Book

The community forests of Mexico: Managing for sustainable landscapes

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Abstract

Mexico leads the world in community management of forests for the commercial production of timber. Yet this success story is not widely known, even in Mexico, despite the fact that communities around the globe are increasingly involved in managing their own forest resources. To assess the achievements and shortcomings of Mexico's community forest management programs and to offer approaches that can be applied in other parts of the world, this book collects fourteen articles that explore community forest management from historical, policy, economic, ecological, sociological, and political perspectives. The contributors to this book are established researchers in the field, as well as many of the important actors in Mexico's nongovernmental organization sector. Some articles are case studies of community forest management programs in the states of Michoacán, Oaxaca, Durango, Quintana Roo, and Guerrero. Others provide broader historical and contemporary overviews of various aspects of community forest management. As a whole, this volume clearly establishes that the community forest sector in Mexico is large, diverse, and has achieved unusual maturity in doing what communities in the rest of the world are only beginning to explore: how to balance community income with forest conservation. In this process, Mexican communities are also managing for sustainable landscapes and livelihoods.
... About 60% of TMCF is under communal ownership (ejido and indigenous communities are two types of collective land ownership; [50]). In this context, community-managed or locally managed forests in Mexico have a key role to play in maintaining sustainable landscapes [51,52]. For example, in a sample of 106 communities (with >300 ha of forest cover in the states of Oaxaca, Guerrero, Michoacán, Jalisco and Durango), 35% had community protected areas (voluntary conserved areas), most often with the goal of protecting water sources [47,53]. ...
... These are forests under individual tenure, a condition that pose different challenges. For instance, the costs of management and legal logging are much harder to address for smallholders, and there are no collective rules regarding the application of restrictions or promotion of protection and harvesting practices, as there are in larger collective property holdings such as ejidos or indigenous communities engaged in silvicultural practices [47,52,55]. Often there is a sense that individual owners can do as they please with their lands, a view supported by the perception that secondary forests are less valuable than mature ones. ...
... For example, the guide to lesser-known tropical timber species by WWF/GFTN (2013) was designed to inform and influence buyers of alternative species. Based on the experience of communities in temperate forest regions in Mexico (such as Sierra de Juárez in the state of Oaxaca and San Juan Nuevo Parangaricutiro in Michoacán) with schemes to promote sustainable forest use and management, the development of markets for ecotourism and non-timber forest products have proved to be important complements of local forest economies [52]. ...
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Secondary cloud forests (SCFs), those that regenerate naturally following abandonment of human activities in previously deforested land, are of great value as refuges of high species diversity and for their critical role in hydrological regulation. This opinion paper analyzes the main environmental, socio-economic, and regulatory aspects that currently hamper the sustainable use and conservation of SCFs in Mexico for the provision of timber and ecosystem services. The main constraints identified include contradictory norms and policies and the marginalization of smallholders in timber production activities. Developing economic incentives for forest product harvesting and provision of ecosystem services derived from SCFs, while also addressing legal and normative aspects related to their sustainable use, is paramount. Given the high heterogeneity in floristic composition and stand structure of SCFs among localities, technical and social norms for sustainable use should be sufficiently flexible to allow adaptive management approaches. Future research areas should be focused on monitoring the response of SCFs to silvicultural interventions, documenting existing traditional practices as well as conducting socio-economic analyses of timber production and associated ecosystem services. This is essential for developing sound policies and approaches for the sustainable use and long-term management of SCFs in Mexico.
... Even in Mexico, where CFEs are arguably well studied, authors often present a simplified, homogenous depiction of CFEs' organization (Del Gatto et al., 2018;Macqueen, 2010), overlooking many organizational differences and the forces that shape such organization. Scholarship that has explored organizational variation in Mexico has predominantly highlighted archetypal distinctions in vertical integration (Bray, 2020;Bray et al., 2005) and classified CFE governance as one of two dominant forms (traditional or forest council/manager - Hodgdon et al., 2016). Seminal early work on Mexican CFEs have described the democratic governance structures and tensions involved in varying CFE organizational structures (Alatorre, 2000;López Arzola and Gerez Fernandez, 1993), but few studies have provided in-depth updates on how CFEs' organizational structures have grown and evolved in adapting to ever-changing policies and markets (see Gasca Zamora, 2014 for an example of one such study). ...
... The addition of these positions or other managerial bodies is in part necessitated by the extent to which CFEs have united different stages of production to vertically integrate their firm, adding harvesting, sawmills, and processing facilities like furniture workshops or plywood factories into their operations (Bray, 2003;Bray et al., 2005;Maldonado et al., 2017). The level of vertical integration that Mexican CFEs achieve is classified under an organizational scheme developed by the Programa Para La Conservación y Manejo Forestal (PROCYMAF) and recognized by CONAFOR. ...
... Under this scheme, Mexican CFEs fall into one of four levels of organization, ranging from Type I communities that do not manage their forests for income, to Type IV communities that harvest and process their timber themselves. Bray et al. (2005) have proposed an additional "Type V" category, which includes CFEs that add additional value to their sawn wood using processing infrastructure such as driers, furniture and molding factories, or chip mills. ...
Article
Community forest enterprises (CFEs) are community-owned businesses that manage their forest resources for income, employment, and public goods and services. Although CFEs exist throughout the world, Mexican CFEs have been emphasized as a particularly successful model of community forestry that can deliver social, environmental, and financial benefits to forest communities. The internal organization of CFEs–the way enterprises are structured and managed to deliver benefits–plays a role in enhancing their functioning and achieving their goals. However, even in Mexico, the internal organization of CFEs remains understudied. Even fewer studies have examined the drivers that shape such internal organization and variation. We drew on social enterprise literature to examine how four CFEs in Oaxaca, Mexico are internally organized, and explored the primary factors that shape their organization. We found that the internal organization of the cases in our study varied beyond the archetypical distinctions that community forestry literature often draws among CFEs. Engaging with social enterprise literature helped us identify and document organizational differences related to CFEs' emphasis on productivity, use of paid labor, member benefits, collective nature, decision-making, and participatory nature. Such organizational differences were largely shaped by the unique histories of each of the four communities, federal policies and decisions that dissimilarly impacted communities, administrative boundaries that determined the different sizes and compositions of each community, and communities' varying internal capacities. Documenting such organizational intricacies and drivers allows for community practitioners to more transparently select–and policymakers to support–organizational features and practices best suited to a community's unique contexts and preferences when creating new CFEs or modifying existing enterprises. Additionally, drawing on social enterprise scholarship allows us to better understand different organizational features among CFEs, including potential causes and consequences, by drawing from a rich body of literature that has examined organization among social enterprises more broadly.
... Agrarian policies dating to the Mexican revolution and granting land rights in subsequent waves over much of the 20th century laid the foundation for community rights to forests, and 'a vigorous community forestry sector emerged beginning in the 1970s' (Bray et al, 2006). A community forestry pilot project, known as the Plan Piloto Forestal, was launched in Quintana Roo in the early 1980s (Salas, 1995) and by the 1990s community forestry was widespread in other parts of Mexico as well (Bray et al, 2005). ...
... Particularly egregious policies, such as the eviction of local peoples from protected areas -now disputed (Maisals et al, 2007) -have been more common in Africa and Asia than in Latin America Cernea, 1997Cernea, , 2006Adamson, 2003, in Bray et al, 2005. Dowie (2005), referring to 'conservation refugees', documents forced removals on three continents and discusses the growing discord between communities and conservation organizations, which are increasingly seen as the new colonizers. ...
