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Foraging Behavior of the Yellow Netted Ladybeetle Heteroneda billardieri Crotch (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

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Laboratory experiments were conducted to explore the potential of the yellow netted ladybeetle (Heteroneda billardieri Crotch) to control populations of the mango leafhopper (Idioscopus clypealis Lethierry). We studied the preference of the predatory beetle for the mango leafhopper and its host selection behavior on a three-prey-host plant system, using leafhopper (L clypealis) on Mangifera indica, psyllid (Heteropsylla cubana Crawford) on Leucaena leucocephala and aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) on Vigna unguiculata. In prey-host selection behavior, H. billardieri adults were found to land significantly more often on M. indica plants than on V. unguiculata or L. leucocephala, even when M. indica flowers were pest-infested or non-infested. The adults also selected V. unguiculata to a lesser extent regardless of whether V. unguiculata was pest-infested or not. However, the predator preferred the pest-infested L. leucocephala over the non-infested. In terms of preference for prey, H. billardieri preferred H. cubana to L clypealis and A. craccivora. H. cubana comprised 64-68% of the total consumption.
... A study done by Adorada (2006) was mainly focused on its taxonomy and classification. Recently, few studies have been carried out especially regarding the effect of different prey or non-prey items on the H. billardieri larval development (Medina and Velasco 2008;Barcos et al. 2014;Badrulhadza et al. 2018). These studies were undertaken for the purpose of developing a mass rearing protocol for the predator and specifically to determine the suitability of natural and non-natural diets or prey to the beetle for its larval survival and development. ...
... Furthermore, the predaceous larvae may not be used to consuming psyllids because in nature, psyllids are not found on mango trees. According to Barcos et al. (2014), the search for prey by its predator was influenced by the presence of the prey on the plants. Barcos et al. (2014) also stated that H. billardieri oriented themselves to mango trees that were infested by MLH and not psyllids. ...
... According to Barcos et al. (2014), the search for prey by its predator was influenced by the presence of the prey on the plants. Barcos et al. (2014) also stated that H. billardieri oriented themselves to mango trees that were infested by MLH and not psyllids. Psyllids may also be less preferred due to its size and mobility. ...
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Mango leafhopper (MLH), Idioscopus clypealis Lethierry (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is naturally controlled by a predator beetle named Heteroneda billardieri (Crotch) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Mango leafhopper is used to rear H. billardieri with regards to biological control efforts. However, an alternative prey is needed in order to boost the mass rearing process of the beetle. Therefore, different prey species were selected along with artificial diets to study their effect on the growth and development of H. billardieri larvae. Two non-natural prey species, the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch and leucaena psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana Crawford were tested along with MLH and artificial diets. All types of diets were accepted by the predator but their suitability was varied. The artificial diets were not suitable for larval development and psyllid was the least suitable when provided alone. However, simultaneous feeding of prey together with artificial diets significantly affected growth and development of H. billardieri compared to feeding with a single prey or artificial diets only except when the larvae were fed with aphids alone. The larval development and survival were best when fed just with a single diet of aphids suggesting that aphids can serve as the best alternative non-natural prey during the larval stage of growth, especially when the availability of MLH is limited.
... Psyllids could have been overlooked by the larvae due to their small size and escaping abilities. In a study conducted by Barcos et al. (2014), the adults of H. billardieri preferred to prey more on psyllids compared to MLH and aphids whether in the prey choice or no-choice test experiment. In her study, the psyllids comprised 64 -68% of the total consumption of the predatory beetle. ...
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Heteroneda billardieri (Crotch) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a natural predator of the mango leafhopper (MLH), Idioscopus clypealis Lethierry (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in the Philippines. With regards to mass rearing and biological control efforts, the effects of diet switching between different prey species and artificial diet on the growth and development of H. billardieri larvae was studied. Cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, Leucaena psyllid and Heteropsylla cubana Crawford were tested along with MLH and artificial diet. Based of results, switching diets of MLH and psyllid, MLH and artificial diet, and psyllid alone were less suitable for the larvae. However, larval development was faster when the larvae were fed just with either MLH or aphid alone. The most suitable diet was when the larvae were fed with MLH switched to aphid. The study proved that prey switching is an adaptation by H. billardieri and can enhance larval growth better than single diet alone. This might contribute positively to the outcome of mass rearing for biological control of MLH in the field.
... Furthermore, our observed reaction may be generic, representing an adaptation to multiple predator species [46] with a variety of predatory tactics [47]. Leafhoppers have various spider predators [23,48] which employ variations of sit-and-wait strategy, but also have many actively searching insect predators, like predatory bugs [49], lacewing larvae [50] and ladybird beetles [51]. Adaptation to more active predators is also hinted by the observation, that leafhopper activity was positively correlated to spider activity. ...
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IntroductionPredationDevelopment and ReproductionSurvivalPrey Defence and EscapeAggregationDispersalCompetitionMutualismConclusion
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