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Abstract

Over the past decade, the number of one-to-one laptop programs in schools has steadily increased. Despite the growth of such programs, there is little consensus about whether they contribute to improved educational outcomes. This article reviews 65 journal articles and 31 doctoral dissertations published from January 2001 to May 2015 to examine the effect of one-to-one laptop programs on teaching and learning in K–12 schools. A meta-analysis of 10 studies examines the impact of laptop programs on students’ academic achievement, finding significantly positive average effect sizes in English, writing, mathematics, and science. In addition, the article summarizes the impact of laptop programs on more general teaching and learning processes and perceptions as reported in these studies, again noting generally positive findings.

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... Coupled with the widespread availability of interactive web-based applications known as Web 2.0 Tools has increased the formative assessment options in the classroom (Bower, 2016;Singer, 2017). Many school systems have taken advantage of this opportunity by purchasing networked computing devices for each student (Fleischer, 2017;Kennedy et al., 2016;Zheng et al., 2016). This one-to-one computing access has been shown to have positive effects on achievement in the areas of science, writing, mathematics, and English when teachers utilize the technology for instructional purposes (Zheng et al., 2016). ...
... Many school systems have taken advantage of this opportunity by purchasing networked computing devices for each student (Fleischer, 2017;Kennedy et al., 2016;Zheng et al., 2016). This one-to-one computing access has been shown to have positive effects on achievement in the areas of science, writing, mathematics, and English when teachers utilize the technology for instructional purposes (Zheng et al., 2016). In schools with a one-to-one networked computer ratio and ready access to Web 2.0 tools, Computer-Based Formative Assessment (CBFA) is a readily available option. ...
... Inexpensive computing devices such as the Google Chromebook have recently entered the market as an alternative to computer laboratories/laptops and has been rapidly gaining popularity in many school systems due to their low cost (Molnar, 2014). As a result, many systems are purchasing one device for every student to use daily (Fleischer, 2017;Kennedy et al., 2016;Zheng et al., 2016). This increased access to technology on a day-to-day basis has been shown to lead to changes in teacher behavior toward technology integration that favors more student-centered learning (Varier et al., 2017). ...
Article
The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to investigate the computer-based formative assessment (CBFA) practices of core academic teachers within a one-to-one computing environment to better understand the relationships between CBFA usage rates of teachers and their perceptions of instructional technology. Survey data were collected from 261 academic teachers (63% response rate), which quantified teacher CBFA usage rates. The major findings of the study indicated that there were statistically significant correlations between CBFA usage rates and teacher comfort with technology, teacher belief in technology, and teacher autonomy. Significant differences in CBFA usage rates were found between different subjects, class levels, and grade levels. The findings provide insight into how teachers utilize CBFA in their classrooms to aid in developing targeted professional development to support teachers in using technology to formatively assess students. Future research into the effectiveness of increased CBFA usage could demonstrate how student achievement may be related to increased use of this instructional tool.
... Bien que certaines recherches exposent des effets mitigés de la demande d'aide soutenue par les technologies, rares sont celles qui ont étudié l'intégration des technologies en classe et l'effet de cette intégration sur la qualité de la demande d'aide. Pourtant, ces contextes de classe ont le potentiel de développer chez les apprenants les compétences technologiques nécessaires à l'usage des ressources en ligne (Depover et al., 2007;Karsenti et Collin, 2013a;Zheng et al., 2016). D'ailleurs, la recherche la plus influente sur le sujet reste celle de Kitsantas et Chow (2007). ...
... En particulier, le contexte de la classe-portable s'implante dans plusieurs écoles au Québec et dans le monde. Des recensions des écrits successives sur le sujet soulèvent l'effet positif de ces contextes de classe sur l'accès aux technologies, sur l'acquisition des compétences technologiques, sur le développement des méthodes de travail et sur la relation entre l'enseignant et ses élèves (Fleischer, 2012;Penuel, 2006;Zheng et al., 2016). ...
... Ces caractéristiques favorisent la mise en place d'activités centrées sur l'élève et d'activités collaboratives comme le dénotent les plus récentes recensions des écrits (Fleischer, 2012;Zheng et al., 2016). Ces approches d'enseignement amènent les élèves à faire davantage usage des technologies, à développer de meilleures méthodes de travail et à acquérir des compétences technologiques (Karsenti et 6 Collin, 2013a). ...
Article
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RÉSUMÉ: Plusieurs élèves abandonnent plutôt que de demander de l'aide lors des devoirs. La demande d'aide représente pourtant une stratégie nécessaire à l'apprentissage. L'usage des technologies en classe aurait un effet positif sur cette stratégie et, conséquemment, sur la réalisation des devoirs. Cet article vise ainsi à comparer des élèves de classes-portables à des élèves de classes traditionnelles quant : 1) aux types de demandes d'aide et 2) à la fréquence à laquelle les devoirs sont terminés. Les résultats obtenus tendent à confirmer l'hypothèse initiale tout en soulevant la nécessité de sensibiliser les élèves à un usage efficace des technologies. ABSTRACT: Many students prefer to abandon rather than seek help during their homework. However, seeking support is recognized as an effective learning strategy to complete assignments. Technology-supported classroom could have a beneficial impact on this strategy and, therefore, on homework completion. This article aims to compare students from a one-to-one laptop program to others studying in a traditional classroom environment on their 1) help-seeking strategies and 2) homework completion frequency. Quantitative analyses tend to confirm the initial hypothesis. However, they reveal the necessity to sensitize students regarding the appropriate use of technological tools to ensure their beneficial impact on learning
... For example, students have easier access to online resources which helps them conduct research and visualize content and ideas. 3,4 In some initiatives, they are more likely to experience student-centered pedagogy, 5,6,7 engage in small-group collaborative and project-based learning, 2,8,9 and experience individual, differentiated, and personalized learning. 6,7,10,11 Students in 1:1 classrooms may also write more often, for more purposes, and communicate with their teachers and classmates more easily. ...
... 3,4 In some initiatives, they are more likely to experience student-centered pedagogy, 5,6,7 engage in small-group collaborative and project-based learning, 2,8,9 and experience individual, differentiated, and personalized learning. 6,7,10,11 Students in 1:1 classrooms may also write more often, for more purposes, and communicate with their teachers and classmates more easily. 7,12 Studies have reported that students in new 1:1 environments are typically more engaged than they were before, 9,13 although initial effects may wear off over time. ...
... 6,7,10,11 Students in 1:1 classrooms may also write more often, for more purposes, and communicate with their teachers and classmates more easily. 7,12 Studies have reported that students in new 1:1 environments are typically more engaged than they were before, 9,13 although initial effects may wear off over time. 14,15 In some studies, 1:1 programs eventually resulted in significantly increased achievement in mathematics, English language arts (including writing), and science. ...
Technical Report
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Technology, such as iPad™ devices for students and teachers, has the potential to energize classrooms and bring substantially new types of learning opportunities to children of all ages. These changes are not an automatic result of adding technology to education, and they often take place over a long period of time. This report asks the questions, what does a promising start look like and what types of support can enable conditions for success? We ask these questions through the lens of the Apple and ConnectED Initiative, which has been the focus of a rigorous 6-year research study. Launched in 2014, the Apple and ConnectED Initiative has supported 114 participating schools across the country with an iPad for every student. Schools received a host of programmatic supports including extensive professional learning opportunities for teachers and leaders, technology infrastructure upgrades, and process management. The initiative and this research are explicitly situated in a diversity of traditionally under-resourced communities, with schools ranging from pre-K to secondary and from the inner city to rural migrant communities to Native American villages. This report focuses on the first year of iPad use across these schools to describe the initial changes that might be expected to appear when sufficient support is in place to lower common barriers to its adoption.
... In spite of the potentialities of ET to enrich learning environments and thus to improve the learning experiences of a variety of learners, research shows that Cypriot teachers tend to use technology to facilitate their teaching in a way that does not always have additional educational value (Mama and Hennessy, 2013;Vrasidas, 2015), while most of the technologically-based activities do not promote any kind of pedagogical engagement (Aldunate and Nussbaum, 2013;Zheng et al., 2016). In general, the number of lessons where ET is involved in a way that impacts student attainment seems to still be relatively small in Cypriot primary schools. ...
... For this reason, most of the teachers follow more teacher-centred approaches that perpetuate a kind of resistance to any kind of novelty or innovation and prevents use of the class computer or the lab by the students (Donnelly et al., 2011). Thus, the main use of the single available computer in their settings was as a tool that facilitated their teaching rather than enhancing the learning experiences of their students with pedagogically engaging activities (Uluyol and Şahin, 2016;Zheng et al., 2016). ...
