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Native Americans and the environment: Perspectives on the ecological Indian

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Abstract

Native Americans and the Environment brings together an interdisciplinary group of prominent scholars whose works continue and complicate the conversations that Shepard Krech started in The Ecological Indian. Hailed as a masterful synthesis and yet assailed as a problematic political tract, Shepard Krech's work prompted significant discussions in scholarly communities and among Native Americans. Rather than provide an explicit assessment of Krech's thesis, the contributors to this volume explore related historical and contemporary themes and subjects involving Native Americans and the environment, reflecting their own research and experience. At the same time, they also assess the larger issue of representation. The essays examine topics as divergent as Pleistocene extinctions and the problem of storing nuclear waste on modern reservations. They also address the image of the "ecological Indian" and its use in natural history displays alongside a consideration of the utility and consequences of employing such a powerful stereotype for political purposes. The nature and evolution of traditional ecological knowledge is examined, as is the divergence between belief and practice in Native resource management. Geographically, the focus extends from the eastern Subarctic to the Northwest Coast, from the Great Lakes to the Great Plains to the Great Basin.
... trying to address the role of Native Americans as resource managers. In my view, he is much more successful in the former than the latter, largely because he relies heavily on the approaches taken by most of the authors in Kay and Simmons (2002) and Harkin and Lewis (2007), who contend that Native peoples were largely ignorant of conservation practices and may have done considerable damage to plant and animal populations. ...
... Many contemporary scholars have now accepted that Indigenous numbers were much larger than the roughly two million, that has long been anthropological dogma (Mann 2005). This in turn leads to the conclusion that these peoples must have had major impacts, and thus, were not good ecologists (Krech 1999), conservationists (most papers in Harkin and Lewis 2007), or resource managers (several papers in Kay and Simmons 2002). This pattern of thought seems to emerge from an assumption that all human beings operate from the same set of concepts, and because most of these investigators are of Western European ancestry, they assume that those concepts emerge from Western civilization. ...
... trying to address the role of Native Americans as resource managers. In my view, he is much more successful in the former than the latter, largely because he relies heavily on the approaches taken by most of the authors in Kay and Simmons (2002) and Harkin and Lewis (2007), who contend that Native peoples were largely ignorant of conservation practices and may have done considerable damage to plant and animal populations. ...
... Many contemporary scholars have now accepted that Indigenous numbers were much larger than the roughly two million, that has long been anthropological dogma (Mann 2005). This in turn leads to the conclusion that these peoples must have had major impacts, and thus, were not good ecologists (Krech 1999), conservationists (most papers in Harkin and Lewis 2007), or resource managers (several papers in Kay and Simmons 2002). This pattern of thought seems to emerge from an assumption that all human beings operate from the same set of concepts, and because most of these investigators are of Western European ancestry, they assume that those concepts emerge from Western civilization. ...
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Review of Paradise Found: Nature in America at the Time of Discovery. Steve Nicholls. 2009. University of Chicago Press, New York and London. Pp. 536. ISBN10: 0226583406 ISBN13: 978-0226583402.
... Of course, in these statements, Cameron expresses an oversimplified view of indigenous cultures and what resistance entails: clearly, not all native peoples and cultures, all the time, live in harmony with nature, let alone with one another (Krech 1999;Harkin and Lewis 2007;Potts and Hayden 2008). Moreover, when such cultures have elected to resist invaders violently, they have often used weapons other than bows and arrows. ...
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Publisher's description: Avatar and Nature Spirituality explores the cultural and religious significance of James Cameron's film Avatar (2010), one of the most commercially successful motion pictures of all time. Its success was due in no small measure to the beauty of the Pandora landscape and the dramatic, heart-wrenching plight of its nature-venerating inhabitants. To some audience members, the film was inspirational, leading them to express affinity with the film's message of ecological interdependence and animistic spirituality. Some were moved to support the efforts of indigenous peoples, who were metaphorically and sympathetically depicted in the film, to protect their cultures and environments. To others, the film was politically, ethically, or spiritually dangerous. Indeed, the global reception to the film was intense, contested, and often confusing. To illuminate the film and its reception, this book draws on an interdisciplinary team of scholars, experts in indigenous traditions, religious studies, anthropology, literature and film, and post-colonial studies. Readers will learn about the cultural and religious trends that gave rise to the film and the reasons these trends are feared, resisted, and criticized, enabling them to wrestle with their own views, not only about the film but about the controversy surrounding it. Like the film itself, Avatar and Nature Spirituality provides an opportunity for considering afresh the ongoing struggle to determine how we should live on our home planet, and what sorts of political, economic, and spiritual values and practices would best guide us.
... As my third directive in selecting a comic strip as the introductory unit, I desired to foreground storytelling as a purpose in composing creative, visual, and written texts in a class containing some fiction and nonfiction writers, and Native American students for whom crafting tales featured largely. Within this discussion, it remains important not to stereotype Indigenous worldviews, as Anglo visions of Native Americans often delineate the latter (Aftandilian, 2011;Harkin & Lewis, 2007;Porter, 2012). Still, Western science foregrounds observation and experimentation, while Native outlooks value observation and lived experience (Bahr, 2015;Hain-Jamall, 2013), with many tribal groups relying on language, visuals, and stories to depict community members' concerns (Brown & Begoray, 2017). ...
Article
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In the writing classroom, presenting a curriculum in which students read and create comic strips in order to explore their identity, via the course design, represents a strategy that has grown in popularity. Yet, for teachers and writing program administrators, what are the benefits and drawbacks in asking students to interact with graphic novels and comic books and to fashion autobiographical, digital, comic-strip narratives as a rhetorical construction of their identity? How does implementing multimodal assignments and digital storytelling practices by generating narrative comic strips affect students’ reading, writing, critical thinking, research, collaborative, and other related processes as writing course outcomes? This article discusses a case study at a rural, Southwestern university of an experimental unit assignment involving 60 students, including many rural students and Native Americans. Students engaged with graphic novels and comic books in an upper-division, Written and Visual Media class. This article includes a description of the first assignment, a comic strip and corresponding reflective essay, as well as the comic’s assessment criteria, with raters measuring students’ writing outcomes. To compose their comics, students utilized the Pixton company’s digital, comic-generating program. Overall, employing digital storytelling practices in creating autobiographical comic strips provided students with a cohesive, relevant approach to the course’s overarching multimodal writing curriculum by assisting them in developing and formatting their comics together; contemplating and composing about diverse spaces, people, and histories related to their backgrounds, majors, and futures; and communicating their work to a greater audience. The study’s results have implications for reading and generating digital comic strips in multimodal writing classes in enacting a critical multimodal literacy.