... 5. Effects varied enormously in Asia, Africa and Latin America in terms of the size, budget and political power of the forestry institutions and agencies. 6. See Colchester (2000aColchester ( , 2000b, and Campese et al (2009) (Bray et al, 2005). 9. ...
... Las políticas agrarias -que se remontan a la revolución mexicana y que otorgaron derechos a la tierra en olas consecutivas durante gran parte del siglo XX-sentaron las bases para los derechos comunitarios a los bosques, y 'un entusiasta y vibrante sector forestal comunitario emergió a principios de la década de los setenta' . Un proyecto piloto de forestería comunitaria conocido como el Plan Piloto Forestal, fue lanzado en Quintana Roo a principios de la década de los ochenta (Salas 1995); para la década de los noventa, la forestería comunitaria se había extendido hacia otras partes de México (Bray et al. 2005). ...
... Políticas particularmente flagrantes, como la expulsión de pobladores locales de las áreas protegidas -ahora en disputa (Maisals et al. 2007)-han sido más comunes en África y Asia que en América Latina Cernea 1997Cernea , 2006Adamson 2003;Bray 2005). Dowie (2005), refiriéndose a los 'refugiados de la conservación', documenta las expulsiones forzadas en tres continentes y evalúa la creciente tensión existente entre las comunidades y los organismos de conservación, los que cada vez más están siendo considerados como los nuevos colonizadores. ...
... 5 Los efectos fueron significativamente diferentes en Asia, África y América Latina, en términos de tamaño, presupuesto y poder político de las entidades forestales del Estado. 6 Véase Colchester (2000aColchester ( , 2000b (Bray et al. 2005). 9 En teoría, esto incluiría el uso de sistemas agrícolas de roza y quema dentro de estos grandes territorios. ...
... O manejo florestal comunitário, como estratégia de gestão da floresta e alternativa ao desatamento, surgiu como modelo coletivo nos anos de 1980de (SCHERR et al, 2004AMARAL NETO, 2005;BRAY;MERINO-PÉREZ;BARRY, 2005). E como tal esteve ligado à preocupação e aos trabalhos globais de proteção às florestas tropicais naturais contra o desmatamento e a degradação, para reduzir a pobreza e a desigualdade nas áreas rurais, e levar uma assistência de desenvolvimento mais relevante e justa para as comunidades (CHARNLEY, POE, 2007). ...
... O manejo florestal comunitário, como estratégia de gestão da floresta e alternativa ao desatamento, surgiu como modelo coletivo nos anos de 1980de (SCHERR et al, 2004AMARAL NETO, 2005;BRAY;MERINO-PÉREZ;BARRY, 2005). E como tal esteve ligado à preocupação e aos trabalhos globais de proteção às florestas tropicais naturais contra o desmatamento e a degradação, para reduzir a pobreza e a desigualdade nas áreas rurais, e levar uma assistência de desenvolvimento mais relevante e justa para as comunidades (CHARNLEY, POE, 2007). ...
... O manejo florestal comunitário, como estratégia de gestão da floresta e alternativa ao desatamento, surgiu como modelo coletivo nos anos de 1980de (SCHERR et al, 2004AMARAL NETO, 2005;BRAY;MERINO-PÉREZ;BARRY, 2005). E como tal esteve ligado à preocupação e aos trabalhos globais de proteção às florestas tropicais naturais contra o desmatamento e a degradação, para reduzir a pobreza e a desigualdade nas áreas rurais, e levar uma assistência de desenvolvimento mais relevante e justa para as comunidades (CHARNLEY, POE, 2007). ...
Article
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Os assentamentos representam importantes territórios ocupados por agricultores familiares. Na Amazônia, dadas especificidades culturais, geográficas, de infraestrutura e ambientais, a sustentabilidade econômica, social, cultural e ambiental dos projetos de assentamento é mais exigente que em outras regiões do país. A floresta, como um bem comunitário ou coletivo, pode representar um importante ecossistema a partir do uso sustentável, em prol da subsistência e qualidade de vida dos assentados. Assim, este artigo objetiva analisar o perfil socioeconômico dos assentados e a gestão florestal no Projeto de Assentamento Moju I e II, Oeste do Pará, Brasil. A insegurança das famílias nos lotes, somada à ausência de políticas públicas que promovam a floresta como um componente de desenvolvimento sustentável do assentamento, denota que a Reforma Agrária tenha se tornado um mero processo de distribuição de terras sem a promoção da qualidade de vida das famílias.
... Mexico is characterized by strong TEK [23] and an important CFM sector 1 [40]. Mexico is one of the most bioculturally diverse countries in the world [41], a result of long-term interactions between culturally diverse human groups and a mega-diverse environment [42]. ...
... As a result of the agrarian reform that followed the Mexican Revolution (1910)(1911)(1912)(1913)(1914)(1915)(1916)(1917) approximately 60% of the forests are collectively owned by communities in the form of ejidos and comunidades [53]. A few large-scale community forestry operations started in the 1970s [40]. However, it was in the mid-1980s when CFM fully emerged as the concessions of communal forests to private and parastatal companies ended, in part as a result of social movements, and of the enactment of a new forest law in 1986 [52]. ...
... 3, VIII, art. 76, 77), which favored parastatal and private companies to whom large swaths of communal forests were granted through concessions, allowing only a few communities with industrial capacity to manage their forest [40,81]. In a historic change, the 1986 forest law focused on social development of rural regions ( [68], art. ...
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Community forest management (CFM) is often a field of encounter between knowledge systems, where a conventional forestry blueprint is frequently applied in contexts rich in traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). This is the case in Mexico, a bioculturally diverse country and a reference of community forestry. Based on a review of laws, policies, literature, and empirical examples, we explore technical, epistemological, political, and contextual dimensions associated with the inclusion and exclusion of TEK in CFM in Mexico. Our analysis is composed of three steps: (1) A diachronic analysis of how TEK and associated practices have been considered by federal forest laws and codes (1960–2018), (2) a diachronic analysis of the scope of conventional forestry and its evolution in time and space, and (3) situated examples illustrating the inclusion and exclusion of TEK in CFM. We argue that: (1) Legal recognition of TEK as a concept does not necessarily entail the legal recognition of all traditional management practices; (2) the inclusion of TEK in CFM is heterogeneous across communities, ecosystems, regions, products and historical trajectories; and (3) different traditional practices are not equally integrated in CFM: traditional practices that contradict the spatial segregation of activities (i.e., land sparing) favored by conventional forestry tend to be less easily accepted or ignored by government institutions.
... Para el caso del índice correspondiente al volumen, el segundo mayor valor se presenta en el tipo de vegetación coníferas. Probablemente estos valores tengan relación con lo citado por Bray et al. (2005), quienes indican que el manejo forestal en México se desarrolla principalmente en las comunidades de coníferas y latifoliadas, privilegiando los valores más altos de índices para estas variables (NHA y VOL). El índice con mayor valor asociado al daño al arbolado (DA) se ubica en el ecosistema Selva baja, en contraste el índice correspondiente al indicador de Biodiversidad de abundancia proporcional de Shannon-Wiener) es el más bajo para esta misma comunidad. ...