Article
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This qualitative study explores the views of six Cypriot primary school teachers regarding the value of educational technology, their actual use of such technology in their classrooms and factors working against its use. Participating teachers collaborated with the researcher in the design of simple web-based learning environments for a variety of learners in their classes and the use of those in a series of computer-mediated teaching sessions, in the framework of an alternative training programme based on the Whole Teacher Development approach, a conceptual framework for in-service professional development of teachers. Both before and after this, participant observations and semi-structured interviews were conducted. It was found that the use of educational technologies in these Cypriot primary schools depends on a complex framework of interwoven and dynamic factors at both teacher and school levels. The results suggest that this collaboration opportunity has the potential to develop positive attitudes and change conservative stances towards educational technology although other factors such as lack of time, a demanding curriculum and limited ready-made and suitable educational software work against its use.
... However, as technologies are established as permanent resources in classrooms, new teaching practices, more student-centered, are deployed, favouring the development of their autonomy. In particular, for science teaching, it is observed that ICT enhances project-based learning and problem-based learning (Zheng et al., 2016). ...
... The strengths of ICT highlighted by pre-and inservice teachers coincide with findings by other authors (Drossel, Eickelmann, & Gerick, 2017;Zheng et al., 2016): both groups identify technologies as cultural tools moulding young students' practices and promoting contextualisation of teaching by enabling teaching models aligned with the characteristics of students' local environments and reality. Teachers see ICT as an opportunity to create learning spaces closer to students' interests. ...
Article
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This article focuses on the integration of argumentation and digital technologies in science teacher education. We present theoretical reflections, results of empirical research, and description of innovative experiences with pre- and in-service biology teachers. Regarding argumentation, we analyse what defending a claim in science entails for teachers, the teaching strategies they (would) use in the classroom in relation to argumentation, the relevance that they attribute to the performance of different tasks for arguing, the subject content where argumentation fits more suitably, and the reasons they would consider in favour of arguing in science classes. For the analysis of educational practices that involve use of technologies, we adopt a perspective that looks at their complexity and recognises teachers as their creative authors. We discuss the way in which teachers (would) use technologies in their practice, their expectations around this, and the foreseen results with students. Finally, we examine three innovative educational experiences already implemented, using argument maps, web-based inquiry, and a digital game. We look into the possibilities that these technological resources offer for teachers to analyse the argumentation levels reached by their students.
... Several program models have emerged to address these gaps in access to technology. One model that has recently risen to prominence has been " one-to-one" technology, "in which all the students in a class, grade level, school, or district are provided computers for use throughout the school day and, in some cases, at home" (Zheng et al. 2016). Several one-to-one initiatives have been implemented at large scales. ...
... Observational and quasi-experimental studies in both developed and developing countries have tended to find more positive results. One recent review of both observational and experimental studies on one-to-one programs implemented between 2001 and 2015 finds that an expansive range of positive impacts have been documented, including "…increased academic achievement in science, writing, math, and English; increased technology use for varied learning purposes; more student-centered, individualized, and project-based instruction; enhanced engagement and enthusiasm among students; and improved teacher-student and home-school relationships" (Zheng et al. 2016). However, many of the studies reviewed are not equipped for rigorous causal inference. ...
Article
In recent years, there has been widespread interest around the potential for technology to transform learning. As investment in education technology continues to grow, students, parents, and teachers face a seemingly endless array of education technologies from which to choose—from digital personalized learning platforms to online courses to text message reminders to submit financial aid forms. Amid the excitement, it is important to step back and understand how technology can help—or in some cases hinder—learning. This review article synthesizes and discusses rigorous evidence on the effectiveness of technology-based approaches to education in developed countries and outlines areas for future inquiry. In particular, we examine randomized controlled trials and regression discontinuity studies across the following categories of education technology: (i) access to technology, (ii) computer-assisted learning, (iii) technology-enabled behavioral interventions in education, and (iv) online learning. We hope this synthesis will advance academic understanding of how technology can improve education, outline key areas for new experimental research, and help drive improvements to the policies, programs, and structures that contribute to successful teaching and learning. (JEL H52, H75, I20, O33)
... However, studies that have investigated the impact of integrating technology in classrooms on learning have revealed a mixed picture of findings or at least large variation in effect sizes. Regarding cognitive learning outcomes (e.g., knowledge gains, achievement), some studies have revealed positive associations between the integration of technology in classrooms and cognitive learning outcomes (e.g., Cheung & Slavin, 2013;Hillmayr et al., 2020;Pearson et al., 2005;Sung et al., 2016;Zheng et al., 2016). By contrast, Petko and colleagues (2017) noted that in other studies such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) or the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the use of technology in schools is not positively correlated with student achievement (see also Huang et al., 2021;OECD, 2015). ...
... This effect was expected because it is not the mere presence of tablet computers (as addressed in RQ1) or how often they are used (cf. RQ2) that should lead to positive changes in EFF (see Zheng et al., 2016); rather, changes in students' EFF should depend on whether students perceive cognitive activation from the teacher when working with one-to-one tablet computers in class (cf. RQ3). ...
Article
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Effort students put forth when learning (EFF) is paramount to high achievement in an academic context. However, EFF has been shown to decrease over the course of a student’s school career. Using technology (i.e., computer-based technologies including digital [smart] devices like tablet computers) in classroom teaching might be a powerful way to cushion this effect as technology has the potential to promote effort-related learning processes. However, it is yet unclear how technology should be integrated into classroom teaching to promote sustainable effects because long-term studies in natural classroom scenarios are scarce. In this study, we analyzed both short-term (across 4 months) and long-term (across 16 months) changes in students’ EFF in mathematics and German as a language in a context in which teachers had begun to integrate technology (i.e., tablet computers) into their teaching. We used data from N = 1,363 seventh- to eighth-grade students in 28 schools. The schools were randomly assigned to either a tablet condition (teachers and students were given the opportunity to use tablet computers for one-to-one computing for teaching and learning) or a non-tablet condition. Changes in students’ EFF, assessed as cognitive engagement and academic effort, were analyzed with baseline latent change and multiple, multivariate linear regression models. In mathematics, short-term changes in EFF were more positive in the tablet than in the non-tablet condition and the higher the quality of technology integration in classrooms the more positive were long-term changes. In German, the more often tablet computers were used the more positive were short-term changes. The results underscore the importance of high-quality integration of technology in complex classroom environments but also demonstrate the need to examine domain-specific integration of technologies more intensively.
... The use of digital tools in classrooms has been associated with increased aspects of self-regulation such as engagement (less distractibility, persistence, and independence) and increased agency or self-efficacy, although there may be distinct limits to generalised effects (Karich et al., 2014;Zheng et al., 2016). However, a domain specificity effect means that digital environments such as social media may change the relationships. ...
... In addition, the effects of digital environments on academic achievement are limited without specific conditions being in place. These conditions include increased time on meaningful and higher-order tasks (such as editing and synthesising in writing); increased teacher-student interactions, either face-to-face or online; supportive home-school relationships; and enhanced aspects of guidance and feedback (Belland et al., 2017;Van der Kelij et al., 2015;Zheng et al., 2016). These conditions have been captured in a teacher augmentation hypothesis . ...
Article
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Students’ social and emotional development matters to their educational success. Ubiquitous digital use in schooling creates new contexts for development, raising the question of the nature of the relationships under these new conditions. Ratings of 9 to 13 year old students’ (n = 296) social skills and self-regulation and their writing achievement were examined in schools with 1:1 devices and ubiquitous access and use of digital tools in school and out of school. After controlling for demographic and school level variables two significant relationships emerged. Higher ratings of inhibitory control and cognitive empathy were associated with higher achievement in writing. The former replicates previous research and the latter provides evidence for a specific relationship between writing and social skills. Both extend what has been found in other academic areas to writing and to wide spread digital usage in schools.
... Ensuring digital literacy and skills for the 21st century constitutes one of the pressing challenges for many governments (Pellegrino and Hilton 2012). Scholars have emphasized that new digital technologies could potentially have a catalyzing role in accelerating educational innovations (Binkley et al. 2012;Zheng et al. 2016;Carretero et al. 2017;UNESCO 2017). The paper seeks to investigate what kinds of capabilities that are needed to envision and manage the contemporary societal challenge of digital transformation of education. ...