... While political ecologists have revealed how cultural differences and political asymmetries catalyze land use and resource distribution contests between groups with documented dissimilarities (among numerous examples, see Biersack and Greenberg 2006;Nadasdy 2003;West 2006), less has been done to ascertain what specific factors underlie diverse responses within groups that possess a common cultural history and share a sociopolitical position. Especially within North American Indigenous communities, internal diversity has often been overshadowed by stereotypical envisionings of Indigenous environmentalism (Harkin and Lewis 2007). In directing attention to subtle differences that inform environmentally significant decisions, I push past political ecology's broad appreciation of entanglements of nature, culture, and power to suggest new strategies for comprehending how socionatural systems take shape. ...
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This article considers why some people welcome externally imposed resource extractive development projects while seemingly similar others vehemently reject them. Informed by an understanding of human cultural and political undertakings as components of complex and conjoined systems that are simultaneously social and ecological, I identify economic, political, environmental, and cultural experiences and values that guide individuals’ decisions to embrace, accept, or oppose extractive industry. Drawing on recent ethnographic research in northeastern British Columbia—where First Nations and Euro-Canadian citizens concurrently confront ongoing logging, extensive oil and gas extraction, construction of a third massive hydroelectric dam, and renewed metallurgical coal mining—I suggest that diverse responses are significantly influenced by whether or not individuals perceive extractive industry as having adverse economic effects, the level of trust they place in governmental decision making, and whether or not they connect extractive industry to injustice and violations of citizens’ rights. In an era of unprecedented human impact, I ultimately argue, local outcomes of global resource extraction debates have an important role to play in shaping the future of our societies and our world.
... As I make these arguments, however, I also worry how reading posters created by Indigenous people through the lens of 'nature' and 'environment' might be playing into the settler-colonial trope of the 'ecological Indian' which works to romanticize Indigenous forms of spirituality linked to the land, the environment, or 'nature' (Dunaway 2008;Fritz 2012;Harkin and Lewis 2007;Nadasdy 2005;Smithers 2015;Willow 2010). As Justin Fritz explains, the trope of the 'ecological Indian' works problematically to "perpetuate the essentialization, homogenization, and naturalization of Indigenous peoples" (2012,21). ...
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Abstract: Sexualized violence is a citizenly issue. It is a phenomenon that, in the Canadian context, is formed and informed by the settler-colonial nation-state. Yet, as the spike in attention to instances of sexualized violence in news media suggests, sexualized violence is also a sociopolitical ill, one that causes harms to persons who experience it and those who care for them. How, then, might we ensure that sexualized violence is no longer a possibility? Feminist anti-sexualized violence advocates have created or contributed to several identifiable approaches to sexualized violence prevention: education about consent, teaching self-defence, and implicating bystanders in the continuation of sexualized violence. In this dissertation, I focus on two of these approaches to sexualized violence prevention – consent discourse and fighting strategies – and consider how their amenability to a normative form of rationality that governs conceptions of citizenship – neoliberalism – might not only limit the preventative efficacy of such approaches, but also work to (re)produce the very conditions that allow sexualized violence to occur in the first place. Analyzing these prevention approaches through close readings of academic theories of prevention and practical mobilizations of these approaches (i.e. a poster campaign, a short independent film), I ultimately argue that while neoliberalism’s idea(l)s of individualism, personal responsibility, and normative interpretations of ‘equality’ function to potentially limit or contradict a feminist anti-sexualized violence goal of emphasizing the structural causes of sexualized violence, it is also the case that these theoretical and practical projects can produce alternative understandings of what it means to be ‘human’ and to ‘live together.’
... Diverse native ecosystems of this continent from tundra to prairie grassland to woodland to coastal ecosystems had provided basic foundations of life to all Native American tribes since their earliest settlements and shaped the social and cultural fabric of these indigenous communities (15). However, most of the original and native ecosystems of this continent were either altered or degraded, especially rapidly in last couple of centuries due to severe anthropogenic alterations and associated disturbances (16). For centuries, Native American tribes were employing long developed and well tested traditional conservation practices such as use of controlled fire regime for revitalization of native flora, natural grazing, grazing pastures in rotations, judicious harvest of plant and animal-food resources, relying on natural cycle of seasons to harvest foods and allowing it to recycle, bioconservation of native aquatic life, and by overall preservation and protection of native ecosystem for centuries (17,18). ...
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Improving food and nutritional diversity based on the diversity of traditional plant-based foods is an important dietary strategy to address rapidly emerging diet and lifestyle-linked non-communicable chronic disease (NCDs) challenges of indigenous communities worldwide. Restoration of native ecosystem, revival of traditional food crop cultivation, and revival of traditional knowledge on food preparation, processing, and preservation are important steps to build dietary support strategies against NCD epidemic of contemporary indigenous communities. Recent studies have indicated that many traditional plant-based foods of Native Americans are rich source of human health relevant bioactive profiles with diverse health benefits. Based on this rationale of health benefits of traditional plant-based foods, the objective of this review is to present a state-of-the-art comprehensive framework on ecologically and culturally relevant sustainable strategies to restore and integrate traditional plant food diversity of Native Americans for addressing NCD challenges of indigenous and wider non-indigenous communities worldwide.
... As Dina Gilio-Whitaker (Colville Confederated Tribes) explains, settler environmentalists of the 1970s "unconsciously brought with them worldviews and behavior patterns that were inconsistent with Indigenous paradigms and tried to fit Indigenous worldviews and practices into their own cognitive frameworks" (2019, 104). Geographer Andrew Curley (Diné) shows how dominant settler interpretations of Indigenous political struggle as environmentalism displace the centrality of anticolonial political sovereignty to Indigenous resis-tance to pipelines and related movements (Curley 2019; see also Harkin and Lewis 2007). This is important because the framing of such struggle contributes to perceived or real solidarity with Indigenous movements-or lack thereof (Mott 2016;Curnow and Helferty 2018). ...
