ArticlePDF Available

Ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

Authors:

Figures

No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
~ 42 ~
Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2014; 2(6): 42-46
ISSN 2320-3862
JMPS 2014; 2(6): 42-46
© 2014 JMPS
Received: 24-10-2014
Accepted: 09-11-2014
Subzar Ahmad Sheikh
Department of Botany, Govt.
Degree College (Boys) Anantnag,
Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Correspondence:
Subzar Ahmad Sheikh
Department of Botany, Govt.
Degree College (Boys) Anantnag,
Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological
activities of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)
Subzar Ahmad Sheikh
Abstract
Nelumbo nucifera is grown in many parts of the globe including India for its medicinal and nutritional
value. In Kashmir, the plant grows naturally in the lakes and its stem is being extensively used in many
famous Kashmiri cuisines. In addition, its fruits and seeds are also consumed, but to a lesser extent.
Many studies have established a wide range of the pharmacological activities of this plant. The current
review highlights the importance of Nelumbo nucifera in traditional medicines and its pharmacological
activities.
Keywords: Nelumbo nucifera, Lotus stem, Traditional medicine, Pharmacological activities.
1. Introduction
Nelumbo nucifera, (2n = 16) commonly known as lotus or sacred lotus is an aquatic perennial
plant belonging to family Nelumbonaceae. The plant grows up to a height of about 1.5meters
and a horizontal spread of up to 3 meters. Its roots remain fixed within the muddy bottom of
the water bodies and the leaves as large as 60 cm in diameter float over the surface of water or
are held above it. The flowers can be up to 20 cm in diameter and are found on stems rising
above the leaves. Lotus is propagated by the division of rhizomes and by seeds. The seeds are
about 1 cm in diameter and are located in the woody receptacle that looks like a showerhead
[1].The lotus plant grows by extending a creeping rhizome through anaerobic sediments at the
bottom of the water body. The rhizome bears nodes and each of which produces a leaf. The
petioles and the rhizome bear gas canals which channel air from the leaves throughout the
petioles and rhizomes. The petiole has two canal pairs and the rhizome has three canal pairs.
Air from a leaf flows to a rhizome through one of two petiolar canal pairs and flows in the
atmosphere through the second petiolar canal pair [2]. The plant has some unique features like;
the ability to regulate the temperature of its flowers within a narrow range [3], seeds with long
viability periods [4] and in addition its leaves show the lotus effect, the self-cleaning property.
Lotus has been used as a food for about 7,000 years in Asia, and it is cultivated for its edible
rhizomes/stems, seeds and leaves. Various lotus plant parts like buds, flowers, anthers,
stamens, fruits, leaves, stalks, rhizomes and roots have been used as herbal medicines for
treatment of many diseases including cancer, depression, diarrhea, heart problems,
hypertension and insomnia [5, 6]. Lotus produces a number of important secondary metabolites,
like alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, glycosides and polyphenols [7]. The genus
Nelumbo is represented by only two species, Nelumbo nucifera and Nelumbo lutea. Nelumbo
nucifera is widely distributed in South-East Asia. In India, it occurs from Kashmir in north to
Kanyakumari in south, showing huge phenotypic diversity with different shapes, sizes and
shades of pink and white flowers having 16-160 petals [8] and is the national flower of the
country. Nelumbo lutea commonly known as American lotus is distributed in North and South
America [9]. The natural habitat for lotus has been destroyed in certain areas and the plant
populations have dramatically decreased [10]. Lotus is listed as endangered and threatened in
many parts of America [1]. In many religions, lotus is considered to be sacred. It is considered
as the symbol of purity, divine beauty, resurrection and enlightenment.
~ 43 ~
Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
2. Taxonomy Position
Kingdom
Plantae
(unranked)
Angiosperms
Order
Proteales
Nelumbonaceae
Genus
Nelumbo
Species
Nelumbo nucifera
Gaertn
.