... The status and integration of digital technology in education has changed profoundly over the last decade. This change is evident in many ways and at many levels in education, some examples are the increased availability of ICT resources at schools and access to internet (Zheng et al. 2016), the transition from paper-and-pencil to computer-based assessment (Scherer and Siddiq 2015), the increased focus on pupils' digital competence as an important 21st century skill (Binkley et al. 2012), and teachers' integration of ICT into classroom activities (Tondeur et al. 2008)-given that the teachers play a key role in developing pupils' digital skills (Siddiq and Scherer 2016). Yet other examples are massive open online courses (MOOCS), flipped classrooms, and digital and interactive teaching tools. ...
Article
In the literature on mission-oriented innovation supply side and tech-oriented approaches have been complemented by broader and more inclusive societal approaches. Here, it is highlighted that both directionality and broad anchoring of diverse stakeholders across private, public, and civic domains are key to successful implementation. Still, it is unclear how these dimensions relate and unfold in practice. Using digital literacy in education as an example of mission-oriented innovation, this paper investigates what prerequisites and capabilities are needed to envision and govern such processes. Based upon a case study of innovative teaching practices in twenty-five classes at ten primary schools in Norway, the paper finds that the motivation, dedication, and engagement of the teachers is not primarily related to the digital technologies themselves, but to the professional and pedagogical anchoring of the digital teaching tools. The mobilization of the professionalism of the teachers is enabled by a process of balanced empowerment.
... Do these patterns of development obtain in digital schooling contexts? It is claimed that digital tools have affordances for promoting self-regulation and social skills (Heisawn & Hmelo-Silver, 2016;Lorena, Argentin, Gyu, Origo, & Pagani, 2017), and they are associated with greater engagement and increased agency using measures of time on task (persistence) and task motivation (Clark, Tanner-Smith, & Killingsworth, 2016;Jabbar & Felecia, 2015;Karich, Burns, & Maki, 2014;Zheng, Warschauer, Lin, & Chang, 2016). However, it is unclear whether ubiquitous adoption has a generalized effect on selfregulation or on components such as response inhibition and attentional control (Karich et al., 2014). ...
... One was the properties of the schools' communities of practice and classroom instruction having a focus on self-regulation, providing the core components of omnibus programmes known to increase levels of social and emotional skills (Durlak et al., 2011). More directly, awareness of difficulties may have been heightened by use of the tools themselves, consistent with the evidence about heightened agency in digital contexts (Karich et al., 2014;Zheng et al., 2016) and being sensitive to the digital tools and environments being impulsogenic (Duckworth & Steinberg, 2015;Shulman et al., 2016). ...
Article
More needs to be known about the benefits and risks to the development of interpersonal and intrapersonal skills in ubiquitous digital environments at school and at home. Nine to 12‐year‐old students (n = 186) in a 1:1 digital programme serving low SES and culturally diverse communities rated their self‐regulation and social skills for both non‐digital and digital contexts. Downward trends in self‐regulation and related personality dimensions were found. Social skills were more variable. Students had heightened awareness of needing to self‐regulate in digital contexts, rating their self‐regulation lower than in non‐digital contexts. High frequencies and durations of fun activities at home (e.g., posting photos or blogs, chatting, and games) were associated with lower ratings. But fun activities were associated with higher ratings of social skills in digital contexts. High levels of parental monitoring were related to higher ratings of self‐regulation. These patterns reflect school‐wide norms and practices (students are socialized as digital citizens) as well as more general features of socialization at home. We conclude that self‐regulation and social skills are sensitive to contexts over the primary school years. Digital tools may be particularly ‘impulsogenic’, and students need context‐specific self‐regulatory strategies, but the tools create opportunities to develop valued social skills under specific conditions.
... Since the notion of 1:1 learning (one mobile device per student) has been expounded by Chan et al. (2006), dozens of subsequent studies cited this type of learning and implemented its use Looi et al., 2011). Previous research has identified the positive effect of a 1:1 learning setting on students' learning achievement, motivation, and engagement compared to other conditions (e.g., non-tablet condition or other TSR) (Harper & Milman, 2016;Zheng et al., 2016). ...
... Two modalities of tablet use were subsequently emerging: 1:1 (with collaboration) and 1:m (with collaboration) (Haßler et al., 2016). For the former, advocators posited that individuals in groups can autonomously explore the contents and materials to generate more ideas Zheng et al., 2016), thereby promoting their discussion and interaction. However, when each individual owns his or her device, conflicts may arise within groups due to the excessive autonomy that emerged in the 1:1 TSR environment (Lin et al., 2012), which subsequently hinders students in reaching a consensus. ...
Article
The use of virtual manipulatives (VMs) in tablets has become increasingly popular in science courses, and previous studies have indicated its educational benefits. However, the tablet-to-student ratio (TSR), which may affect students’ learning, has rarely been examined. This study compares how learning in groups with different TSRs influences the learning performance and mental experience of elementary school students. Participants were 117 fifth-grade students who were randomly assigned to two groups: Group 1:1 (i.e., each student had one tablet) and Group 1:m (i.e., each group shared one tablet) to learn the topic of triboelectrification. The results demonstrated that the students with a 1:m TSR performed better than those with a 1:1 TSR in terms of group work; that students with a 1:m TSR showed a higher degree of involvement during collaborative inquiries; and that the retention test, cognitive load, and group-process satisfaction results showed no significant difference between the two conditions. The findings indicate that the positive effect of collaboration on individuals may gradually disappear and the tradeoff between TSR and time of intervention should be considered during instruction.
... The uses of technology included a computer tutor for writers; computer assisted scaffolding; computer assisted instruction of summarisation and a multi-user virtual environment. A similarly low ES (0.20) was reported for writing quality in a one-to-one laptop intervention (Zheng et al., 2016). ...
Technical Report
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A review for the New Zealand Ministry of Education, as background to the 2022 Literacy and Communications & Mathematics strategy.
... Nearly every three to five years (if not faster), some new form of technology comes into play and captures the attention of the general public and dedicated enthusiasts within the educational community, who create and propagate new agendas for adopting it. So, we just recently went through the eras of Internet-based tutorials [38][39], one-on-one laptop programs [40][41], 'serious educational games' [42][43][44][45], smart mobile devices and applications [46][47], and now are living through yet another incarnation of technological fashion -'artificial intelligence' [48]. All these tools have proven to be somewhat promising and successful -some in our team have participated in summarizing the impact on learning of at least two types-computer simulations for science education [49] and tablet use in schools [34]. ...
Article
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In this opinion piece, the authors critically consider the transition to the ‘emergency model’ of distance education (DE), forced by the pandemic and associated restrictions to our daily life, paying special attention to its potential pitfalls. The authors argue in favour of more careful approach to DE design and implementation over the ‘one size fits all’ solution. The data from previous meta-analyses in the field of DE and technology integration in education are briefly summarized to provide research-based support for the following observations: (1) students’ academic achievements in DE are largely associated with the interactivity factor, which is also instrumental in preventing excessive drop-out rates; (2) the flexibility factor that largely predetermined the initial rise and rapid proliferation of DE should be maintained to avoid negative side-effects, including student’ dissatisfaction and drop-out; (3) pedagogical factors, imbedded in careful instructional design, outweigh technological affordances, especially since the latter require properly organized and managed infrastructure, adequate training for teachers an students, and sufficient time to be efficiently adopted in formal education to reveal its potential for successful teaching and learning; (4) vast variability of meta-analytical findings, even with the most favourable to DE average point estimates, do not only present educational system with pleasing promises, but also call for serious caution as the negative effect sizes are almost equally prevalent as the positive ones. In conclusion, the paper reminds educational practitioners and policy makers: what comes to life out of necessity does not necessarily present viable solutions in the long run.
... The introduction of digital devices into the classroom can have various benefits for students, such as improving organisation, engagement and collaboration (Zheng, Warschauer, Lin & Chang, 2016). When appropriately built into the curriculum, device use may also foster 21st-century and digital citizenship skills (Hollandsworth, Dowdy & Donovan, 2011;Kaufman, 2013). ...
... But how teachers' use of digital technologies in K12 classrooms impacts student outcomes remains unclear. For example, some studies of 1:1 initiatives -where teachers and students were each provided with their own laptop computers -have shown that using digital technologies may positively impact learning conditions for writing, digital competence, and student motivation (Keane & Keane, 2017;Penuel, 2006;Richardson et al., 2013;Zheng et al., 2016). Other studies of such 1:1 interventions, however, report no generalizable impact (Cuban, 2001(Cuban, , 2013. ...