Book
Stunning Indigenous resistance to the Keystone XL and the Dakota Access pipelines has made global headlines in recent years. Less remarked on are the crucial populist movements that have also played a vital role in pipeline resistance. Kai Bosworth explores the influence of populism on environmentalist politics, which sought to bring together Indigenous water protectors and environmental activists along with farmers and ranchers in opposition to pipeline construction. Here Bosworth argues that populism is shaped by the “affective infrastructures” emerging from shifts in regional economies, democratic public-review processes, and scientific controversies. With this lens, he investigates how these movements wax and wane, moving toward or away from other forms of environmental and political ideologies in the Upper Midwest. This lens also lets Bosworth place populist social movements in the critical geographical contexts of racial inequality, nationalist sentiments, ongoing settler colonialism, and global empire—crucial topics when grappling with the tensions embedded in our era’s immense environmental struggles. Pipeline Populism reveals the complex role populism has played in shifting interpretations of environmental movements, democratic ideals, scientific expertise, and international geopolitics. Its rich data about these grassroots resistance struggles include intimate portraits of the emotional spaces where opposition is first formed. Probing the very limits of populism, Pipeline Populism presents essential work for an era defined by a wave of people-powered movements around the world.
... Indigenous leaders and scholars point out that it is not always correct to say that there is such a thing as 'wilderness' since Indigenous economies and cultures had regional impacts on ecosystems and landscapes (Trosper, 2002). Myself, among others, certainly reject Keith's tone if it is taken to level off different types of human-induced environmental change, which may or may not be Keith's intention (Harkin & Lewis, 2007). Yet, nonetheless, the point being made here, by Keith, is that geoengineering should not seem like such a stretch given humans, including Indigenous peoples, alter the environment as business as usual and to respond to environmental crises. ...
... Developing a relationship with the environment, participating in a tribal-centered community, and concentrating on nature allow Native Americans to identify their character and vocation, assisting them in the expression of a complete life (Pewewardy & Cahape-Hammer, 2003). Moreover, most Native Americans are conservation minded (Aftandilian, 2011), even though, within this discussion, it is important not to stereotype Indigenous worldviews and cultures, as, often, Anglo visions of Native Americans cast them as being environmental caretakers (Aftandilian, 2011;Harkin & Lewis, 2007;Porter, 2012). ...
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Tackling environmental and sustainability issues has grown in popularity in writing courses. Yet, for teachers designing professional and technical writing classes, what are the benefits and drawbacks in asking students to interact with place-based discourses in their digital compositions, including blogs? How does implementing an ecocomposition curriculum and sustainability topics in professional and technical writing courses affect students' research, digital writing, collaborative, and critical-thinking outcomes, along with influencing their personal and larger goals? This article discusses a four-year case study at a Southwestern university of an experimental course assignment's design, and it involves 252 students, including many Native Americans. Students engaged with environmental themes and ecocomposition methods in an upper-division class. This article includes a description of the class's major assignment, a blog site and reflective essay, and the blog's assessment criteria, with raters measuring the blog's writing outcomes. Overall, employing ecocomposition practices within the blog assignment unit provided students with a relevant curriculum, assisting them in conducting research for a blog space; writing digitally and thinking critically about diverse spaces related to their backgrounds, majors, and futures; and forging ties with classmates and potential outside audiences. The study's results have implications for implementing ecocomposition design in writing classes.
... Of course, in these statements, Cameron expresses an oversimplified view of indigenous cultures and what resistance entails: clearly, not all native peoples and cultures, all the time, live in harmony with nature, let alone with one another (Krech 1999;Harkin and Lewis 2007;Potts and Hayden 2008). Moreover, when such cultures have elected to resist invaders violently, they have often used weapons other than bows and arrows. ...
... However, this has not been an easy collaboration, as indicated by Berkes (2012, p. xxiii): "Scholars have wasted too much time and effort on a science versus traditional knowledge debate; we should reframe it instead as a science and traditional dialogue and partnership." We suggest that these two viewpoints, Indigenous TEK and western science, are in powerful agreement yet the debate and rancor associated with them and their implied economic considerations have interfered with communication and collaborative partnerships (Deloria 1995, Harkin and Lewis 2007, Bussey et al. 2016. "The question then becomes one of how to use both TEK and Western science in a sustainable resource management planning and learning process" (McGregor, 2008, p. 140). ...
Article
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A new minor titled “Indigenous Studies in Natural Resources and the Environment” (INRE) became available to students at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, California, in the fall of 2013. This minor aims to bring together the principles of both Indigenous ecological knowledge and western science. Instruction in these two approaches provides students with practical knowledge, research, and critical thinking skills to address complex environmental issues and natural resources management problems facing both Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities around the world today. The INRE minor seeks to prepare students by providing a balanced education in the arts, sciences, and technology, while encouraging interdisciplinary and co-curricular activities. This article reports on the need for the INRE minor, learning outcomes, curriculum, approval process, student interest surveys, and enrolled INRE students’ focus group comments. This program may serve as a model for other academic institutions to bridge the gap between western and Indigenous science regarding the environment.
... 20-23;Erni and Tugendhat, 2012). These articulations resonate well with the image of the noble savage or ecological Indian living in harmony with nature that has been present for a long time in Western culture (see for example Harkin and Lewis, 2007). ...
... Though nature affinity has been an enduring theme in American culture, it has not been an enduring question. Research assessing nature affinity has often done so by debating its accuracy in the form of Indian environmental stewardship (Harkin and Lewis 2007; Krech 1999), or how it served to exclude Indians from legal protection or expose them to dispossession (Silvern 1999), or as differences in taxonomical knowledge and perception (Bang, Medin, and Atran 2007), or how it creates a different set of ethical considerations for American Indians to consider when governing (Callicott 1982). But no previous studies have investigated nature affinity through a nationally representative sample of Americans' time use, including American Indians. ...
Article
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Social scientists have utilized daily time use studies as one method of understanding everyday lives. The bulk of this research, usually quantitative, identifies broad racial, ethnic and gender differences. Yet, certain groups and questions are typically excluded in daily time use research. One such group is American Indians. To address this lacuna, we look at the deeply discussed view that American Indians are closer to nature than other US ethnic groups. We use a nationally representative sample of individual daily time use (American Time Use Survey; n = 136,960) to look at leisure time outdoors. Our results show that American Indians report greater time spent outdoors but that this is only statistically significant for those who identify as exclusively American Indian (not for American Indians that are multi- and bi-racial). This study confirms previous qualitative research that suggests American Indians have a distinct relationship with nature.