... En un estudio realizado en el Estado de Quintana Roo, teniendo como objeto de estudio este tipo de vegetación (Selva baja), se encontró que los principales disturbios (huracanes, incendios y la agricultura de roza-tumba y quema), generan impactos a gran escala (>1 ha). Adicionalmente, la tala indiscriminada afecta la biodiversidad (Bray et al., 2005). En la Figura 5 se muestra el gráfico radial que detalla la gran variación entre los valores correspondientes a cada indicador que componen el IGD. ...
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Los inventarios forestales nacionales son necesarios para mostrar avances en el cumplimiento de compromisos internacionales adquiridos en el Monitoreo, Reporte y Verificación (MRV) de indicadores forestales. México cuenta con un inventario integrado por un protocolo de toma de datos riguroso y con mediciones repetidas, cargo de la Comisión Nacional Forestal (CONAFOR). A pesar del avance logrado en el desarrollo de capacidades institucionales y operativas para coadyuvar en la evaluación de la Deforestación, principalmente, México tiene rezagos importantes en el establecimiento de un sistema MRV para evaluar la degradación forestal. Lo anterior justifica el esfuerzo de la presente investigación para proponer un marco conceptual, diseñar e implementar un mecanismo para la mejora del Sistema Nacional MRV para México. De manera particular se plantea una metodología para la evaluación de la degradación forestal así como un sistema de información computarizado para su implementación de manera eficiente. En el Capítulo I se abordan antecedentes y aspectos generales relacionados con el tema con miras a justificar la presente investigación. En el segundo Capítulo se revisa el proceso de preparación de México para el desarrollo de la iniciativa REDD+ y su correspondiente sistema MRV. Con base en las capacidades de monitoreo forestal identificadas se presenta un análisis de las brechas metodológicas existentes, se identifican los posibles problemas y los retos para el diseño e implementación del MRV para REDD+ en México. El Capítulo III incluye una propuesta para evaluar la degradación forestal en México, mediante un Índice General de Degradación (IGD) compuesto de indicadores forestales que emplean los datos de campo del Inventario Nacional Forestal y de Suelos de México (INFyS). Los Estados sin evidencia de degradación son: Puebla, Veracruz, Morelos y Colima. Contrariamente, Querétaro, Tamaulipas y el DF muestran indicios de un proceso de degradación. El valor del IGD nacional indica que en los ecosistemas del país no se identifica algún proceso considerable de degradación. Finalmente, el Capítulo IV versa sobre el diseño y construcción de un sistema de cómputo que permite el monitoreo y reporte de la degradación forestal en México, a través de la implementación del Índice General de Degradación (IGD) a partir de la Base de datos correspondiente a los sitios de muestreo del INFyS - México. El sistema se alimenta de datos dasométricos obtenidos de cada sitio del INFyS, auxiliándose de datos complementarios de los conglomerados (impactos en la vegetación y el suelo)
... Mainly, where forests commonly operate as social-ecological systems (Berkes et al., 2000;Bettinger et al., 2016;Fischer, 2018). Forest community management has proved to counterweight current forest loss and facilitate collective governance of forest resources (Gibson et al., 2000;Klooster & Masera, 2000;Velázquez et al., 2001;Ostrom, 2005;Bray et al., 2005;Bray 2020). ...
... Timber harvesting was predominant during the last century due to forest policies with diversification strategies (Bray, 2020). However, at the beginning of this century, new types of forest harvesting, and conservation programs have been included here and in other parts of Mexico (Bray et al., 2003;Bray et al., 2005). Diversification in forest management activities is linked to national strategies that promote social forestry in the country (Torres-Rojo et al., 2016), although this is done with individualized assistance. ...
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Forest landscape structure comprises a mosaic of natural and human-modified units, which when well depicted, may help to plan and implement forest management policies, which commonly assume territorial homogeneity. Usually, forest policies lack the use of spatial tools that can help scale up conservation program in heterogeneous forested landscapes. This paper applied a conceptual-methodological framework as baseline to guide regional strategies and scale-up community collective action based on local forestry ejidos and communities. The study case was conducted in the Mixteca Alta, a forestry region in Oaxaca, Mexico, where common property prevails. Zoning was made based on biophysical, social, and forest management criteria. A total of 97 communities were surveyed and the region was disaggregated into five zones based on precipitation, watersheds, community forest management experience and level of regional collective action. Each zone was recognized as having different forestry potentials and intervention needs, ranging from restoration to timber and non-timber product management. This zoning proved the potential to guide forest projects and promote joint regional forest development. The potential use of landscape zoning was discussed in the light of the current need for scale-up forest policies.
... Dada la riqueza de las formas indígenas de gestión de la propiedad común en México, éstas fueron imitadas por la reforma agraria masiva que siguió a la Revolución Mexicana de la segunda década del siglo xx, que reforzó el statu quo y generalizó las estrategias de tenencia y gestión común de la tierra (Bray, Merino-Pérez y Barry, 2010). La reforma agraria tuvo como principal expresión la tenencia de la tierra con el establecimiento de dos tipos de propiedad común: ejidos y comunidades indígenas (Bray et al., 2005). Este régimen de propiedad colectiva representa una visión que conocen poco otros países para el manejo de los recursos naturales (Heredia-Telles et al., 2021). ...
... El establecimiento de efc tiene un largo recorrido desde el punto de vista administrativo, pues muchas carecen de una estructura completa, cultura corporativa y una adecuada integración con los eslabones de su cadena productiva, en la que el capital social es determinante para definir los criterios de manejo y organización de la producción forestal, la gobernanza y el desarrollo económico (López et al., 2010). En el cuadro 3 se observa que la mayoría de las efc de México son tipo i, es decir, "productores potenciales", y una mínima parte de las registradas (1 %) tienen los recursos necesarios para llegar a ser sólidas y con capacidad de transformación secundaria, industrialización y comercialización (Bray et al., 2005). A pesar de ello, un análisis detallado de Rodríguez et al. (2019) sugiere que la actividad forestal es una ayuda significativa para los miembros de las comunidades, pues las efc se integran verticalmente ya que de 27 % a 46 % de los comuneros perciben que esta actividad representa más del 25 % de sus ingresos, lo que es una contribución importante para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida y la disminución de la pobreza en dichas organizaciones. ...
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Los procesos de cambio en las cubiertas forestales y los usos de tierra en Jalisco se mantienen con tasas anuales similares a las encontradas en estudios previos. Lo anterior sugiere que la gestión que se ha hecho para evitar que se sigan presentando los procesos de transformación no ha sido del todo eficaz. Conocer las tendencias a la transformación y profundizar en los análisis de los factores que propician los cambios de uso de tierra y en las cubiertas forestales, es fundamental para generar insumos que puedan ser utilizados para rediseñar los planes de desarrollo municipales y del estado con una visión alineada con los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. De esta forma, sería posible evitar que se siga perdiendo la integridad de los ecosistemas por los procesos de degradación y deforestación detectados en los diferentes estudios realizados para Jalisco.
... Dada la riqueza de las formas indígenas de gestión de la propiedad común en México, éstas fueron imitadas por la reforma agraria masiva que siguió a la Revolución Mexicana de la segunda década del siglo xx, que reforzó el statu quo y generalizó las estrategias de tenencia y gestión común de la tierra (Bray, Merino-Pérez y Barry, 2010). La reforma agraria tuvo como principal expresión la tenencia de la tierra con el establecimiento de dos tipos de propiedad común: ejidos y comunidades indígenas (Bray et al., 2005). Este régimen de propiedad colectiva representa una visión que conocen poco otros países para el manejo de los recursos naturales (Heredia-Telles et al., 2021). ...