Article
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The use of digital technologies continues to increase in classrooms. For teachers, this involves an increased focus on the task design process for supporting student outcomes when using these technologies. Using the Activity Theory based Evaluation Version of the Activity Checklist as a theoretical framework, this paper explores an exemplary case of the use of the Activity Checklist through the analysis of a classroom task from the perspective of the teacher task design process. The results showed that the Activity Checklist as a framework was fruitful to capture and study the teacher design process as activities, illustrating important aspects in designing tasks for student work. It is concluded that the use of the Activity Checklist may support teachers’ task design processes for motivating and supporting student outcomes related to the use of digital technologies. Further, the use of Activity Checklist can help to identify potential issues in the task design process from the teacher perspective, improve practitioners’ work and in turn provide guiding principles for educational development.
... Schools have increasingly turned to web-based instruction to prepare students for a world dominated by technology (Zheng, Warschauer, Lin, & Chang, 2016). This kind of instruction is often perceived as more engaging than traditional classroom-based instruction as students are able to self-direct and self-pace their learning (Varier et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Comprehensive sexual health education (SHE) is an effective strategy for improving adolescent sexual health. However, few of these programs address media influence on sexual cognitions and behaviors. Also, more research is needed on using web-based instruction for SHE. Seventeen classes (N = 331 students) in one high school in the United States were enrolled in a pre-post randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility of Media Aware, a web-based SHE program that uses a media literacy education (MLE) approach. Compared to a delayed-intervention group, students who received Media Aware had significant reductions in their perceived realism of and similarity to media messaging, improved cognitive elaboration of media messages, more realistic perceptions of teen sex norms and risky sex norms, increased efficacy and intention to act as a bystander to potential sexual assault, increased intent to communicate before sex, and increased efficacy to use contraception/protection. These students reported being less willing to hook up, being less willing to have unprotected sex (for males), and positive feedback on their experiences using a web-based program. This study provides evidence that web-based MLE sexual health programming is a feasible and acceptable strategy for improving media-related and sexual health outcomes among adolescents.
... This study considered the establishment of a form of instructional design that can be used as a direct reference for educators, to provide more specific and accurate guidance for the design and arrangement of programming teaching activities. Concerning the selection of moderator variables, we were fully based on the existing literature and widely referred to previous studies (Chen et al., 2018;Zheng et al., 2016). Combine the above principles, we considered the differences in subjects, sample size, intervention duration, programming activity forms, programming instruments, and assessment types as moderators. ...
Article
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Promoting the cultivation of computational thinking (CT) skills in programming activities has become a key issue in the K‐12 curriculum, however, there is no unified conclusion on how to design programming activities to promote the acquisition of CT skills more effectively. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using programming to enhance K‐12 students' CT skills and explore the influence of various programming instructional design factors on the acquisition of CT skills. This study presents a quantitative meta‐analysis. A systematic search of randomized controlled studies on the influence of programming on CT skills. A total of 86 empirical studies with 114 effect sizes met the study selection criterion. The results showed that programming improved K‐12 students' CT skills in general (Hedges' g = 0.601, 95% CI [0.505, 0.697], p < 0.001). No publication bias was detected. Besides, we found that the interdisciplinary integration of programming, the duration of programming intervention within 1 week to 1 month, the class size of less than 50 students, and a reasonable selection of programming instruments and CT assessment types may be more conducive to promoting students' CT skills. Based on these findings, we suggest that programming instructional design should be planned reasonably to make the best use of technology towards developing students' CT skills. This will be of great significance to programming teaching and CT education in K‐12.
... Мэрилл [8], Р. Казаллас [9], Л. Ванг [9] и др. [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]) авторы уделяют особое внимание определению «информационная культура личности», однако анализ литературы выявил немаловажный аспект, что кроме трудов А.П. Суханова, посвященных формированию уровней нормативно-оценочных критериев информационной культуры личности, данный вопрос ни кем не рассматривался. ...
... Furthermore, the whole paradigm needs to be shifted and teaching needs to be reshaped to help students master knowledge and competences needed for learning in the digital age (Zheng and Warschauer 2017). Maybe the benefits of technology-based writing are not observable using CAF measures or standardized tests (Zheng et al. 2016) but other aspects such as the development of students' digital literacy skills, the improvement of collaborative learning skills, the enhancement of the learning to learn competence (García-Esteban, Villarreal and Bueno-Alastuey 2019), ...
... Past studies have shown that the effectiveness of technology integration efforts for improving student outcomes depends heavily on how teachers use technology in the classroom Zheng et al., 2016). Because teachers' value beliefs are important factors of their technology integration behaviors, the purposes of this study were to describe teacher profiles comprising of different value beliefs toward technology integration and to examine how profile memberships were associated with teachers' instructional practices with technology. ...
Article
Teachers’ value beliefs toward technology are important factors influencing their technology integration practices. Despite the complexity of value beliefs, past research in this area has tended to treat value beliefs as one monolithic factor. More work is needed to identify groups of teachers with different value belief patterns and how these groups of teachers use technology in the classroom. This understanding would help inform intervention strategies that can shift teachers’ value beliefs and technology use in specific and purposeful ways.
... Many researchers have focused on the overall impacts of technology availability to learning (e.g. Bebell & O'Dwyer, 2010;Zheng et al., 2016), as well as how arrangements of technological resources may influence their usage in practice (e.g. Jenson & Rose, 2006;Tondeur et al., 2015). ...
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One way to help teachers use technology effectively is through professional development (PD). However, understanding of how exposure to PD relates to teachers’ personal characteristics is limited. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationships among PD exposure, teachers’ abilities and values, and teachers’ quality of technology integration according to Bloom’s taxonomy. By surveying 724 middle and high school teachers, and using structural equation modeling, this study showed that values mediate the influence of PD exposure on technology integration. Results suggest that PD may be most effective when targeting improving teachers’ values in addition to enhancing technology-related skills.
... This has become a pervasive strategy for developing schools and innovating teaching (Bocconi, Kampylis, & Punie, 2013;Harper & Milman, 2016;Meyer, 2020;Pegrum, Oakley, & Faulkner, 2013). Tablets and one-toone computing are assumed to increase personalised and student-centred learning (Zheng, Warschauer, Lin and Chang, 2016) and to contribute to a reorganisation of educational spaces, as old schools are often not designed to support this kind of change (Tondeuer et al ., 2015;Burden et al., 2012;Holm Sørensen, Levinsen, & Holm, 2017). Changing forms of materiality therefore contribute to a shift in agency for both teachers and students (Mifsud, 2014;Thumlert, De Castell, & Jenson, 2015). ...
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Although many studies have investigated teaching in one-to-one computing classrooms, not many have considered the material dimension as equally important to the human dimension. Thus, by using a sociomaterial perspective, we aim to broaden the discussion about emergent teaching practices in Nordic classrooms where students use tablets as personal devices. We therefore provide three vignettes from ethnographic classroom studies in Sweden, Finland and Denmark. These illustrate how tablets were used in specific classrooms. In our qualitative analysis of the vignettes, we draw on the concept of patterns of relations to describe the dynamic entanglements of the emergent teaching and learning practices. These are patterns of 1) interrogation, 2) spacemaking and 3) materialisation. Our findings show that tablets do not enter empty learning spaces but are woven into and participate in forming ways of teaching in one-to-one classrooms. Teachers must therefore learn to engage with and manage complex relationships rather than learn how to use an iPad.
... To address the computer gap, many schools have implemented one-to-one laptop programs where each student is provided a laptop. However, there is still debate if these programs actually decrease the inequalities that students face (Zheng et al. 2016)and, as noted earlier, the cost of implementing such a program is a difficult obstacle to overcome. One rural school that implemented a one-to-one program in 2012 found that 70 percent of their students did not have Internet access at home (Curry et al., 2019). ...
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Much has been made about the “homework gap” that exists between students who have access to the Internet and those that do not. Policy-makers increasingly recognize the connectivity aspect of this issue but typically fail to acknowledge the importance of computer ownership. We use a small-scale randomized controlled trial (n=18) to test whether the provision of Internet access by itself — or in conjunction with a laptop computer — improves educational outcomes of alternative high-school students in the U.S. Our results suggest that the combination of Internet access and computer ownership is more effective than Internet access alone for positive educational outcomes.
... The apparent potential of digital technologies to improve student learning in mathematics has been largely confirmed in recent reviews of the research (Drijvers, 2018;Li & Ma, 2010;Sokolowski, Li, & Willson, 2015;Tamim, Bernard, Borokhovski, Abrami, & Schmid, 2011;Zheng, Warschauer, Lin, & Chang, 2016). Away from the hothouse of research projects however, and despite a massive investment in technology in schools in many parts of the world, it has been hard to discern the scaling of successful innovative blended pedagogies to widespread use (Lewin, Cranmer, & McNicol, 2018;OECD, 2015). ...