... For more on indigenous activism and environmental justice, see Gedicks (1993), Weaver (1996), andLaDuke (1999). The idea of indigenous populations as natural guardians of the earth has also been extensively analyzed and critiqued (Hames 2007;Harkin and Lewis 2007). Krech (1999Krech ( , 2005, for example, investigates the extent to which American Indians were ecologists and conservationists, as well as writing about images of the "Ecological Indian" and how they have been used to simplify and marginalize native cultures in the case of native North Americans. ...
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In 2008, Ecuador became the first country to grant legal rights to nature. In this article, I examine how this happened. I show that while proponents of nature's rights acted during a key political moment, their efforts were successful due to the presence of environmentalist social movements that elevated the environmental agenda at the national level during prior decades, and due to the power of indigenous organizations and their call to recognize Ecuador as a “plurinational” polity, demanding respect for indigenous territories and ways of life and incorporating politicized versions of indigenous beliefs about the environment. The study considers the consequences of mobilization for legal innovation and institutional change, and shows the complexity of struggles over the environment in the global South. It is based on research at the Ecuadorian National Legislative Assembly archive, semistructured interviews with respondents involved in the politics of nature and the constitutional assembly, and secondary historical sources.
... How we conceive of the problem, and solutions to it, can differ tremendously. Much research has thrown into doubt the idea that indigenous people are natural conservationists (e.g., Alvard 1993;Krech 1999;Smith and Wishnie 2000;Harkin and Lewis 2007). Other studies demonstrate that indigenous hunter-gatherers, in particular, have been maintaining sustainable yields for hundreds, if not thousands of years (Erlandson et al. 2005;Feit 2007). ...
Article
The sustainability of indigenous communities in the Arctic, and the vulnerable households within, is in large part dependent on their continuing food security. Using a methodology inspired from a community on the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia, a network of post-procurement food distributions is explored to describe underlying patterns of stability. Four pathways for food sharing are identified, including kin and non-kin distributions that are both reciprocated and unreciprocated. These four pathways obtain even when considering differences in household hunting skill, differences in household hunting wealth, the sum costs of procurement, and documented reciprocation in non-food goods and services. The interplay between traditional ecological knowledge about sharing and access to resources and the observed sharing behavior is discussed. These findings illustrate the robustness of prosocial solutions to collective action problems surrounding food procurement and security in an indigenous Siberian community.
... (2) Ecological variability: although the ability of prehistoric hunter-gatherers to control and reduce ecological variability may have been relatively limited, there is no doubt that foragers could have significant impacts on the ecosystems of the territories in which they lived (Williams and Hunn 1982; Harkin and Lewis 2007; Rick and Erlandson 2008). However, empirical evidence for such impacts from the Ryukyus is rare. ...
Article
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Special Edition of the Finno-Hungarian Society Journal: Damm C, and Saarikivi J, editors. Networks, Interaction and Emerging Identities in Fennoscandia and Beyond: Papers from the conference held in Tromsø, Norway, October 13–16 2009
... Ultimately, the question emerges what development, this Western modern notion, else could be, beyond economic and material development, related to capitalism and fulfillment of property based rights? This is not to argue for a Rousseauian turn toward the ancient, traditional cosmologies of an imagined noble savage (Harkin and Lewis, 2007 ), neither for a nuanced form of hyperrelativity . Again, hyper-relativity seems only conceivable from the vantage point of a plurality grounded in oneness (multiple worlds within one common whole, i.e. nature). ...
Conference Paper
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Departing from a decolonial critique of Western rationality and philosophy, this paper engages with 'non-Westerncentric' philosophical contributions for the purpose of rethinking notions such as '(human) development' and 'human well-being'.
... Given the voids in both the NRDC and sociology of energy literatures discussed above, the environmental justice literature can supplement these two by bringing concerns of social dislocation to the forefront. In terms of NRDCs and communities facing persistent poverty, recent environmental justice (EJ) research has examined how much sovereignty communities have in determining their economies and, as a result, their livelihoods and quality of life (e.g., Agyeman, Bullard, & Evans, 2002;Harkin & Lewis, 2007). Furthermore, EJ issues have sparked prominent and long-lasting countermovements against social, economic, and even health-related feelings of dislocation, as discussed below. ...
Article
Renewal of nuclear energy development has been proposed as one viable solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and impacts of climate change. This discussion became concrete as the first uranium mill proposed since the end of the Cold War, the Pinon Ridge Uranium Mill, received state permits in January 2011 to process uranium in southwest Colorado's Paradox Valley. Though environmental contamination from previous uranium activity caused one local community to be bulldozed to the ground, local support for renewed uranium activity emerges among local residents in communities like Nucla, Naturita, and Bedrock, Colorado. Regionally, however, a coalition of organized, oppositionbased grassroots groups fights the decision to permit the mill. Combined, these events allow social scientists a natural laboratory through which to view social repercussions of nuclear energy development. In this dissertation, I use a Polanyian theoretical framework to analyze social, political-economic, and environmental contexts of social movements surrounding PR Mill. My overarching research problem is: How might Polanyian double movement theory be applied to and made empirically testable within the social and environmental context of uranium development? I intended this analysis to inform energy policy debates regarding renewable energy. In Chapter 1, I found various forms of social dislocation lead to two divergent social movement outcomes. Economic social dislocation led to strong mill support among most local residents, according to archival, in-depth interview, and survey data. On the other hand, residents in regional communities experienced two other types of social dislocation -- another kind of economic dislocation, related to concern over boom-bust economies, and environmental health dislocations related to uranium exposure, creating conditions for a regional movement in opposition to PR Mill. In Chapter 2, I focus on regulations and find that two divergent social movements -- a support movement locally and a countermovement against the mill regionally -- emerge also as a result of strong faith in regulations, regulators, and Energy Fuels countered by marked distrust in regulations, regulators, and Energy Fuels, respectively. In Chapter 3, I advance Polanyi's double movement theory by comparing different emergent social movements surrounding uranium, showing that historically different circumstances surrounding uranium can help create conditions for divergent social movements.
... Of course, in these statements, Cameron expresses an oversimplified view of indigenous cultures and what resistance entails: clearly, not all native peoples and cultures, all the time, live in harmony with nature, let alone with one another (Krech 1999;Harkin and Lewis 2007;Potts and Hayden 2008). Moreover, when such cultures have elected to resist invaders violently, they have often used weapons other than bows and arrows. ...