3. Nutritional Use
Parts of the lotus plant are consumed in many parts of the
world for their nutritional and medicinal importance. Lotus
rhizome being rich in starch, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber
(Table 1), is widely consumed by the Asian people [11]. Many
forms and products of the lotus rhizome, fresh, salted, lotus
rhizome starch, drinks, teas etc. are very popular [12, 13]. In
China and Japan, raw or roasted lotus seeds and rhizome are
extensively consumed as food, besides seeds are also used as
an ingredient in a large number of traditional pastries and
desserts [14].
Table 1: Nutritional value
Nutritional value per 100
g, Lotus root, cooked, no salt
Constituent
Quantity
Constituent
Quantity
Constituent
Quantity
Ener
gy
278
kJ (66
kcal)
Thiamine
(B1)
0.127 mg
Calcium
26 mg
Carbohydrates
16.02 g
Riboflavin
(B2)
0.01 mg
Iron
0.9 mg
Sugars
0.5.2 g
Niacin
(B3)
0.3 mg
Magnesium
22 mg
Dietary fiber
3.1 g
Pantothenic acid
(B5)
0.302 mg
Manganese
0.22 mg
Fat
0.07 g
Vitamin
B6
0.218 mg
Phosphorus
78 mg
Protein
1.58 g
Folate
(B9)
8 μg
Potassium
363 mg
Water
81.42 g
Choline
25.4 mg
Sodium
45 mg
-
-
Vitamin C
27.4 mg
Zinc
0.33 mg
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
In India also, the lotus stem is eaten in many areas. Lotus stem
called Nadru in Kashmir is deeply related to the culture and
economy. Lotus grows naturally in two main lakes i.e Dal lake
and Wullar lake, of the Kashmir valley, from where it is
harvested and supplied to the whole valley. Nadru based
cuisines are the integral part of every Kashmiri feast including
those made at religious, social and cultural occasions. In
Kashmir lotus is used in the form of lotus stem (Nadru) and
yoghurt curry, lotus stem kabab, lotus stem-fish, lotus
stem rogan josh, lotus stem pickles, lotus stem-Palakh etc.
Besides, some popular snacks are also made from the lotus
stem. Many of the Kashmiri Nadru based cuisines are famous
throughout India and are one of the tourist attractions to the
Jammu and Kashmir state. Nadru (lotus stem), contributes
significantly to the economy and is the source of the livelihood
to thousands of people directly or indirectly in Kashmir.
4. Traditional Medicine and Pharmacological Activities
Lotus is used in traditional medicine by people for its
tremendous health benefits in many parts of the world. It is
used to treat sunstroke, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhoids,
dizziness, vomiting of blood, uterine bleeding disorders,
promoting conception, improving the skin condition,
controlling burning sensation, against infections, cough,
hypertension, fever, urinary problems, hematemesis, epistaxis,
hemoptysis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia etc [15, 16].
Many pharmacological studies on lotus have proven its
antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hypoglycemic,
immunomodulatory, psychopharmacological, antioxidant,
aphrodisiac, lipolytic, antiviral, anticancer and
hepatoprotective activities [17].
Table 2: Summary of Ethno-Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological Activities of Nelumbo Nucifera.
S.