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Emerging digital technologies offer a transformative potential to redefine learning tasksand many examples of this potential are now available. The scaling of the innovative pedagogies emerging from the research into widespread and sustainable practice, however, remains problematic. This paper addresses the issue of scaling by using Design Based Research (DBR), also known as Educational Design Research, within teacher professional development to reposition teachers’ thinking about the place of digital tools in their teaching. Using a project seeking to support the use of new digital technologies to develop children’s spatial reasoning as a ‘worked example’, this paper highlights how the bringing together of the knowledge of educational research and knowledge of teaching practice in DBR can provide a catalyst for epistemic change. The paper will argue that DBR positions the knowledge and practice objects of both research and teaching as ‘epistemic’ or ‘not yet known’ objects and, therefore, the legitimate focus of experimentation and reflection.
... Despite many schools not having adequate access to technology before the COVID -19 pandemic, the means to an education in response to the COVID -19 pandemic relied on technology access (Kelley et al., 2020). Technology access was already an issue as students and schools made the transition to remote virtual learning environments, and even if students have access to technology devices in or outside of their school settings, the access to online connectivity is usually weak or hard to establish (Bice-Urbach & Kratochwill, 2016;Zheng et al., 2016). The educational delivery model of remote virtual learning had negative effects that were alarming with how SWD were not receiving an adequate education (Jones et al., 2020). ...
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Before the COVID-19 pandemic changed the educational landscape, students with disabilities, especially those who are culturally and linguistically diverse, and their special education teachers who worked and attended schools located in rural communities faced barriers most schools and communities experienced nationwide. As schools shifted to remote virtual learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic, rural schools were already at a disadvantage with the lack of resources with technology access. The call for addressing shortcomings in the various digital technology supports towards enhancing the teachers’ delivery of content and the students’ academic outcomes has been a continual challenge to address. This paper explores how students with disabilities who are culturally and linguistically diverse, living in rural communities are affected by their technology access, along with examining how this intersects with college and career pathways, and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) degrees and interests. This paper concludes with reminders and recommendations for researchers and schools to include in their technology access work and research the utilization of virtual-reality (VR), augmented-reality (AR), and video games.
... They have been reproduced in different countries with similar aims and target populations of school-age students. Countries and regions, including the United States, Australia, Panama, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Colombia, Europe, and the United Kingdom have launched a range of small-and large-scale projects providing technology in schools (Zheng et al., 2016). Their experiences vary, with there being mixed evidence on the impact of these projects due to infrastructure, investment, school leadership, teacher training and home involvement during the implementation. ...
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One of the long-term lessons from the school closures due to the global pandemic COVID 19, is that technology and parental engagement are the best levers to access education so as to bridge the achievement gap between socially disadvantaged children and their peers. However, using technology is not as simple as bringing equipment into the school and home and initiating its usage; these are just the first steps into a more complex and ambitious achievement of using technology as a catalyst for a shift toward new learning models in remote and hybrid settings. A theoretical framework based on the theory of acceptance and use of technology and social cognitive learning theory was used to analyse data from a survey completed by 4,600 parents from 19 countries during the national lockdowns in 2020. Regression models and thematic analysis of open-ended responses were employed to identify factors that contribute to parental acceptance and use of technology in support of their children’s learning. Our results show that parents are more engaged in children’s learning when well-structured technological tools are provided or suggested by schools, and when parents are socially influenced by the opinions of other parents, teachers, children, the general public, relatives, etc. Conversely, they are less engaged when they perceive the technological tools to be challenging and beyond their knowledge or skills. The study’s findings have practical implications for governments and school leaders, who need to be aware of the factors likely to determine the use of technology at home and take action to meet parents’ needs when using technology to support learning.
... Furthermore, control treatment, game type, and gaming platform were also considered as moderator variables in this study. These moderator variables were used in previous research to examine what could contribute to the heterogeneity of effect size differences (Chen et al., 2018;Hung et al., 2018;Thompson & Gillern, 2020;Zheng et al., 2016). In order to answer the research questions raised in this meta-analysis, we coded for the following moderator variables. ...
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Many researchers have explored the impact of digital games on learning effects in different STEM subjects. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine the effect of digital game-based STEM education on the learning achievement of K-12 or higher education students. The analysis results of effect sizes from 33 studies (N = 3894) published from 2010 to 2020 showed that digital games contributed to a moderate overall effect size (ES = 0.667, 95% CI [0.520–0.814], p < 0.001) when compared with other instructional methods. Furthermore, the study explored multiple moderator variables and their potential impacts on learning outcomes such as control treatment, subject discipline, educational level, game type, gaming platform, and intervention duration. The findings suggest that digital games are a promising pedagogical method in STEM education that effectively improves learning gains. Additionally, the study concludes with three recommendations for future research and practices on digital games in STEM education.
... Some research suggests that iCT has little to no impact on learning when poorly delivered (Angrist and Lavy 2002;Dynarski 2007). By contrast, other studies, such as a 2016 meta-analysis examining the impact of laptop programs on students' academic achievement, found significant positive average effect sizes in english, writing, mathematics, and science (Zheng et al. 2016). Moreover, there is evidence that iCT interventions that support the teacherlearner interaction and those that change pedagogical methodology are particularly promising (Linden 2008;World Bank 2018). ...
... However, a recent meta-analysis (Ran et al., 2021) on the effects of computer technology (CT) intervention on Mathematics achievement indicates that CT has a significantly positive and large effect (d = 0.56) on the mathematics achievement for low-performance students. Moreover, a meta-analysis on the overall efffect of learning in one-to-one laptop environments on academic achievement reveals significantly positive average effect sizes in Mathematics and Science (Zheng et al., 2016). ...
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While there has been an upsurge in transition to online learning taking place mostly in higher education, many countries around the world have had to leave their brick-and-mortar schools all of a sudden and necessarily turn to fully-online education since the outbreak of Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19). Such global emergency cases reacquaint us with the fact that education cannot be taken for granted, making the findings of the current research literature inevitable and ready for immediate use for future policy-making regarding online education. Thus, we planned to conduct the present research synthesis including more recent empirical studies of both a quantitative and qualitative character. We took a multi-complementary approach including a meta-analysis together with a meta-thematic analysis of the effectiveness of online education. In order to further complement and consolidate the results of these two reviews of previous studies, we conducted a mixed-methods research (a pre-experimental study and a qualitative study) designed specifically to understand the responses from the abrupt transition period of online education. This kind of research approach is believed to make more contributions to the relevant literature as it may provide a more in-depth perusal of the impacts of online learning on and its effectiveness in student achievement.
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Mobile serious games are increasingly utilized as educational tools in elementary schools, and a considerable body of research has focused on evaluating such games’ educational effectiveness. However, such work has generally ignored learning processes, and especially how knowledge is constructed. Given the important role of knowledge construction in various educational settings, this study examines it in the context of 83 elementary schoolers’ mobile serious game-playing behaviors. Lag-sequential analysis of the participants’ observed behavioral patterns, and of differences in such patterns between two performance subgroups (i.e., students with high vs. low academic performance), yielded two main findings. First, all these young learners exhibited knowledge construction, and moved smoothly from lower to higher phases of it in the mobile environment; and second, the high-performing group attained a deeper level of knowledge construction through the negotiation of meaning than the low-performing group did. Some theoretical and practical implications of these results are also discussed.
Article
One-to-one online learning has become pervasive in distance education. However, factors affecting learners’ continuance intention toward one-to-one online learning are not well known. This study proposed a model to explain learners’ continuance intention toward one-to-one online learning. The model extends previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding instructor-, course-, and system-related factors. A questionnaire was constructed, and a total of 840 samples was collected. Results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that experience was positively related to continuance intention, and self-efficacy and anxiety were significantly related to perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude toward using the system, facilitating conditions, and social influence were significant predictors of continuance intention to use. Instructor quality, course quality, interaction feedback, and system usability were significantly related to continuance intention toward one-to-one online learning. The proposed model could explain 71.5% of the variance in continuance intention to use one-to-one online learning. The results provided practical implications for the design and improvement of one-to-one online learning systems.
Article
Over the past decade, there has been an increase of 1:1 laptop schools across the United States. Yet, minimal research exists which examines the experiences of school site administrators as they lead the implementation of a 1:1 laptop school initiative. This case study investigated the roles of principals and assistant principals leading 1:1 laptop schools and how this initiative influenced their leadership practices. A total of eight principals and five assistant principals were interviewed. One hundred twenty-nine teachers participated in an online survey. Findings revealed these school administrators played three significant roles: (1) promoters for risk-taking instruction with technology; (2) models of 1:1 laptop use and (3) stewards of best 1:1 laptop instructional strategies. Leading such schools also caused them to (1) experience a paradigm shift on how teaching and learning could look like in the classroom; and (2) compelled them to reevaluate and improve their leadership practices. As school site administrators consider leading 1:1 laptop schools, they must be prepared for unexpected changes in how teaching, learning, and leading are to be established. Research that examines how school administrators create a culture of risk-taking with technology and how it impacts instruction is recommended.
