
Article
In recent years, many governments have worked to increase openness and transparency in their actions. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are seen by many as a cost-effective and convenient means to promote openness and transparency and to reduce corruption. E-government, in particular, has been used in many prominent, comprehensive transparency efforts in a number of nations. While some of these individual efforts have received considerable attention, the issue of whether these ICT-enabled efforts have the potential to create a substantive social change in attitudes toward transparency has not been widely considered. This paper explores the potential impacts of information and ICTs – especially e-government and social media – on cultural attitudes about transparency.
Article
The mediating effect of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions between acute stress responses (ASR) and 1-year distress following two disasters was tested. Between 3 and 8 weeks after the second disaster and again at 1 year, 46 residents completed questionnaires. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and global distress served as outcomes. Multiple regression demonstrated that ASR and Time I CSE were significant predictors of both Time 1 outcomes. Time 1 PTSD symptoms and Time 2 CSE were significant factors for Time 2 PTSD symptoms. Gender was significant for Time 2 PTSD symptoms, but not for Time 2 global distress. Longitudinally, Time 1 CSE predicted Time 2 PTSD symptoms, but not general distress. CSE mediated between ASR and both psychological outcomes at Time 2. Coping self-efficacy perceptions provide a possible intervention target.
Emphatic and Ethical Design of Technology
  • R Batchelor
  • A Bobrowicz
Batchelor, R. & Bobrowicz, A. (2014). Emphatic and Ethical Design of Technology. In: C. Stephanidis and M. Antona (Eds.): UAHCI/HCII 2014, Part I, LNCS 8513, Springer Intl. pp 3-10.
Stress Management in Disasters. Pan American Health Organization
  • C P Bryce
Bryce, C. P. (2001). Stress Management in Disasters. Pan American Health Organization. Washington, D.C.
Zivilschutz. Evaluierung österreichischer Zivilschutzmaßnahmen hinsichtlich der Akzeptanz und Zufriedenheit in der Bevölkerung und bei Experten
  • S Kirchner
  • B Angleiter
Kirchner, S. & Angleiter, B. (2011). Zivilschutz. Evaluierung österreichischer Zivilschutzmaßnahmen hinsichtlich der Akzeptanz und Zufriedenheit in der Bevölkerung und bei Experten. In: Wissenschaf(f)t Sicherheit. Fachtagung Sicherheitsforschung 2011. Tagungsband. Wien. S. 73-76.
2015 in publication) Vertrauen und Nutzung von Medien. Eine soziologische Studie über das Vertrauen und die Nutzung von Medien im Krisen-und Katastrophenfall
  • I Levy
Levy, I. (2015 in publication). Vertrauen und Nutzung von Medien. Eine soziologische Studie über das Vertrauen und die Nutzung von Medien im Krisen-und Katastrophenfall. Masterarbeit. Wien.
Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies and Tactics for Resilience
  • D Mcentire
McEntire, D. (2007). Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies and Tactics for Resilience.Wiley, USA 2007.
Emergence in the disaster response to the hull floods
  • R Neal
  • S Bell
  • J Wilby
Neal, R., Bell, S., and Wilby, J. (2012). Emergence in the disaster response to the June 2007 hull floods. In Bichler, R., Blachfellner, S., and Hofkirchner, W., editors, European Meeting on Cybernetics and Systems Research 2012 - Book of Abstracts, pages 85–87. Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Sciences 2012.
Gesellschaftliche Strategien zur Bewältigung von Sicherheitsri siken durch und für marginalisierte Gruppen
  • G Ogris
  • V Paul
Ogris, G. and Paul, V. (2012). Gesellschaftliche Strategien zur Bewältigung von Sicherheitsri siken durch und für marginalisierte Gruppen. In: BM für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (Hrsg.), Wissenschaf(f)t Sicherheit – Ergebnisse bisheriger Studienprojekte, Bd. 2, pp 71–79. Bohmann Druck und Verlag, Wien, 2012.
Der SICHERHEITS-Check – Umfrageergebnisse In: ÖZSV Jahresbericht Ein Jahr Aufklärung, Information und aktive Hilfestellung im Dienste der Sicherheit Österreichs
ÖZSV (2007). Der SICHERHEITS-Check – Umfrageergebnisse. In: ÖZSV Jahresbericht 2007. Ein Jahr Aufklärung, Information und aktive Hilfestellung im Dienste der Sicherheit Österreichs. Wien. S. 26-27.
Cultural Diversity in Disasters: Sheltering, Housing, and Long-term Recovery
  • B D Phillips
Phillips, B.D. (1993). Cultural Diversity in Disasters: Sheltering, Housing, and Long-term Recovery. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. 11(1): 99–110.
New opportunities and challenges for participation in crisis and disaster relief. The QuOIMA project as example for interaction, participation and privacy protection in disaster management Central and Eastern European Legal Studies
  • K Rainer
  • I Levy
  • J Schmid
  • K Götsch
  • G Quirchmayr
  • J Göllner
  • N Forst
  • G Backfried
Rainer, K., Levy, I., Schmid, J., Götsch, K., Quirchmayr, G., Göllner, J., Forst, N. & Backfried, G. (2015, in publication). New opportunities and challenges for participation in crisis and disaster relief. The QuOIMA project as example for interaction, participation and privacy protection in disaster management Central and Eastern European Legal Studies, 1/2015, European Public Law Organization, Athens, Greece.
Social Media Applications in Crisis Interaction. Systems. Connecting matter, life, culture and technology
  • K Rainer
  • V Grubmüller
  • I Pejic
  • K Götsch
  • P Leitner
Rainer, K., Grubmüller, V., Pejic, I., Götsch, K., Leitner, P. (2013). Social Media Applications in Crisis Interaction. Systems. Connecting matter, life, culture and technology, Volume 1, Issue 1, 110-127
The RE-ACTA Crowdtasking Platform – for Crisis and Disaster Management in Austria EMCSR 2014 Book of Abstract
  • C Sebald
  • G Neubauer
  • S Kabicher-Fuchs
  • C Flachberger
  • H Tellioglu
Sebald C., Neubauer G, Kabicher-Fuchs S, Flachberger C, Tellioglu H (2014) The RE-ACTA Crowdtasking Platform – for Crisis and Disaster Management in Austria EMCSR 2014 Book of Abstract, ISSN 2227-7803, April 2014, pp 124-128.