... El establecimiento de efc tiene un largo recorrido desde el punto de vista administrativo, pues muchas carecen de una estructura completa, cultura corporativa y una adecuada integración con los eslabones de su cadena productiva, en la que el capital social es determinante para definir los criterios de manejo y organización de la producción forestal, la gobernanza y el desarrollo económico (López et al., 2010). En el cuadro 3 se observa que la mayoría de las efc de México son tipo i, es decir, "productores potenciales", y una mínima parte de las registradas (1 %) tienen los recursos necesarios para llegar a ser sólidas y con capacidad de transformación secundaria, industrialización y comercialización (Bray et al., 2005). A pesar de ello, un análisis detallado de Rodríguez et al. (2019) sugiere que la actividad forestal es una ayuda significativa para los miembros de las comunidades, pues las efc se integran verticalmente ya que de 27 % a 46 % de los comuneros perciben que esta actividad representa más del 25 % de sus ingresos, lo que es una contribución importante para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida y la disminución de la pobreza en dichas organizaciones. ...
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México es pionero en los sistemas de gestión comunitaria, por lo que se incentiva la estructuración del manejo forestal comunitario como un modelo de acción de ejidos y comunidades para administración de bosques con un enfoque territorial, para fortalecer la gobernanza local.
... Jurisdictional approaches, together with community-based management, independent regional community associations, biological corridors, forest/rural productive units at landscape level, jurisdictional REDD+, and integrated water resource management, are some of the most common management frameworks to implement ILAs [22,40,86]. There is clearly an urgent need to implement ILAs and use the multifaceted values of landscapes [50]. ...
... In the Panarchy theory, resilience is a primary variable that controls the adaptive cycling of nested systems, where resilience is measured by the magnitude of disturbance that can be absorbed before the system changes its structure, functions, and feedbacks [98]. ILA interventions should aim to moderate adverse livelihood impacts due to climate change and aim to build the socio-ecological resilience (as stated by Folke et al., the social-ecological resilience is an approach whereby humans and nature are studied as an integrated whole, and it emphasizes that humans and well-being fundamentally rest on the capacity of the biosphere to sustain us, irrespective of whether or not people recognize this dependence [88]) capacity of the landscape inhabitants and ecosystems [86,94]. In short, the ILA is an alternative that responds to the global need for more integrative management approaches where biodiversity conservation, development, climate change, and human well-being goals can potentially be achieved at a landscape-scale in order to build resilient societies and ecosystems in the short, medium, and long term. ...
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Holistic and multi-transdisciplinary approaches, where multiple goals are achieved in order to improve resilience in societies and ecosystems in the short, medium, and long term, are ideal, even utopian. Hence, science has come together with practical experiences that highlight the importance of working at a 'landscape' level. Landscapes, as socio-ecological systems, are key for sustainability and sustainable development, and they represent a realistic unit to interconnect local, national, and ultimately global scales. International efforts regarding holistic natural resources management approaches are not new; however, they are currently pointing to an Integrated Landscape Approach (ILA). Based on a documentation review and analysis, the present article review aims to promote the disambiguation of the ILA concept and provide an updated synthesis knowledge on the ILA. Especially for the forest sector, the ILA has been identified as particularly beneficial, strongly highlighted by the scientific literature, and with an infrastructure of organizations that are encouraging it. The paper presents the rationale of the science behind the concept, as well as the main principles, we identified a variety of definitions with some significant points of overlap, we highlight the inclusion of ILAs in the current international arena and the relationship of ILA's and Jurisdictional Approaches, and we make a review of the ILA in a challenging world of rapid change. Our review recognizes ILAs socio-ecological management strategy to reconcile conservation, development , climate change, and human well-being goals. ILAs naturally have a social and idealistic construction behind it, which might be just as necessary andsignificant as the journey toward sustainability itself.
... The current concept of CF has improving ecological sustainability and increasing local people's benefits as central goals, which are achieved by granting communities some degree of formal responsibility and authority for forest management [3]. Initially, CF-oriented programs sprang up from approaches that stimulated forestry development throughout tropical and subtropical regions [4]. Seen as a strategy for stimulating rural development, alleviating rural poverty, increasing social justice, empowering women, and sustainable forest management, the concept was gradually incorporated worldwide [5][6][7]. ...
... Our findings recorded fewer human disturbances in the CMBs than the SMBs, confirming the UN-REDD [83] report. Several similar studies in other countries confirm this as well, for example in India by Somanathan et al. [118], Mexico by Bray et al. [4], and Tanzania by Persha and Blomley [23]. On the other hand, our results indicated that nine natural forests in CF sites exhibited a healthy plant population. ...
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Sri Lanka's community forestry (CF) program emerged in the early 1980s following a global trend to conserve forest resources and provide benefits to the local community. However, very little is known about the effect of CF on forest resources. We assess the impacts of CF on forest conditions of semi-mixed evergreen forest in the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka using the before-after control-impact method. The study examines tree density, regeneration, woody species diversity, and evidence of disturbance as parameters to analyze the impact of the CF program. Data are analyzed using the difference in differences approach. The results show that the CF program has increased seedling and sapling density to a significant degree and reduced human disturbances. A major contribution of the CF program is that it was found to reduce invasive species and forest fires. The program reduced the amount of invasive species up to six times less than previous. The findings revealed that the impact of CF on forests may vary depending on pre-existing forest conditions, length of period to implement, perception, and decisions by local people. Community understanding and decision-making, in tandem with government policy, will weigh heavily on its future effectiveness.
... En México y Guatemala, comunidades y pequeños propietarios se han organizado, con éxito, como empresas forestales comunitarias (EFC) y han logrado insertar sus actividades de gestión forestal en las cadenas de valor de la madera o de otros productos forestales. Asimismo, en el capítulo se utilizan casos de la cuenca amazónica, en donde existen valiosas experiencias de apoyo al manejo forestal comunitario, habiéndose también generado, importantes hallazgos de investigaciones en las últimas dos décadas (Bray et al. 2005, Benneker 2008. ...
... Stoian y Donovan (2008) clasifican a las EFC como pequeñas y medianas empresas, con figuras legales que van desde cooperativas o asociaciones a sociedades anónimas. Entre los casos particulares están las EFC basadas en ejidos de México y los comités de gestión de Perú, que se ocupan del manejo de las tierras de los ejidos y las áreas protegidas, respectivamente (véase Bray et al. 2005;Monteferri 2006). Las EFC se dedican a una gran variedad de actividades productivas y de servicios, incluidas la producción maderera y de PFNM, y variadas formas de turismo (Stoian et al. 2009). ...
... Many development initiatives promote so-called inclusive value-chains. In particular in Mexico (see Antinori 2005, Antinori andBray 2005) and Guatemala (see Nittler and Tschinkel 2005, Stoian and Rodas 2006 a,b), a growing number of community forest enterprises became engaged in vertical integration. In Mexico, these relationships are often based on contracts with timber companies, sometimes involving community-based processing . ...