... At the same time, the limitations of "scientific ecology" provide an opportunity for LEK to contribute meaningfully to understanding ecosystems and their complexities. As a consequence, linking social research and management foci with scientific ecosystem studies has resulted in interdisciplinary collaboration employing the core tenets and methodologies of science to test LEK claims (Stevenson 1996;Gadgil et al. 2000;Huntington 2000;Harkin and Lewis 2007). Given its epistemological roots, science-based resource management practices anticipate that knowledge claims, before being accepted by "conventional science" and integrated into public policy, will be subject to evidence-referenced, reliable and replicable testing and proof, based on rigorous research (Davis and Wagner 2003) and sound theoretical substance (Davis and Ruddle 2010). ...
Article
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An interdisciplinary approach is necessary for the sustainable management and governance of renewable natural resources, in which “Local Ecological Knowledge” (LEK), a quintessentially interdisciplinary field, is regarded as an essential source of information. But the effective use of LEK for this purpose would first demand the recognition and correction of the serious limitations of LEK social research. A recent literature analysis by Davis and Ruddle (2010) demonstrated that the basic problems characterising social research on LEK are the use of unsophisticated theories or concepts with often undocumented and non-systematic research designs and methodologies that result in unwarranted or indefensible outcomes. In addition, standards of accountability and transparency must be raised, beginning with the elementary requirement that researchers provide descriptions of research designs and methodologies that enable assessment of the reliability and representativeness of findings, and facilitate comparison, generalisation and evidencebased conclusions. The related issues of the problems inherent in applying an interdisciplinary approach and the manipulation of the publications process to suppress undesirable opinions and research results are examined.
... In fact, this serves as a vital reminder that both Fennell's and this analysis are situated in an intensely contested and politicised arena subject to the 'culture wars'. Recently, one of Fennell's key resources, The ecological Indian written by Krech (1999), has been challenged by a conference convened to discuss this work and a subsequent edited volume entitled Native Americans and the environment: Perspectives on the ecological Indian (Harkin & Lewis, 2007). Perhaps most pertinent is the critique offered by Native American scholar Ranco (2007). ...
Article
While ecotourism has many positive attributes, perhaps the most interesting is its potential to foster transformations in ecological consciousness that some view as vital to achieving more sustainable human–environmental relationships. Frequently, indigenous peoples and their cultures have been associated with ecotourism because of the ‘strong bond between indigenous cultures and the natural environment’ [Zeppel, H. (2006). Indigenous ecotourism: Sustainable development and management. Wallingford, UK: CABI.]. In fact, there are numerous examples from around the world of indigenous communities using the opportunity that ecotourism provides to educate non-indigenous people about indigenous values and lifeways in the hopes of overturning the destructive nature of the Western environmental paradigm. This article offers a critical perspective on the capacity of indigenous ecotourism to foster more sustainable lifeways by transforming the ecological consciousness of participants and stakeholders in ecotourism. This is timely as non-indigenous academic Fennell [(2008). Ecotourism and the myth of indigenous stewardship. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2), 129–149] has recently presented a controversial analysis of the ‘myth of indigenous stewardship’. This paper focuses on the writings of indigenous experts to explore these complex issues. In addition to this conceptual analysis, this article offers a brief case study of Camp Coorong in South Australia, which demonstrates that some indigenous communities are using ecotourism to teach indigenous values in the hope of fostering transformations in consciousness.
... Indigenous leaders and scholars point out that it is not always correct to say that there is such a thing as 'wilderness' since Indigenous economies and cultures had regional impacts on ecosystems and landscapes (Trosper, 2002). Myself, among others, certainly reject Keith's tone if it is taken to level off different types of human-induced environmental change, which may or may not be Keith's intention (Harkin & Lewis, 2007). Yet, nonetheless, the point being made here, by Keith, is that geoengineering should not seem like such a stretch given humans, including Indigenous peoples, alter the environment as business as usual and to respond to environmental crises. ...
Article
Full-text available
Models are currently being outlined for governance of early research on Solar Radiation Management (SRM), a form of geoengineering. SRM includes techniques that decrease the earth’s and its atmosphere's absorption of solar energy such as adding "light-scattering aerosols to the upper atmosphere" and "increasing the lifetime and reflectivity of low-altitude clouds” (Keith et al. 2010, 426). If implemented, the global effects of such SRM solutions will in some fashion impact everyone. Indigenous peoples, among other populations, are right to be concerned about how governance plans unfold. Governance, as opposed to government, refers to any approach to the development, implementation and assessment of global policy that harnesses the potential advantages of democratic coordination beyond voting for representatives, referendum and civil disobedience. Governance does not rely on state authority, but on the capacities of civil society, such as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private businesses and stakeholder groups, to work creatively either among themselves or in coordination with state agencies and representatives. Governance is often termed as steering rather than rowing collective action on important issues of global policy. The very mention of governance can alarm members of Indigenous peoples who already reel at a vision of a world where climate is influenced even more by nation states and programs and organizations of the United Nations (UN). While there are certainly exceptions in practice, civil society is by no means beholden to respect Indigenous peoples’ ethical concerns, cultural needs and political jurisdictions. Democratic coordination (i.e. steering) can transgress Indigenous peoples’ territories without their even being notified or consulted. What is more, consultation processes and co- or joint- management committees can be riddled with Euro-American biases about legitimate decision-making procedures, management strategies and knowledge. Proponents of any governance model for early SRM research are responsible for counteracting political obliviousness, which is the disposition to presume that Indigenous community members are individual citizens of nation states like Canada and Australia - as opposed to being members of distinct peoples whose preferred lifeways are encumbered by these nation states. I will argue that governance models can counteract political obliviousness by integrating into their core assumptions respect for Indigenous peoples’ sovereignty. This is only possible if the meaning of Indigenous sovereignty is adequately accounted for in governance models. This is a complex challenge that I undertake as much as feasible in this essay. I will begin in section 2 by laying out some of the general issues Indigenous peoples face in relation to climate change and, now, early SRM research. In section 3, I cover some of the governance models that are currently on the table for early SRM research. In section 4, I argue that these models are susceptible to political obliviousness against Indigenous peoples if they do not take action to explicitly counteract this disposition. In section 5, I argue for a way of respecting sovereignty that serves as the basis of a requirement for how to counteract political obliviousness in governance models.