Chapter
Der Einsatz mobiler Medien hält zunehmend Einzug in den schulischen Unterricht und auch in der Forschung liegen inzwischen eine Vielzahl an Publikationen vor, die sich mit den Potenzialen und Risiken der unterrichtlichen Nutzung mobiler Endgeräte auseinandersetzen. Weitgehender Konsens besteht in der Feststellung, dass der Einsatz mobiler Medien nicht per se einen lernförderlichen Unterricht garantiert und in der Forderung, dass sich die Integration mobiler Medien in die Unterrichtsgestaltung an pädagogisch-didaktischen Richtlinien ausrichten sollte. Allerdings steht der Medieneinsatz mit der pädagogisch-didaktischen Unterrichtsgestaltung in Wechselwirkung. Ebenso wie bestimmte Gerätetypen spezifische pädagogische Freiräume eröffnen, werden andere wiederum verschlossen. Der vorliegende Artikel beleuchtet ausgehend von Ergebnissen empirischer Forschung und theoretischer Diskussion, wie die Potenziale unterschiedlicher mobiler Endgeräte zur Gestaltung eines ‚guten Unterrichts‘ genutzt werden können. Ausgehend von den ‚Merkmalen eines guten Unterrichts‘ werden Orientierungen zur Konzeption von Lernsettings mit mobilen Medien diskutiert.
Chapter
The COVID-19 pandemic began in the late months of 2019, and by Spring of 2020, in an effort to limit transmission of the virus, schools across the globe closed and transitioned to emergency online teaching. This disrupted the schooling for over 80% of the students worldwide. While the move to online teaching and learning was inevitable, many learners, especially in rural and remote areas, found that online schooling had certain challenges due to lack of access, lack of resources, lack of infrastructure, unavailability of devices, and a lack of qualified teachers who can assist with online learning. To be able to transition to online teaching, teachers too had to adjust their instructional strategies and pedagogies. How did teachers and students navigate this sudden shift to online teaching and learning?
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Children's learning environments are becoming increasingly technologically advanced. Many schools today provide a personal computer to each pupil for use both in the classroom and at home. We investigate how such 1:1-programs affect school performance in lower secondary school. By surveying schools in 26 Swedish municipalities regarding the implementation of 1:1-programs and combining this information with rich administrative data, we estimate the impact on educational outcomes using a difference-in-differences design. We find no effect on average performance on standardized tests in mathematics or language, nor on upper secondary school enrollment. However, 1:1-initiatives seem to increase inequality by worsening the performance among low-SES students.
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The art of teaching-learning in education have been changing in association with digital technologies. In recent years, formal primary schools as well as nonformal primary schools have started to conduct their teaching-learning activities by using digital materials to tap with the flow of technology enrichment. The objective of this paper was examining impact of audio visual materials (AVM) on learning of nonformal primary school learners. Quasi experimental (pre & post) research design was used to conduct the study. Therefore, this study administered quantitative approach to explore the perception of students considering the impact of intervention. Purposive & convenient sampling techniques have been followed in sample selection. Two groups of students of Grade IV were the sample. Students’ achievement test was used as tool. This study recognized that AVMs had significant impact on students’ learning in the context of creating motivation, testing prior knowledge, ensuring active participation in the classroom. Finally the study recommended that professional training for teachers is required for effective pedagogy with AVMs in classroom practices in nonformal primary schools in Bangladesh.
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We conducted this systematic literature review to summarize single-case intervention studies in which academic instruction incorporated assistive and instructional technology for students with complex support needs. Thirty studies, published between 2012 and 2019, were included in the review and valuated for methodological rigor. Of the 97 student participants across all studies, most received language arts instruction in self-contained elementary classrooms. The majority of interventions used instructional technology on mobile devices in conjunction with systematic instruction focusing on teaching word recognition or letter identification skills. We discussed the key findings with recommendations for future research, and implications for practice.
Article
The purpose of this phenomenographic study was to acquire a better understanding of the lived experiences of 12 secondary mathematics teachers who integrated one-to-one technology into their classrooms as part of a district-wide one-to-one technology initiative. Transcripts from semi-structured interviews were analyzed to elicit and describe different ways in which secondary mathematics teachers experienced the phenomenon. Data analysis showed teachers experienced technology integration in classrooms based on their attitude towards using technology. Those who expressed positive attitudes used technology to support modeling mathematics, differentiate learning, problem-solving, expedite grading, and provide instant feedback to students. Those who did not have positive attitudes refrained from using technology unless they had to. The results will be useful for educators, teacher educators, instructional and technology coaches, administrators, and district leaders to understand the phenomenon of one-to-one technology integration through the actual experiences of the secondary mathematics teachers, improve instructional technology practices in the classrooms, identify the need for effective professional development based on the teachers’ experiences specific to the content area they work with, and to develop district-wide policies regarding technology integration in the classrooms. Recommendations for future research suggested including larger sample size across different grade levels and content areas and looking more closely into how the external variables affected the teachers’ acceptance to one-to-one technology.
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This study aims to develop a product in the form of an animated video on material characteristics and changes in the form of objects in MI Walisongo Gempol Pasuruan with research subjects of class III A. This research uses Research and Development, with a research design adapted from the ADDIE model. The results of this study indicate that the animated video is valid to be used in science learning in class III A MI Walisongo Gempol Pasuruan. This is evidenced by the results of validation from media experts, design experts, content experts, and students’ responses by using questionnaire. The results of data analysis from media experts is 87.5%, which means it is very valid, content experts is 90%, and design experts is 82.5%. For the media test, the students obtained 93.76%. After using animated video as a learning media, the number of students who are able to reach the standard of minimum completeness was 85%, while the number of students who did not reach the standard of minimum completeness was 15%. The trial of using animated video as a learning media has been effective. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the animated video is valid to be used as a learning media on material characteristics and changes in the form of objects. Animated video media can improve student learning outcomes and be able to encourage students to think critically in learning science.
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1:1 laptop schools have increased over the past decade, yet minimal research exists that focuses on classroom observational practices within such schools. This study examines how teachers and school administrators from three 1:1 laptop Title 1 schools perceived standardized teacher evaluation systems and classroom observation practices. Findings revealed misaligned instructional expectations and the need to reconceptualize classroom observation supervision and evaluation tools for 1:1 laptop classrooms. Participants of this study agreed that teacher evaluation rubrics did not help identify effective instruction with technology. School administrators and policymakers must reconsider the standards and tools used to evaluate 1:1 laptop instruction.
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This study explores teachers' practice and aims to understand the complexity of and the difference between teacher-centred teaching and student-centred learning in the one-to-one computing classroom. Generally, prior research has examined moving from teacher-centred teaching to student-centred learning. Here, we scrutinise one-to-one computing practices in Grades 1–6 in Finland by analysing how power and control emerge from the way teachers organise the physical classroom and communicate in practice. We target variations in practical classroom orchestration as well as in how teachers reason about their practice. A mixed-method analysis was conducted in two phases, including 15 classroom observations and subsequent teacher interviews. First, a quantitative analysis displayed three clusters of ways teachers distributed power and control in their classroom orchestration. Second, the clusters were integrated in a qualitative analysis of the interviews. The findings show that the variations of teacher practice depended on their beliefs and higher-order learning goals related student autonomy in the use of material resources. It also showed a variation in the way teachers scaffolded students’ individual work and created collaborative learning opportunities. In the one-to-one computing classroom, this emerges from issues that teachers can control inside school regarding the use and organisation of material resources. However, another factor that made teachers adapt their practice was the integration of heterogeneous student groups into their classrooms.
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There is growing interest recently in the outdoor environment surrounding schools where students spent time during breaks, in-school activities, and after-school programs. Several reviews have examined the impact of long-term exposures to nearby nature on students’ academic achievement, but none has focused on the effects of short-term contacts with nature on students’ cognitive performance. The aim of this review is to understand the context in which short-term passive exposures to greenness occur, how cognitive performance is measured, and the conditions under which cognitive benefits emerge at various educational levels. We reviewed 14 studies in the extant literature that report investigations involving students at different educational levels, from elementary school to university, in a short exposure to nature lasting from 10 to 90 min during a study day. The review shows that in 12 out of the 14 studies, across educational levels, cognitive benefits emerge in terms of directed attention restoration from mental fatigue due to contact with nature. A no-cost opportunity to sustain students’ cognition is a break in a green environment after mentally demanding activities.