... Stoian and Donovan (2008) classify CFEs as small and medium enterprises, with legal figures ranging from cooperative or association to anonymous society. Particular cases are ejido-based CFEs in Mexico, and comites de gestión in Peru, which are tasked with the management of ejido lands and protected areas, respectively (see Bray et al. 2005, Monteferri 2006. CFEs engage in a wide variety of productive and service-oriented activities, including timber and NTFP production, and various kinds of tourism (Stoian et al. 2009). ...
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Community forestry is pursued as rural development strategy in many tropical forest regions worldwide. In Tropical America, rich experiences have been accumulated with community forestry support initiatives and this chapter summarizes published and the author’s hands on experiences. The chapter is divided in two parts. The first half focuses on the actual contribution of forests and trees to rural livelihoods, evidence that allows a more precise identification of the actual potential of communal forestry for rural development. The second half of the chapter reviews some of the challenges faced by community forestry development initiatives. The chapter critically reflects on generating profits, inserting communities in forest product value-chains, setting up community forestry enterprises and the challenge to adequately deal with complex regulations. By exploring the experiences of a handful of current community forestry initiatives in Amazonia, and with some reference to Central America, the potentials, limitations and challenges of communal and smallholder forestry are discussed. Keywords: forest incomes, forest regulations, forest product value-chains, community forestry support initiatives, community forestry enterprises
... Mexico is a key site to study these issues. It hosts the largest community forestry experiment in the world, showcased as a ''global model for sustainable landscapes" (Bray et al., 2005;also Bray, 2013) and an example of social justice in environmental conservation (Kashwan, 2017). Yet Mexico's forests are also contested 'political landscapes' (Boyer, 2015;also Bofill Poch, 2005;Haenn, 2005;Kashwan, 2017) with unequal power relations and a convoluted history of revolutionary collectivist land reform, authoritarian corporatism, and neoliberal counter-reforms. ...
... Mexico's community forestry is often promoted as a global success model (e.g. Bray et al., 2005;Bray, 2013). Much of the research has focused on explaining this success through accounts of local institutions and national policies. ...
Article
Problems of elite capture continue to present challenges for sustainable and equitable forest governance around the world. Our understanding of elite capture, however, remains limited by conceptual approaches that pay insufficient attention to power in its various dimensions. Drawing on critical institutionalism and political ecology, I analyze how the power veiled in political-economic structures or ‘power fields’, embedded with local institutions and relations of conflict and negotiation, helps (re)produce elite power and persistence. I pay particular attention to the role of foresters as crucial yet understudied elite actors in community forestry. I employ an over-time comparative case study of processes of elite capture in four regional inter-community forestry associations (FAs) in the state of Durango, Mexico. I argue that foresters’ persistent capture of FAs is related to multi-layered power inequalities and persistent democratic deficits reproduced by techno-bureaucratic forestry and authoritarian corporatist logics. At the same time, I posit that this capture is not definite but is continually transformed by social struggles and grassroots institutional innovations. Highlights • Documents recurrent patterns of elite capture in community forestry associations. • Finds foresters and timber corporations are central actors in these processes. • Links these patterns to power fields, shaped by enduring techno-bureaucratic logics. • Neoliberalization tends to further entrench elites’ power. • Shows these patterns are not unchangeable; they are also recurrently contested.
... La desjuvenización (Espinosa, 2015) de las comunidades y territorios rurales e indígenas, favorecida desde las políticas de educación en tono neoliberal e individualista, conjugadas con las políticas que empobrecen el campo y lo niegan como posibilidad de vida, dejan los territorios a expensas de ser apropiados por proyectos extractivos, producción por contrato, monocultivos altamente tecnificados o ganadería extensiva; todos estos como veremos más adelante, son procesos descritos por las y los jóvenes del Insittuto Superior Intercultural Ayuuk (ISIA). El despojo y la acumulación por desposesión (Harvey, 2004) que conllevan el etnocidio y la desaparición de los pueblos y sus formas de vida, son confrontados con proyectos educativos interculturales propios (Bertely- Busquets, 2011;Busquets, Dietz, y Díaz-Tepepa, 2013), como el ISIA, gestados desde proyectos de defensa del territorio, de organización política, social y de producción, desde la vida cotidiana, desde acuerdos comunitarios para el cuidado y la conservación de sus territorios y desde disputas en lo legal y jurídico, por el reconocimiento de sus derechos y la autonomía de facto Bray, 2005;Concheiro-Bórquez y Grajales-Ventura, 2005;Toledo, 1999). ...
Article
: Los Pueblos indígenas en México enfrentan actualmente la intensificación de conflictos socioambientales frente a proyectos históricos de desarrollo y extractivos que generan despojo. En el presente artículo se analiza el Instituto Superior Intercultural Ayuuk (ISIA) formando parte de diversos procesos que convergen en el objetivo de favorecer la permanencia de las comunidades; se presenta su origen en procesos de organización social de defensa de los territorios, su propuesta de educación intercultural desde el ejercicio del derecho de los Pueblos a tener su propia educación, así como su área de influencia, que presenta conflictos y tensiones frente a la geopolítica del saber y el poder. Se reflexiona, desde este marco histórico y geopolítico, el Seminario de Titulación (SETI), de la Licenciatura en Administración y Desarrollo Sustentable, como espacio significativo de síntesis y creatividad, donde las y los estudiantes diseñan una metodología de investigación, acción participativa (IAP), creando comunidades de aprendizaje en sus comunidades de origen que generan procesos de reflexión que fortalecen o generan procesos de defensa y cuidado de sus territorios. La información presentada se recopiló a través de una investigación colaborativa con el ISIA, en el marco del proyecto “Políticas de Interculturalidad en educación superior en Oaxaca: proyectos educativos etnopolíticos”, del CONACYT/CIESAS Pacífico Sur.
... At adjacent lower elevations from A. religiosa, populations of Pinus pseudostrobus are distributed mainly from 2100 to 2900 m of elevation (Sáenz-Romero et al., 2012b;Gómez-Pineda et al., 2020). Because of its dense stands, fast growing rate, and stem straightness (López-Upton, 2002), this pine species provides an important source of economic income for a large part of the indigenous communities on the Purépecha Plateau of Michoacán state, among other human communities whose economy is largely based on forestry (Bray et al., 2005). Our research focused on these two species, A. religiosa and P. pseudostrobus, due to their major conservation and economic importance, respectively. ...
Article
Climate change is an important risk factor for forest ecosystems through alteration of forest disturbance regimes such as bark beetle outbreaks, which in some places now are more successfully attacking host trees weakened by hotter drought events. In Mexico, ties between climate and amplified outbreaks of bark beetles have begun to be documented, although these relationships are not entirely clear. This project aims to identify the geographic patterning and relations between climate and bark beetle outbreaks in Abies religiosa and Pinus pseudostrobus populations located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt region. We used: 1) a database of phytosanitary logging authorizations and locations issued to enable salvage logging of trees infested or killed by bark beetle outbreaks from 2009 to 2018; 2) a previously developed gridded database of contemporary suitable climatic habitat of these tree species that will be lost by 2060 to determine if outbreaks occurred in sites with climatic habitat lost; and 3) elevation values to determine if outbreaks occur at xeric limits (drought limits) of tree hosts. Climate analysis was conducted with TerraClimate data using PDSI (Palmer’s Drought Severity Index) values. We find that bark beetle outbreaks do not necessarily occur at sites where models project that both species will lose suitable climatic habitat. For A. religiosa (Sacred Fir), of the 4091 ha treated by sanitary logging, 40% occurs between 3000 and 3100 m of elevation, where the pure and relatively better-preserved Sacred Fir stands are found. For P. pseudostrobus, more than 54% of the sanitary logging area (4664 ha) ranges from 2200 to 2400 m a.s.l., which coincides with the lower elevation limit (xeric limit) of the natural distribution of the species. Regarding relationships with PDSI, for A. religiosa there was a one-year lag between the year of mortality (expressed by the year of the phytosanitary logging authorization) and the year with the most negative (driest) PDSI anomaly (one year before), while for Pinus pseudostrobus, phytosanitary logging authorizations were concentrated in the driest year. An investigation that considers more variables, especially anthropogenic factors, is necessary to be able to better understand the dynamics of forest pests and prevent unusual outbreaks induced by expected climate-change-amplified droughts.