... This format, however, fails influenced the environment by exploiting wildlife and plants, introducing agriculture, and managing fire (Krech 1999). Anthropologists have debated whether NPS should maintain that aboriginal influence, ignore it, or tacitly prevent it (Krech 1999, Harkin and Lewis 2007, Braddock and Irmscher 2009, Rigal 2010). It is not as much of an issue in Canadian national parks where the concept of ecosystembased management accepts that humans form an integral part of these systems. ...
... Consequently, research such as Krech's that adopts and expresses an intellectual posture of rational skepticism respecting such claims is condemned, both within and without the academy, as either blindingly naı¨venaı¨ve or blatantly racist (cf. Harkin andLewis 2007, Ranco 2007). ...
... and that they possessed a very special knowledge of and respect for Nature's pulse has become sacrosanct. Consequently, research such as Krech's that adopts and expresses an intellectual posture of rational skepticism respecting such claims is condemned, both within and without the academy, as either blindingly naı¨venaı¨ve or blatantly racist (cf. Harkin and Lewis 2007, Ranco 2007). Krech did not anticipate either the extent to which his research would be co-opted by opponents of Native American entitlements as 'proof' of indigenous peoples' rapaciousness and irresponsibility, or the tidal wave of invective-laced criticism from academics and activists (Krech 2007). He appears to have assume ...
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This chapter revolves around the notion of climate justice as the lenses through which we should read the rest of the book and interpret issues around Indigenous peoples and climate change. The meaning of climate justice is constructed through the most well-known political and legal theory of what does constitute justice and applied to the climate and environmental framework. It considers theories of justice built around discourses of distribution, recognition and participation and how these theses can be applied to climate change. It then considers the so-called theory of the capabilities approach in the context of environmental justice and how this theory can be translated into a human rights theory in the realm of environmental rights. This chapter aims at critically re-discussing narratives around recognition as a means by which settler States and post-colonial societies have given voice to Indigenous peoples in climate governance. In fact, Indigenous customary law associated with Indigenous knowledge has increasingly been recognized at the international level as a means by which humanity can be cope with the negative effects of climate change and environmental destruction. The second part of this chapter presents a case study based on the community research conducted in the Peruvian Amazon with Yanesha Indigenous people. The current situation of Yanesha people in relation to climate change is put into perspective through a colonial and neo-colonial approach, evidencing, on the one hand, that a critical approach to the conceptualization of “vulnerability” of Indigenous peoples to climate change is needed, and, on the other hand, how their ancestral forest can be intended as sacred landscape, or as a resource to be exploited and made productive. After this introduction, the chapter enumerates the multiple challenges related to climate change that Yanesha people are facing. This information is the result of the fieldwork conducted in November 2018.
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Although many scholars date the onset of the Anthropocene to the Industrial Revolution or the post-1945 ‘Great Acceleration’, there is growing interest in understanding earlier human impacts on the earth system. Research on the ‘Palaeoanthropocene’ has investigated the role of fire, agriculture, trade, urbanisation and other anthropogenic impacts. While there is increasing consensus that such impacts were more important than previously realised, geographical variation during the Palaeoanthropocene remains poorly understood. Here, we present a preliminary comparative analysis of claims that pre-industrial anthropogenic impacts in Japan were significantly reduced by four factors: the late arrival of agriculture, an emphasis on wet-rice farming limited to alluvial plains, a reliance on seafood rather than domesticated animals as a primary source of dietary protein, and cultural ideologies of environmental stewardship. We find that none of these claims of Japanese exceptionalism can be supported by the archaeological and historical records. We make some suggestions for further research but conclude that the Japanese sequence appears consistent with global trends towards increased anthropogenic impacts over the course of the Palaeoanthropocene.
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The ecotone between the Great Plains and the Eastern Deciduous Forest region is characterized by transitional grassland-forest ecosystems with a robust history of frequent fire regimes and fire-adapted natural communities. Historically, fires created a mosaic of prairies, savannas, woodlands, and forests juxtaposed by landscape controls. Humans have been strong determinants of fire regimes, causing frequent fires in historical times and an extended period of fire exclusion for nearly the last century. In recent decades, interest has increased in understanding the region’s fire ecology and management. This interest is driven by management objectives to promote and maintain plant and animal diversity, restore ecological processes, and increase ecosystem resilience. Plant species in the region exhibit adaptation to frequent fire regimes and wildlife species are associated with habitats maintained by fire. However, exclusion of fire over the past century has left a long-lasting mark on ecosystems by changing ecosystem structures and compositions and, in some cases, by eliminating fire-adapted natural communities. In the future, the rise of campaigns that promote appropriate fire uses will be contingent upon science, demonstrated management successes, public perspectives, and the broader challenges associated with global changes.
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This chapter examines the ways in which two Chinese American writers, Maxine Hong Kingston and Shawn Wong, enlisted environmental strategies to further the Asian American cultural-nationalist project, specifically its effort to “claim America” for Asian Americans in the 1970s and 1980s. My ecocritical analysis of Kingston’s China Men and Wong’s Homebase revolves about two key concepts: the notion of land empathy and a certain process of land incorporation that I have termed “inlanding.” The two books differ in their relationship to Asian American cultural nationalism: while Homebase tends to adhere to nationalist concerns in its use of environmental tropes, China Men is more ambiguous, since the obvious nationalist master narrative in the book is complicated by an emerging environmentalist subtext.
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In 1995, Disney Studios released Pocahontas, its first animated feature based on a historical figure and featuring Indigenous characters. Amongst mixed reviews, the film provoked criticism regarding historical inaccuracy, cultural disrespect, and the sexualization of the titular Pocahontas as a Native American woman. Over the following years the studio has released a handful of films centered around Indigenous cultures, rooted in varying degrees of reality and fantasy. The metanarrative of these films suggests the company’s struggle with how to approach Indigenous storylines, with attempts that often read as appropriation more than representation. In response to overt and frequently hostile criticism, Disney over-compensates by creating fictional hybridized cultures that cannot definitively be attributed to any one people, so as to avoid backlash that tarnishes their reputation. Focusing on Pocahontas but also considering other Disney representations of Indigenous peoples, this paper incorporates Laban Movement Analysis to explore how the characters in these films serve as palimpsests for Disney ideologies of race and gender. The studio inscribes meanings onto animated bodies and movement, erasing and rewriting (or drawing) history to create a story with just enough Disney “sparkle.” Spanning the fields of popular culture, visual anthropology, and dance studies, this paper examines how Pocahontas and other characters are animated to absorb and embody popular understandings and misunderstandings of Indigeneity, native history, and transcultural exchange, and how subsequent films continue to add new layers to Disney’s attempts at negotiating diversity.