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Adoption of online resources to support instruction and student performance has amplified with technological advances and increased standards for mathematics education. Because teachers play a critical role in the adoption of technology, analysis of data pertaining to how and why teachers utilize online resources is needed to optimize the design and implementation of similar tools. The present study explores how Algebra Nation (AN), an online resource aligned with an Algebra I statewide exam, was utilized by teachers and what usage components influenced student achievement. A survey of teacher use was conducted and analysis implies that online resources should provide multiple incorporation methods including supplementation, assessment, and remediation. Results suggest that teacher logins, trainings, and workbook usage contribute to increased passing rates.
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Killer applications, or killer apps, are technology applications that profoundly change the way any society thinks, works, and functions. This paper explores Artificial Intelligence (AI) as a killer app, with specific application to marketing. Specifically, this paper employs the lens of technology history to explore the relationship between marketing and AI. Using Kranzberg’s six laws of technology, this paper sheds light on all manner of innovations, how technologies have shaped and impacted society, and how marketers can respond to this. This inquiry offers two main contributions: First, it suggests a number of implications for marketing practice and scholars, derived from each of Kranzberg’s laws. These suggestions are intended to guide marketing practice when implementing or using AI. In addition, this article offers a number of research directions that might be fruitful and important areas for investigation in future scholarly work regarding technology’s impact among marketing scholars.
Article
Internet access and the availability of digital devices in classrooms have been growing exponentially. This has led to the development of subscription-based online platforms for mathematics learning, available for purchase by schools and individuals. Currently, research in mathematics education tends to focus on the benefits to teaching and learning of digital technologies, while less attention is given to the use of commercial applications in mathematics, and to the rationale of schools in choosing these resources, or to consideration of how they might fundamentally change the shape of mathematics education in our schools. This paper reports on a survey sent to mathematics leaders of all schools in Aotearoa New Zealand, attaining a 24% response rate. Schools appeared to provide a great variety of learning experiences in mathematics, including the use of online programs. Many different online programs were utilised by schools, and the majority of these operate for business profit within state-funded school systems. The theoretical construct of ‘figured worlds’ was used to understand the school leaders’ rationales for using the programs. Leaders gave contrasting and conflicting reasons for their choices: discourses of neoliberalism, reform teaching, traditionalism and Ed-tech were all evident in their responses. The survey results suggest that in this era of market competition, schools face pressure to provide mathematics programmes that are simultaneously traditional, modern, high-tech and balanced.
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La explosión de la pandemia de covid-19 en España supuso un reto mayúsculo para las universidades con educación presencial ya que estas fueron obligadas a adaptarse a la docencia en línea de manera casi inmediata. Este artículo tiene el objetivo de ofrecer una instantánea de los resultados de este salto repentino a un modelo virtual en la enseñanza de lengua inglesa en distintos programas de grado de la Universidad de Alcalá en España. Para ello, se centra en las percepciones y reacciones del alumnado. Los datos derivaron de una encuesta respondida por 159 estudiantes de Inglés de las facultades de Filosofía y Letras; y de Ciencias Económicas, Empresariales y Turismo, y de un grupo de discusión posterior en el que participaron los autores del estudio y una selección de los encuestados. Estos dos métodos se utilizaron para ahondar en el tratamiento dado a aspectos centrales de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras, tales como: (a) la adquisición de competencias, (b) los métodos de evaluación, (c) la utilidad de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (tic), y (d) la interacción entre estudiantes y entre estudiantes y docentes, durante el periodo de enseñanza a distancia que sobrevino a la pandemia. Los resultados evidenciaron la problemática que entraña esta modalidad virtual en cuanto a la adquisición y la práctica de destrezas como la expresión oral, la participación en clase, la articulación del trabajo en grupo y las relaciones interpersonales. Además, subrayaron beneficios, tales como un mayor conocimiento y manejo de los recursos tecnológicos. Finalmente, sirvieron para mostrar al profesorado los instrumentos digitales de trabajo y evaluación mejor y peor valorados por el estudiantado.
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This paper presents a scoping review of, firstly, how teachers use digital technologies for school-based assessment, and secondly, how these assessment-purposed digital technologies are used in teacher- and student-centred pedagogies. It draws on research about the use of assessment-purposed digital technologies in school settings, published from 2009 to 2019 in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings. The findings indicate automated marking and computer- and web-based assessment technologies support established school-based assessment practices, and that game-based and virtual/augmented environments and ePortfolios diversify the modes of assessment and the evidence of learning collected. These technologies improve the efficiency of assessment practices in teacher-centred pedagogies and provide latitude to assess evidence of learning from more diverse modes of engagement in student-centred pedagogies. Current research commonly focuses on validating specific technologies and most commonly relates to automated assessment of closed outcomes within a narrow range of learning areas; these limits indicate opportunities for future research.
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Research on and with digital technologies is everywhere today. This timely, authoritative Handbook explores the issues of rapid technological development, social change, and the ubiquity of computing technologies which have become an integrated part of people's everyday lives. This is a comprehensive, up-to-date resource for the twenty-first century. It addresses the key aspects of research within the digital technology field and provides a clear framework for readers wanting to navigate the changeable currents of digital innovation. Main themes include: Introduction to the field of contemporary digital technology research; New digital technologies: key characteristics and considerations; Research perspectives for digital technologies: theory and analysis; Environments and tools for digital research; Research challenges Aimed at a social science audience, it will be of particular value for postgraduate students, researchers and ...
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The impact of a one-to-one computing initiative at a Midwestern urban middle school was examined through phenomenological research techniques focusing on the voices of eighth grade students and their teachers. Analysis of transcripts from pre-and post-implementation interviews of 47 students and eight teachers yielded patterns of responses to illuminate how one-to-one computing changed students’ learning experiences and teachers’ instructional practices. Key themes that emerged were changes in teacher pedagogy, effect on student learning experiences, impact on classroom behavior and management, potential for improved communications, and suggestions to address professional development needs. The students demonstrated their learning in varied and creative ways through the use of computer-based lessons. However, the altered format presented new demands on teachers as a delivery model. Although some students were distracted by gaming and chatting opportunities, learning benefits were reported for students of varied ability levels. This study builds on the theoretical framework supporting the role and use of technology to foster learning and to prepare students for a global economy. The focus on student and teacher voices provided the opportunity to explore a new perspective and engage middle school students, teachers, and administrators in school change efforts.
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The research reported in this article explores and discusses students' use of laptops in a 1:1 setting. A problem experienced by teachers is that the laptops are possible distractors and tempt students to engage in use that is not in line with the teacher's idea of what would be suitable in relation to the current assignment. Three annual surveys in combination with interviews and classroom observations were carried out in two Swedish secondary schools during a phase of the implementation of 1:1-laptops. The results show how that there is not a reciprocal correlation between sanctioned laptop use and unsanctioned laptop use. The findings also show that the students' unsanctioned use of laptops was relatively high, but stable throughout the duration of the three years. Furthermore, results show that the number of students who do not game or chat at all has increased every year. The findings have implications for the discussions concerning the use of personal laptops in secondary schools.
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This study provides a comprehensive look at a constructivist one-to-one computing program’s effects on teaching and learning practices as well as student learning achievements. The study participants were 476 fourth and fifth grade students and their teachers from four elementary schools from a school district in the Dallas, Texas, area. Findings indicated consistent and highly positive findings of the efficacy of a constructivist one-to-one computing program in terms of student math and reading achievement, differentiation in teaching and learning, higher student attendance, and decreased disciplinary actions, suggesting a range of possible educational benefits that can be achieved through a comprehensive one-to-one computing educational environment.
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This study measures changes in teaching practices that occurred during a school year that included laptop implementation and professional development. The changes were documented through direct observations of more than 400 classrooms in more than 50 K–12 schools in 11 Florida districts. Trained observers used two valid observation instruments to measure teaching practices and technology use. The Mantel-Haentzel procedure was used to infer statistical differences between fall and spring observations. Observed percentages, means, standard deviations and effect sizes are provided. Results suggest laptop implementation and professional development can lead to increased student-centered teaching, increased tool-based teaching, and increased meaningful use of technology. This research suggests that laptop implementation coupled with professional development may have an immediate impact on instructional practices.