... Recently, scholars have drawn attention to broader aspects of well-being that emerge from forest enterprises, including environmental and cultural stewardship, empowerment, interpersonal and organizational relationships, and personal fulfilment (Macqueen et al., 2020). While many studies document success factors of community-based forest management (Baynes et al., 2015;Bray et al., 2005;Charnley and Poe, 2007), others highlight problems, including access to microfinance (Tomaselli et al., 2013), the need for external support (Bukula and Memani, 2006), negative impacts on biodiversity (Sayer et al., 2017;Shrestha et al., 2010), adverse policy and regulations (Molnar et al., 2007), and disparities in benefits and inclusion (Hajjar, 2015;Maskey et al., 2006). A recent global analysis of community-based forest management shows that pre-existing resource rights may be compromised with the formalization of community forests . ...
Article
Balancing the needs of local people with biodiversity conservation is a universal challenge for protected area management. In Cambodia's forest landscapes, community-based forest management schemes are intended for rural communities to gain income in activities that support sustainable forest management in protected areas. Partnerships between communities, government, and non-government organizations to develop community-based forest management are still in their early stages, offering opportunities to learn from successes and challenges. In this paper, we report on the short-term results of a program led by WWF-Cambodia to support Community Protected Areas in Mondulkiri, Cambodia. Surveys were designed to capture changes in the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of members involved in community-based forest management. The surveys elicited local perceptions of benefits of involvement in forest enterprises and protection, and whether perceptions match the program's objective of conservation and income generation. The results of the short-term evaluation show that perceived benefits are linked to non-monetary attributes of the program, such as access to information and resources. There was no significant change in household income from forests over the two-year evaluation period. Overall, members perceived improvements in natural resource management, but expressed concerns over difficulties of managing forest enterprises. The short-term program evaluation suggests Community Protected Areas in Cambodia may have a positive impact on community governance but raises questions over realistic outcomes. Understanding local perceptions of the value of Community Protected Areas may help to better ground program objectives in local realities.
... Linking PES with community-level resource management may strengthen long-term forest conservation in sites where communal institutions are still prevalent and communities have previous experience and interest in conservation (see e.g. Mexico's community forestry experiences in Bray et al., 2005). However, our evidence suggests that some resource management systems may be economically and organisationally unfeasible where individualised property regimes are in place, which is often the case in Mexican tropical frontier regions Mexico . ...
Article
Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) are a popular conservation instrument in the Global South. However, little is known about how evolving PES design features affect local institutions and collective participation dynamics. Drawing on long-term field research spanning over a decade, we address this gap by investigating the evolution of PES design features and local responses by community participants in 10 communities of Selva Lacandona, state of Chiapas, Mexico. We show that Mexican PES programmes have shifted their goals over time, progressively adding productive, organisational, and social inclusion concerns to their main goal of forest conservation. We document a set of local responses to such PES design changes, namely: i) efforts to secure sustained programme access; ii) adaptations to local benefit-sharing and participation agreements; and iii) discontinuities in enrolment triggered by specific changes in design features. We also show that participants’ interests and practices align with PES forest protection goals but reflect a partial involvement of the community (or constrained collective action) in conservation affairs. Overall, our findings illustrate the dynamic interplay and resulting (mis)alignments between PES goals, outcomes, and participants’ practices and interests.
... Existing arrangements under the joint management venture did not entail a meaningful devolution of authority to forest users; rather, resources management committees under the control of the state forestry agency had responsibility. At the same time, the forest area had no history of collective action by local stakeholders with regard to the management of the state forest, in contrast to the case in Mexico (Bray et al. 2005) and Southeast Asia (Edmunds and Wollenberg 2003). The chapter starts by describing the context of the project and then the ACM research process, reflecting on the various steps taken. ...
... The aim of this regime was to generate a feeling of ownership and identity among the agrarian beneficiaries, so they could work together to achieve a common good involving social, economic and environmental aspects (Bray et al., 2006). The aspiration of this management system could also be understood from a sustainability standpoint (Bray et al., 2005;Ostrom et al., 2009). Nevertheless, regional development programs and policies do not consider social and cultural factors such as conditions of inequality, marginalization, nor the lack of government funding to promote integral development and poverty reduction (Toledo and Ortíz-Espejel, 2014;Masron and Subramaniam, 2018;Martínez-Espinosa et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The indigenous community of El Alberto (Ixmiquilpan, Mexico), in the Mezquital Valley, has applied numerous uses of the mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) resources in their daily life for decades. Our objective was to understand the relationship between the rural community and this leguminous tree, to determine how sustainable their management is. For this purpose, we applied the Framework for the Evaluation of Management Systems using Indicators (MESMIS, Spanish acronym). Twenty-one indicators were identified, and a qualitative index was established to assign a sustainability value. The results identified fuelwood, fertility, forage and shade as the principal uses of mesquite nowadays. The local indigenous community does not promote the propagation of this leguminous tree but rather rely on its natural regeneration. However, the rate at which they cut down and exploit mesquite is higher than the natural regeneration rate, reflecting a low level of sustainable management. Strong equity was registered. First, there is a passive process associated with the construction of irrigation channels for agriculture, which resulted in the deforestation of the mesquite. Second, there is evidence of an active process where members of the community decide to migrate abandoning their indigenous worldview, which, consequently, has impacted negatively on the mesquite resource. Change processes caused a shift in the community’s worldview and led to cultural erosion. In conclusion, changes must be made to the community’s current social ecological system to achieve sustainable management, such as building a strong feeling of community identity, evolution of the community’s uses, customs, quality and lifestyle, and their collaboration with the scientific community.
... During this time, indigenous and agrarian communities were granted community property ownership known as ejidosindigenous or agrarian communities. The Mexican Revolution led to collective governance of a common territory or property by members of the ejido, also termed ejidatorios (Bray DB et al. 2005). A succession of events subsequent to the Revolution placed increasing control of forest resources in the hands of the ejiditarios. ...
... En este sentido, si se considera que los países de América Latina y El Caribe albergan el 22% de los bosques del mundo (Cordero, 2011), resulta evidente la importancia de territorios forestales como medio de sustento de vida para sus poblaciones, de las cuales depende su conservación y el mantenimiento, y, por tanto, la preservación de múltiples SE. En México, aproximadamente 80% de los bosques se encuentran bajo la gestión comunitaria -ejidos y bienes comunales- (Bray et al., 2005), y en la periferia de la Ciudad de México, la capital del país, es de casi 90% (Perevochtchikova, 2016). ...