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Between the initial colonization of North America and the European settlement period, Indigenous American land use practices shaped North American landscapes and ecosystems, but a critical question is the extent of these impacts on the land, and how these influenced the distributions of the flora and fauna. The present study addresses this question by estimating the spatial correlation between continental-scale records of fossil pollen and archaeological radiocarbon data, and provides a detailed analysis of the spatiotemporal relationship between palaeo-populations and ten important North American pollen taxa. Maps of Indigenous American population density, based on the Canadian Archaeological Radiocarbon Database, are compared to maps of plant abundance as estimated by pollen records from the Neotoma Paleoecology Database, using nonparametric kernel estimators and cross-correlation techniques. Periods of high spatial cross-correlation (either positive or negative) between population density and plant abundance were identified, but these associations were intermittent and did not increase towards the present. In many cases, high values of population density corresponded with high values of a particular taxon in one region, but simultaneously corresponded with low values in other regions, lessening the overall correlation between the two fields. This analysis suggests that human impacts were not significant enough to be identified at a continental scale, either due to low population numbers or land use, implying significant impacts of ancient human activities on the vegetation were regional rather than continental.
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The archaeological record indicates the use of salmon and a wide range of terrestrial mammals at sites spanning the last millennium in the vicinity of the Nautley River on the Nechako Plateau of central British Columbia. In particular, a long record of sustained use of small and medium bodied fur-bearing mammals, especially beaver, rabbit, and muskrat, is evident, which neither prey-selection, nor fur trade intensification models adequately explain. Instead, the usage of diverse small prey is best understood in the context of the contingencies and long-term structure of the region’s salmon fishery, the social networks between communities and places, the various uses people had for these animals, and the meanings of their relationship to them.
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The Makah Tribe of Washington State sparked controversy in the late 1990s when tribal leaders sought to revive their people's whaling traditions after a 70‐year hiatus. The ensuing political conflict has been shaped by the normative presuppositions of the US National Marine Fisheries Service. The conception of gray whales as countable, harvestable “stocks” enables Makah officials to claim affinities with the authorized discourse of the state. Antiwhaling activists have strategically adapted to this register, mobilizing scientific uncertainty to delay the hunt, but in doing so they tacitly affirm the idea that it is acceptable to kill whales. These findings call into question anthropological expectations regarding who benefits from the exercise of state power in environmental conflicts, showing that moral and ontological differences are not necessarily coterminous. [whaling, morality, fisheries, ontology, conservation, activism, indigeneity, Makah, United States]
Article
SYNOPSIS Socio-legal studies is a ‘heterogeneous field’¹1 Faulkner et al. (2012), p 6. that encompasses a broad range of topics. Indeed, recently, legal scholars who regard their work as socio-legal have accepted the inclusion of less obvious and less conventional contexts and sites of socio-legal research including specifically science, technology and the environment on the basis that ‘materiality also matters in socio-legal studies’.²2 Faulkner et al. (2012), p 6. This paper explores the recent expansion of the category of socio-legal, or ‘law-in-context’ research to incorporate the methodologies of disciplines beyond the humanities and social sciences to include material contexts, or socio-materialities. We argue for a greater recognition of socio-materiality, defined as ‘material structures embodying social relations and vice versa’,³3 Faulkner et al. (2012), p 9. in socio-legal research, given that we face mounting environmental challenges – not least the relationship between law, climate and effective mitigation measures. These challenges call for different methodologies, for doing legal research differently by questioning and subverting the abstractness and abstraction of law.
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While social science research on the Roma/Gypsies published to date has dealt with a variety of topic areas, environmental issues have not yet been examined. The topic of the relations between the Roma and nature thus remains vulnerable to intellectual shortcuts and social stereotypes that sometimes consider the Roma as “indifferent” and other times as “children of nature”. This doctoral thesis builds on the author’s master’s thesis, and it aims to fill this gap in environmental studies on the Roma, provide an overview of this area, and show in what ways reality differs from the assumptions of the majority society. The research focuses mainly on the Slovak Roma living a settled life in segregated rural settlements. It draws on a mix of methods – ethnographic field research is supplemented by qualitative interviews and an analysis of existing sources. Since the dissertation has the character of a pilot project, it covers a wide range of topics as well as theory. Primarily, it is a study in social anthropology, but the central issues are considered from the broader perspective of the human sciences. The relations between the Roma and nature are analysed from three main points of view. At the level of social stereotypes, the dissertation examines the image of the Gypsies that has been created by the majority. This first section defines five environmental aspects of the Gypsy stereotype, aspects that are charged with ambivalence, oscillating between fear and fascination. Further, it draws a connection between the development in how the Roma have been viewed and the transformation in how wilderness has been regarded by the majority. The second section deals with the environmental aspects of everyday life. It highlights the Roma’s past as well as current resistance toward farming as a key characteristic of the Roma way of life, and it presents several possible interpretations of this phenomenon on the economic, historical as well as cultural levels. The third section investigates the lived experience of contact with nature on two particular levels – in relation to surrounding environment and in relation to nature in its more abstract meaning (fysis). The dichotomy of the nature-culture is investigated mainly through symbolic classification that is based on the rules of ritual purity. The conclusion discusses the contribution offered by a deeper environmental understanding of the Roma, and it considers the roots of ecologically-friendly behaviour.
Article
Postapocalypse stories about human survival and rebound of nature following mass disaster are a familiar genre. A major real world example is the demise of most Native Americans after 1492. This essay is a review of some of what is known about the subsequent return of forests and the explosion of wildlife numbers in the neotropics and in North America. The belief by many early Europeans in the New World, including influential postcolonial writers, that the bounty they observed had preceded them, was mostly false.
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Environmental education in all eras has taught about the natural world: the passing on of knowledge about nature is what has counted as education over most of the human race’s 200,000-year existence. “Environmental education” is, however, a term now connected to the relatively recent birth of environmentalism, and of the perception of environmental problems: Joy A. Palmer’s Environmental Education in the 21st Century suggests that environmental education began on a global level with the 1968 UNESCO Biosphere Conference, in Paris, which “called for the development of curriculum materials relating to studying the environment for all levels of education, the promotion of technical training, and the stimulation of global awareness of environmental problems.”