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This study examined the implementation and outcomes of a laptop program initiative in a predominantly low-income, minority school. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected, analyzed, and compared with students in non-laptop classrooms within the same school. Results of the study revealed that in the hands of well prepared teachers, laptops enabled disadvantaged students to engage in powerful learning experiences. Although quantitative data did not reveal significant differences in student attitudes towards computers and school between laptop and comparison students, qualitative data indicated that laptop integration created enhanced motivation and engagement with schoolwork, influenced classroom interactions, and empowered students. Such behaviors were not evident among comparison students. Furthermore, qualitative data indicated that the laptop program produced academic gains in writing and mathematics within the laptop group. Results of the study have implications for policy makers, researchers, and practitioners, especially those interested in bridging the digital divide in education.
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This unique and ground-breaking book is the result of 15 years research and synthesises over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. It builds a story about the power of teachers, feedback, and a model of learning and understanding. The research involves many millions of students and represents the largest ever evidence based research into what actually works in schools to improve learning. Areas covered include the influence of the student, home, school, curricula, teacher, and teaching strategies. A model of teaching and learning is developed based on the notion of visible teaching and visible learning. A major message is that what works best for students is similar to what works best for teachers - an attention to setting challenging learning intentions, being clear about what success means, and an attention to learning strategies for developing conceptual understanding about what teachers and students know and understand. Although the current evidence based fad has turned into a debate about test scores, this book is about using evidence to build and defend a model of teaching and learning. A major contribution is a fascinating benchmark/dashboard for comparing many innovations in teaching and schools.
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Our study capitalized on a unique natural experiment rather than a researcher-designed, randomized experiment whereby, thanks to the Australian Government's Digital Education Revolution, half of grade 9 students in 2008 received laptops and half did not. Consequently in late 2011, when these students sat for their grade 12 external examinations based on the same curriculum implemented across the state of New South Wales, half of them had been schooled with 1:1 laptops for over three years, and half without. With school principals and district administrators asking the question ‘what will these laptops do to our examination results?' this dichotomous scenario presented us with a unique opportunity to find out. The aim of this study was to evaluate if having 1:1 laptops was a predictor of success in the sciences in the external examinations. The science students (N = 967) from 12 high schools in Sydney, Australia were studied. Using socio-demographic, school and examination data, multiple regression analyses were performed to measure the impact of the 1:1 laptop provision and other variables on student attainment in biology, chemistry and physics. We found that being schooled with 1:1 laptops had statistically significant and positive standardized regression coefficients with student attainment, with a medium effect size in physics (0.38), and small effect sizes in biology (0.26) and chemistry (0.23). Upon further investigation, exploring data provided by student and teacher questionnaires, we found that the greater effect size in physics corresponded with greater use of simulations and spreadsheets by students and teachers.
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IntroductionIndividual studiesThe summary effectHeterogeneity of effect sizesSummary points
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Examines why computers are used less often in classrooms than in other organizations; suggests that technological innovations have never been central to national school improvement movements, and that the dominant cultural belief about teaching, learning, and proper knowledge and about the way schools are organized for instruction inhibits computer use. (Source: ERIC) Main Article Today, computers and telecommunications are a fact of life as basic as electricity. They have altered the daily work of large businesses and industry. Yet why is it that with all the talk of school reform and information technologies over the last decade, computers are used far less on a daily basis in classrooms than in other organizations? The question often generates swift objections. What about the $19.6 million Quince Orchard High School in Montgomery County (Maryland), where there are 288 computers for 1,100 students? Or the Juan Linn School in Victoria (Texas), where a computerized integrated learning system (ILS) provides instruction to 500 students and records daily their work? What about the thousands of elementary and secondary school teachers who have students work together on computers to write, tally figures, draw, and think? Are there not many experiments under way such as Apple's Classroom of Tomorrow, micro-computer laboratories, and exciting software that tutors students in academic subjects and skills? The answer to all of these questions is that such instances do exist but they are scattered and atypical among the 80,000-plus public schools across the nation, where over 2 million teachers teach over 40 million students.(n1) So why is instructional use of information technologies (computers, television, multimedia machines and software, etc.) still the exception and not the rule in American schools? The answers to this question are important in assessing claims of policymakers who argue that such technologies can fundamentally reshape schooling and entrepreneurs seeking profits in the schooling market who offer a vision of classrooms where students work three or more hours a day on computers. I will argue that the familiar excuses used to explain the snail-likepace of technological progress (insufficient money to buy machines, teacher resistance, little administrative support, and inadequate preparation for those becoming teachers) are plausible but ultimately superficial. Such explanations assume that schools are just like other places facing technological innovation. If sufficient money, support, and preparation are mobilized, computerization of classrooms will occur. I argue that there are fundamental reasons within schools as institutions that make them substantially different from businesses, industries, and other organizations.
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Studies of one-to-one programs consistently report lower use of laptops in mathematics classrooms compared to other subjects but do not elaborate reasons for these observations. This mixed-method study investigated the experiences and beliefs of 28 mathematics teachers at five secondary schools during the second year of the New South Wales Digital Education Revolution laptop program. While some mathematics teachers planned for students to use their laptops up to once a week, most reported less frequent use in the classroom. Teachers were grouped into categories “Non Adopters,” “Cautious Adopters,” and “Early Adopters” according to reported classroom use of laptops, then analysed for differences in confidence, knowledge, and beliefs relating to technology for teaching and learning mathematics. A prevalent belief limiting laptop use is that students authentically learn mathematics only using pen and paper. Cautious Adopters and Non Adopters expressed beliefs that laptops exacerbate classroom management problems, especially for lower-achieving students. In the context of ability-streamed classes these beliefs effectively ruled out use of laptops for entire classrooms.
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This quasi-experimental investigation considers the second year of implementation of wireless laptops (1:1 ratio) in three 6th grade mathematics classrooms in one school compared to non-laptop classrooms (5:1 ratio) in seven other schools in the district. Comprehensive mathematics software from CompassLearning delivered via the internet was structured by the teacher to align to state standards and replaced the print-based textbook. The seven non-laptop schools accessed the same software using desktop computers in the classroom and lab. In the laptop classrooms, students moved at their own pace, students assumed responsibility for their own learning, the teacher's role shifted substantially towards one-on-one interaction with each student, there was increased record-keeping to monitor student's progress, and the teacher was more willing to give responsibility for learning to the student. Analysis of achievement data showed that the laptop students significantly out-scored the non-laptop students on the four Quarterly Benchmark examinations (effect sizes ranged from 0.47 to 0.90), but not on the state examination, though the laptop school's relative rank in the district improved. The relationship between required benchmark testing and state tests is discussed and recommendations for future implementation are provided.
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This study investigated teacher experiences that emerged as a result of the introduction of wireless technology that placed personal laptops in the hands of every student in their classrooms. Five themes emerged as major factors during the transition to the effective use of ubiquitous technology in the classroom and its positive effects on teachers, including administrative expectations, knowledge acquisition, methods of teaching, teacher/student relationships, and teacher/teacher relationships.
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Low-cost laptop programs attempt to address gaps in access to computers in developing countries. However, the translation of computing access from intention to actuality is mediated by many situational factors. This research presents a case study of how access to a set of laptops donated to a school for socially disadvantaged children in India was shaped by social, logistical, economic and value considerations. Findings illustrate how principles of equity driving the program clashed with limited resources to produce conditions that constrained student agency. Additionally, external dependencies for laptops, knowledge and support restricted the school’s ability to provide computing access, and set up uncomfortable internal inequalities within the school. Access increased for just one class of students, and even they only used the laptops for limited time periods, in pairs, and under direct supervision. Seven important access considerations related to equity, resources and agency are identified to support strategic planning of future laptop programs.
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This multi-site case study examined literacy practices in 10 U.S. schools with one-to-one computing programs where all students had access to laptop computers throughout the school day. Important changes noted in the processes, sources, and products of literacy were along the lines often touted by educational reformers but seldom realized in schools. For example, reading instruction featured more scaffolding and epistemic engagement, whereas student writing became more iterative; more public, visible, and collaborative; more purposeful and authentic; and more diverse in genre. Students also gained important technology-related literacies such as those that involve analysing information or producing multimedia. However, laptop programs were not found to improve test scores or erase academic achievement gaps between students with low and high socioeconomic status. Both the benefits and limitations of laptop programs are discussed in this article.
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Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful ubiquitous computing and how these conditions changed at different stages of implementation. The results revealed that over the four academic years, this ubiquitous computing project had changed from a bold innovation to an integral component of everyday teaching and learning. Students’ use of the technology gradually matured, focusing more on learning-related activities. There were different issues and challenges regarding ubiquitous computing at different stages of implementation, and thus required continuous adjustment in the management and support system accordingly. Suggestions for practices and future research on ubiquitous computing are provided.