Article
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Resumen. En este trabajo se presenta la experiencia de Monitoreo Comunitario Participativo (MCP) del agua en una comunidad forestal de la periferia suroeste de la Ciudad de México, realizado durante 2015-2017 por un equipo colaborativo (academia-comunidad). Apoyándose en el marco conceptual de MCP, se desarrollan varias etapas del estudio: i) el monitoreo del agua en la zona forestal (fuentes de abastecimiento de agua potable); ii) las mediciones en la parte urbana de la comunidad (domicilios y tanques de almacenamiento); iii) la aplicación de una encuesta sobre percepción social del servicio del agua, y iv) la toma de muestras de la calidad del agua para el laboratorio (para corroborar la rigurosidad de los datos tomados mediante el MCP). Se observa una tendencia de preservación de una buena calidad físico-química del agua, con una severa problemática bacteriológica; por otro lado, existe conciencia social sobre la deficiente dotación del recurso y la necesidad de conservación forestal. Finalmente, se reflexiona sobre la necesidad de implementar medidas de control de la contami-nación y sobre la utilidad del MCP para el empoderamiento social y la toma de decisiones comunitarias para planeación territorial a escala local. Palabras clave: calidad del agua, Ciudad de México, comu-nidad forestal, monitoreo colaborativo, percepción social. Abstract. Environmental observation schemes involving
... Furthermore, the hierarchical transfer of technology from expert technicians to local forest users characteristic of the FSCRSP largely paralyzed communities' capacity building. The outcomes of such programs appear to have an even greater negative impact on soil conservation in countries with highly biodiverse forests, which are largely owned by local communities [32] [33]. In these forests, local participation and knowledge are critical for sustainability. ...
Article
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Forests improve the livelihoods and resilience of communities in diverse ways. In particular, soils provide important environmental services for com- munities in addition to performing many essential ecological functions in forest ecosystems, such as nutrient uptake, organic matter decomposition, water storage, and provision of anchorage for plant growth. The sound man- agement of forest soils, although often disregarded, is a key element of sus- tainable forest management. From 2002 to 2016 the Forest Soil Conservation and Restoration Sub-Program was designed and implemented by the Nation- al Forest Commission (CONAFOR) in Mexico. Forests in Mexico have high biological diversity and are often owned, governed, and managed by com- munities or, in some cases, community forestry is practiced. Despite the im- portance of periodic monitoring to ensure that policies are both effective and suitable for diverse conditions and decision making, the policies implemented by this program were not evaluated during its years of operation. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to identify the deficiencies of this policy as well as opportunities based on a review of the official information available on the Forest Soil Conservation and Restoration Sub-Program of CONAFOR during the 2002-2016 period and interviews with key informants. In addition, we aimed to highlight experiences that may be useful for similar soil conser- vation policies in tropical forest regions. The identified limitations ranged from conceptual problems such as policy weakness and lack of understanding of local drivers of soil degradation to an overly rigid implementation of soil conservation measures across diverse forest ecosystems and socio-ecological contexts. These deficiencies had several unintended outcomes: perhaps the most relevant was the inability of forest communities to build capacities for soil conservation. Another important limitation was the complete lack of monitoring of the program and its outcomes, which could have prevented its poor results. Finally, a lack of transparency in the distribution and determi- nation of funding was noted. In conclusion, the hierarchical approach of this policy appears to have compromised its long-term efficacy.
... Secure land tenure is often touted as the single most important factor for the success of conservation and development interventions such as REDD+ [85]. Land tenure rights in Mexican ejidos are relatively secure, and illegal land uses are limited compared to other regions of Latin America [86,87]. Our results highlight the insufficiency in secure land rights for ensuring REDD+ effectiveness. ...
Article
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Since 2010, the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) mechanism has been implemented in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, a biodiversity hotspot with persistent deforestation problems. We apply the before-after-control-intervention approach and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate the effectiveness of REDD+ interventions in reducing deforestation at municipal (meso) and community (micro) scales. Difference-indifferences regression and propensity score matching did not show an overall reduction in forest cover loss from REDD+ projects at both scales. However, Synthetic Control Method (SCM) analyses demonstrated mixed REDD+ effectiveness among intervened municipalities and communities. Funding agencies and number of REDD+ projects intervening in a municipality or community did not appear to affect REDD+ outcomes. However, cattle production and commercial agriculture land uses tended to impede REDD+ effectiveness. Cases of communities with important forestry enterprises exemplified reduced forest cover loss but not when cattle production was present. Communities and municipalities with negative REDD+ outcomes were notable along the southern region bordering Guatemala and Belize, a remote forest frontier fraught with illegal activities and socio-environmental conflicts. We hypothesize that strengthening community governance and organizational capacity results in REDD+ effectiveness. The observed successes and problems in intervened communities deserve closer examination for REDD+ future planning and development of strategies on the Yucatan Peninsula.
... They sought to make a case for the disconnection of communities from their rightful role in managing these lands, collect and present the tenets of CBF as something of a panacea, and cohere a concept and a movement. The global CBF literature provides examples of scholarship and advocacy combining to promote CBF as a way to conserve forests and restore the rights of forest peoples previously appropriated by governments, with empirical evidence for these arguments (Bray et al., 2005;Bullock et al., 2017, andSikor andStahl, 2011). However, several other scholars have used theoretical approaches and meta-analysis to critique and challenge these premises, which we discuss shortly in relation to themes in the CBF literature. ...
Article
An approach to community-based forestry (CBF) on federal forestlands in the western United States consists of a number of informal civil society institutions for communities to better organize internally and interact with government. We review the body of research on this topic, which has an explicit focus on the three interlinked aspects of democratic governance practiced to provide community benefits and ecological sustainability. We situate its prominent concepts and themes relative to the global literature on CBF, and initiate new conversation about what CBF may mean within the context of contemporary federal forest governance in the US. Drawing on our collective research and practice experience, we then propose premises and questions for a vision of a contemporary research agenda around CBF in the western US that is influenced by salient questions from the global community forestry literature, and current social and policy trends in federal lands governance.
... In Mexico, only 28% of the original TMCF cover remained by 2002 and, of this, 52.4% corresponded to degraded or secondary forests (Challenger et al., 2009). Important triggers of TMCF loss and degradation include government programs promoting agriculture and cattle grazing in areas of TMCF distribution, a lack of support for sustainable forestry operations and for commodity market production (Bray & Merino, 2005;Martínez et al., 2009;Toledo-Aceves et al., 2011). Frequently located on very steep slopes and with low productivity, both mature and secondary TMCF are not regarded as of high value for timber harvesting (Scatena et al., 2011;Toledo-Aceves et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are under severe threat from deforestation, fragmentation and degradation. Several tree species are harvested and commercialized by local communities through unplanned selective logging. Lack of information regarding the growth rates of the most economically valuable timber species hampers the design of effective sustainable management schemes for TMCF. The objective of this study was to determine the diameter growth rates and evaluate the influence of tree size, crown class and neighbouring tree basal area on the growth of common and valuable TMCF timber species. Annual diameter growth was measured during two years in 60 trees (10 to 45 cm in diameter at breast height; dbh) each of Alnus acuminata, Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus xalapensis, located in two unmanaged secondary TMCF sites in Veracruz, Mexico. High diameter growth rates (centimeter per year [cm yr-1]; mean ± SE) were recorded in the three species; the highest was recorded in A. acuminata (1.62 cm yr-1 ± 0.08 cm yr-1), followed by Q. xalapensis (0.91 cm yr-1 ± 0.07 cm yr-1) and L. styraciflua (0.71 cm yr-1 ± 0.08 cm yr-1). Diameter growth rate was inversely related to the basal area of the neighbouring trees, indicating a negative effect of competition in the three species. Dominant trees had higher growth rates than supressed trees in the three species. The high growth rates recorded in forests with no previous management and the negative effect of basal area of neighbouring trees support the potential for silvicultural management in secondary TMCF.