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This article explores the socio-political background that led to widespread Native American urban relocation in the period following World War II – a historical episode which is featured in Leslie Marmon Silko’s acclaimed novel Ceremony (1977). Through an analysis of the recycling, reinterpreting practices carried out by one of Ceremony’s memorable supporting characters, Navajo healer Betonie, Silko’s political aim to interrogate the state of things and to re-value Native traditions in a context of ongoing relations of coloniality is made most clear. In Silko’s novel, Betonie acts as an organic intellectual who is able to identify and challenge the 1950s neocolonial structure that forced Native American communities to either embrace hegemonic practices and lifestyles or else be condemned to cultural reification and abject poverty. Through his waste-collecting and recycling activities, Betonie develops alternative solutions that go beyond a merely spiritual or epistemological dimension of life and materially intervene in the social text. The margins of 1950s urban sprawl functioned as repositories of indigenous cultural and intellectual capital that was being consciously, actively transformed by Native agents such as him. Thus, through Ceremony’s medicine man, Leslie Silko criticizes disempowering attitudes of victimhood and Native self-shame while vindicating indigenous historical territories and unconventional political strategies. She also anticipates the liminal practices of material and cultural recycling we see in countless Western cities today, in the aftermath of the most recent world economic crisis.
Article
We present evidence for cultivation of marine resources among aboriginal peoples of the Northwest Coast of North America. While such evidence has been marshalled for plant cultivation, we argue that similar cultivation techniques developed around salmon and other critical marine resources of which they had intimate knowledge, and that such interventions helped regularize supplies, ameliorate disruptions, accommodate shifts, and even reverse declines in species populations by recreating or strengthening conditions for sustaining species in dynamic ecological systems. The plants, fish, and wildlife of the region were resilient, and often pre-adapted to cyclic or stochastic disturbance regimes, but, like the aboriginal populations themselves, also vulnerable to environmental shocks and scarcities. We suggest that Northwest Coast indigenous people observed the effects of both gradual and rapid environmental change on key species over generations, and adjusted their behavior accordingly. The effects of human enhancement, human over-exploitation, or natural perturbations were often rapidly apprehended, allowing for feedback mechanisms that became integral to the technologies and social mechanisms for resource management. These practices are best conceptualized as cultivation techniques rather than restrictive conservation practices, designed to optimise resource supplies and harvest conditions, thus reducing risk and vulnerability and increasing social-ecological resilience.
Book
Many indigenous communities depend directly on natural ecosystems for their livelihoods — wild plants and animals for food, for clothing, for fuel, medicine, and shelter. The economy, identity, and cultural and spiritual values, as well as the social organization of indigenous peoples, are closely linked to biological diversity and natural ecosystems. Many of the landscapes where indigenous people live are of extraordinary value not only for their beauty and the regional ecosystem services they sustain, but also for their biodiversity. As such, indigenous peoples and their land holdings are a vital strategic component in regional and national conservation strategies.
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This paper explores the interplay between the Sparrow and Marshall decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, and the sovereigntist and traditionalist convictions of the Mi'kmaq of the Esgenoôpetitj/Burnt Church First Nation, as expressed in the conservationist language of the Draft for the Esgenoopotitj First Nations (EFN) Fishery Act (Fisheries Policy). With the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Sparrow, conservation became an important justification available to the Canadian government to support its regulatory infringement on aboriginal and treaty rights. Ten years later, in Marshall, the Court recognized the treaty rights of the Mi'kmaq to a limited commercial fishery. The EFN Fishery Act, written to govern the controversial post-Marshall fishery in Esgenoôpetitj (also known as the Burnt Church First Nation) demonstrates that for the Mi'kmaq, scientific management, traditional knowledge, sovereignty and spirituality are understood in a holistic philosophy. The focus placed on conservation by the courts, and the management-focused approach taken by the government at Esgenoôpetitj have led to government policy which treats conservation simply as a resource access and management problem. Conservation, which the Court deems "uncontroversial" in Sparrow, is a politically loaded ideal in post-Marshall Burnt Church.
Article
Indians figured prominently in many of the now-classic works that helped to define the burgeoning new field of environmental history during the 1970s and 1980s. Although a great deal of new and interesting work on Native Americans and the environment has been conducted since 1990, most of it has been produced not by scholars who think of themselves as environmental historians, but rather by archaeologists, anthropologists, historians of Native Americans, and Native people themselves. This essay surveys this new, multidisciplinary literature, and suggests some ways in which non-specialists, and particularly environmental historians, might fruitfully engage with it.
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The Carl O. Sauer Professor Emeritus of geography at the University of Wisconsin –Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706; [sbden@saber.net].
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Ontological conflicts (conflicts involving different assumptions about “what exists”) are gaining unprecedented visibility because the hegemony of modern ontological assumptions is undergoing a crisis. Such crisis provides the context and rationale for political ontology, a “project” that, emerging from the convergence of indigenous studies, science and technology studies (STS), posthumanism, and political ecology, tackles ontological conflicts as a politicoconceptual (one word) problem. Why? First, because in order to even consider ontological conflicts as a possibility, one must question some of the most profoundly established assumptions in the social sciences, for instance, the assumptions that we are all modern and that the differences that exist are between cultural perspectives on one single reality “out there.” This rules out the possibility of multiple ontologies and what is properly an ontological conflict (i.e., a conflict between different realities). Second, because ontological conflicts pose the challenge of how to account for them without reiterating (and reenacting) the ontological assumption of a reality “out there” being described. To tackle this politicoconceptual problem, I discuss the notion of an all-encompassing modernity and its effects, present the political ontology project, and offer a story of the present moment where the project makes sense.
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In environmental circles there are two long-running debates about (1) whether indigenous peoples are truly conservationists, and (2) whether Christianity is inherently inimical to conservation. In this article, I bring these two debates into dialogue by exploring the changes in resource management practices of an indigenous group in highlands Papua New Guinea, many of whom have recently converted to Christianity. In Porgerà, spirits are critical for maintaining and regulating ecological affairs, so it could be assumed that Christianity would erode whatever conservationist principles are extant in traditional religious belief. This is not the case, however. Traditional, conservation-like practices were dependent upon particular spirits, resources, and ecological zones. Christianity has engaged with these spirits, resources, and zones in complex ways. I argue that we need more nuanced understandings of how the global spread of world religions are integrating with traditional resource management practices to promote sustainability more effectively.
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