... In particular, some examples of community commercial forest management involving collective action (Ostrom et al., 1990;Bray et al., 2005) coincide with the MCFR in that they comply with traditional regulations fomenting biodiversity conservation. Nevertheless, MCFR differ from community forests used commercially in that their purpose is use of woody species for self-provisioning by community members. ...
Article
Mayan community forest reserves (MCFR) play an important role in agricultural landscapes in Mexico, as they provide forest products and a broad variety of benefits that contribute to improving local people's livelihoods. Nevertheless, academia has generally considered conservation and use of forest resources to be incompatible. We describe the spatial configuration of MCFR, evaluate floristic and structural characteristics of woody vegetation present in selected reserves, and identify social norms that govern use and conservation of MCFR. These reserves largely consist of mature vegetation (80% of total cover); their plant structure is similar to that of the surrounding tropical sub-deciduous forest; and they house a large number of endemic species. The MCFR studied contain a total of 146 tree species and cover 11% of the study area, which includes at least 140 villages in the north-central part of the Yucatan Peninsula. These reserves are collectively managed and conserved by Mayan peasants in the interest of the common good. The communities in our study area combine conservation and use of forest resources, and we recommend that in public policy, government agencies and NGOs incorporate MCFR as a model of biological conservation and sustainable natural resource use, taking into account traditional knowledge and local norms that allow these reserves to function in a sustainable manner.
... As many as 2000 communities are involved with logging and/or timberprocessing activities nationwide (Del Angel-Mobarak 2012, Herrera Guerra 2015). Reflective of trends elsewhere (Porter-Bolland et al. 2012), community forest management in Mexico better integrates forest use, rural development and biological conservation than either statedecreed protected areas or large forest concessions (Bray et al. 2009). This forest governance, however, requires village labour and institutions, which may be depleted or weakened by migration (Robson 2010, Klooster 2013, Robson et al. 2018. ...
Article
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The nature of migration–forest linkages in migrant-sending regions is underreported and poorly understood. In rural Latin America and elsewhere, out-migration, together with agricultural crises and the deterritorialization of rural livelihood, are transforming forests and the communities that manage them. Drawing on research in indigenous communities of Oaxaca (Mexico), we identify the parameters of a new landscape of forest use and conservation, finding that: migration challenges community practices for self-governance of forest resources; declines in agriculture create new spaces for forest recovery and use; and forest conservation policies create economic opportunities around both extractive and non-extractive forest use.
... Kashwan argues that in the early 20th century both countries had strongly centralized governance over natural resources. Mexico's unusual history of peasant revolts and comprehensive national land reforms meant that by the late 20th century, Mexico's rural population had far more economic and political power over natural resources than in most other developing countries (Bray et al. 2003(Bray et al. , 2009. By contrast, postindependence India increased central control over natural resources (Gadgil and Guha 1995). ...
Article
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In this paper, we argue that, like a three-legged stool, participatory programs require three elements for stability: a supply of participatory institutions, a demand from citizens to participate, and citizens with capabilities for participation. We illustrate the importance of these three elements using case studies from forest management in central India and southern Mexico, and use the evidence from these cases to suggest hypotheses for future investigation. We argue that when participatory programs are implemented in places where demand for citizen engagement is weak and citizens lack the capability to engage, participation is unlikely. On the other hand, where people demand to participate and have the capability to do so, they are sometimes able to overcome obstacles to utilizing participatory institutions. Individuals’ agency for citizen engagement is developed in interaction with the structures of participation; this means that there may be a long-term synergy between the supply of participatory institutions and the development of skills and demand for citizen engagement. Our work implies that designers of participatory programs should pay equal attention to cultivating participatory capabilities, providing incentives that enhance demand for participation, and building institutions to open spaces for participation in governance. Building participatory environmental governance may thus require long-term, sustained attention to both citizenship and institution-building.
... The forest management communities of the Sierra Norte are among the best organized nationally of the large-scale Mexican community forest sector ( Bray et al., 2005). Prior to the 1980s, many Sierra Norte forests were passively conserved as a result of factors such as relatively low population densities, agricultural land abandonment, emigration, and steep slopes. ...
... ity was vested with the power to make decisions about the community forest. The decisions ranged from demarcating areas designated for agriculture, wildlife, firewood collection and grazing of livestock. Practices such as reforestation and annual harvestable volume and decisions concerning the saw mill where also determined by the general assembly (Bray et. al. 2005). The community forest also claims to provide aesthetics, wildlife habitat, and watershed protection, sustainable management of timber, non-timber and endemic species conservation (Ganz and Burckle 2002). Areas are zoned for restoration, protection, or production. It is primarily harvested through single-tree selection, group selection, ...
Conference Paper
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Forests are important natural resources which can contribute to climate mitigation and adaptation by providing a variety of goods and services. Increased community ownership and equitable benefits through community forests (CFs) and community forest enterprises (CFEs) have led to the conservation and sustainable management of forest resources. Cases from Nepal and Mexico indicate that CFEs secure the rights, access and benefits for local communities, protect forest from fire, landslides and floods, reduce overgrazing, unsustainable harvesting, illegal cutting, secure and diversify livelihood sources of communities, reduce deforestation and forest degradation and increase the resilience of the forest ecosystem and biodiversity. Thus, CFEs can be a potential strategy in developing countries for mitigation and adaptation against climate change.
... T he success of community level forest management in Mexico has been widely reported (Klooster and Masera 2000;Bray et al. 2005;Ellis and Porter-Bolland 2008) and annual deforestation rates have been falling steadily (INECC 2015). However, while forest products and benefits of various types (e.g. ...
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The success of community level forest management in Mexico has been widely reported and annual deforestation rates have been falling steadily. However, while forest products and benefits of various types (e.g. timber, building poles, fuelwood, NTPFs, grazing areas) remain important for rural livelihoods, there is evidence that access to these resources is increasingly conditioned by socio-economic status, both within com- munities and among smallholders. To examine these trends in community forest management, we draw on our recent experience as participants in the workshop, “Acceso Equitativo y Gestión de Bienes Comunes Naturales en México,” organized by Dr. Leticia Merino on behalf of Oxfam Mexico in August 2017. The views here expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the workshop organizers. We highlight two main issues: first, within communities there is an increasing concentration of rights to forest resources in the hands of more privileged families; and second, policies that are intended to maintain sustainability actually make it difficult for communities and small landowners to profit legally from forest management.
... In particular, the organization of resource users with respect to markets creates a variety of incentives, some of which may actually facilitate sustainable governance. These findings are consistent with other research that has observed that cost sharing and profit redistribution can leverage markets to enhance natural resource governance (Alcorn & Toledo, 1998;Bray, Merino-Pérez, & Barry, 2009). After all, collective action is only likely when actors anticipate benefits and are capable of incurring the costs. ...
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