No
Part Used
Ethno
-
medicinal use /Pharmacological activity
Reference
1
Lea
ves
Diarrhea
[18,19]
2
High fever
[18,19]
3
Hemorrhoids
[18,19]
4
Leprosy
[18,19]
5
Lipolytic
[20]
6
Anti
-
obesity
[21]
7
Cardiovascular activity
[22]
8
Hypocholesterolaemic
[23]
9
Leaf extracts
Analg
esic activity
[24]
10
Leaf extract
Anthelmintic activities
[25]
11
Leaf extract
Antiobesity and hypolipidemic
[26]
12
Leaves and Stem
Haematopoietic
[27]
13
Leaf, Flower, Seed
Cosmetic agent
[28]
14 Lotus liquor from leaves & blossoms
Antioxidant acti
vities, Reducing oxidative
stress and the risk of chronic diseases [19]
15
Rhizome
Diuretic activity
[29]
16
Rhizome
Psychopharmacological
[30]
17
Rhizome extract
Anti
-
diabetic
[31]
18
Rhizome extract
Anti
-
obesity
[21]
19
Flowers Rhizome
Hypoglycemic
[32, 33]
~ 44 ~
Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
20
Flower, Rhizome
Antipyretic activity
[34, 35]
21
Rhizome &Flower
Antidiabetic
[36]
22
Leaves, Flower, Rhizome
Antioxidant
[37
-
39]
23
Flower
Antimicrobial activity
[40]
24 Flower
Vasodilating effects , antihypertensive
and antiarrhythmic abilities [19]
25
Flower beverages
Hypertension, cancer, weakness, body heat balance
[41]
26
Flower
Antioxidant
[42]
27
Flower
Anti
-
bacterial and antioxidant
[43]
28
Flowers
antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity
[44]
29 Stamens
Consolidati
on of kidney function,
male sexual disorders and female leucorrhea [18]
30
Stamen
Aphrodisiac
[45]
31
Pounded petals
For syphilis
[46]
32
Flower stalk
Uterine Bleeding
[46]
33
Flower receptacles
To stop bleeding and to eliminate stagnated blood
[19]
34
Seed
Anti
-
proliferative
[47]
35
Seed
Anti
-
fibrosis
[48]
36
Seeds
Antidepressant, Anti
-
inflammation
[49]
37
Seed
Cardiovascular symptoms
[50]
38
Ripe seeds
Astringent action , Chronic diarrhea
[18]
39
Ripe seeds
Spleen tonic
[51]
40
Seed powder
Cou
gh
[52]
41
Seed extracts
Hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging
[21]
42
Seed extract
Anti
-
obesity and
hypolipidemic effects
[53]
43 Plumule from ripe seed
Nervous disorders, insomnia,
high fevers with restlessness and hypertension [18]
44
Seed,
Rhizome
Anti
-
inflammatory
[54 , 55]
45
Seed, Rhizome
Immunomodulatory
[56]
46
Seed, Leaves
Hepatoprotective
[57]
47
Seed, Leaves
Antiviral
[58, 59]
48
Plant extract
Anti Hyperlipidemic Activity
[60]
5. Leaves
In traditional medicine, lotus leaves are used against diarrhea,
high fever, hemorrhoids, leprosy [18, 19] weakness, skin
inflammation, and body heat imbalance [15], hematemesis,
epistaxis, hemoptysis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia [16]. Lotus
leaves have been reported to have lipolytic, anti-obesity,
cardiovascular and hypocholesterolaemic activity [20-23]. The
leaf extract has been reported to have analgesic, anthelmintic,
antiobesity and hypolipidemic activity [24-26]. Lotus liquor
made of blossoms and leaves has been reported to possess
antioxidant activities and is effective for reducing oxidative
stress [19].
6. Rhizome
Lotus rhizome and its extracts have shown diuretic,
psychopharmacological, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity,
hypoglycemic, antipyretic and antioxidant activities [29-36]. The
antioxidant property of rhizome knot extracts has been
reported to be higher than those from the whole rhizome [12].
7. Flowers
Lotus flowers, floral parts or their extracts have also been used
against many diseases like hypertension, cancer, weakness,
body heat imbalance, consolidation of kidney function, male
sexual disorders, syphilis, stopping bleeding and to eliminate
the stagnated blood. Flowers, with their parts or extracts have
shown to possess antimicrobial activities [40], vasodilating
effects, antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic abilities [19],
aphrodisiac activity [45], antioxidant and free radical
scavenging capacity [43, 44].
8. Seeds
In traditional medicine Lotus seeds are used as spleen tonic [51]
and seed powder is used against cough [52]. Plumule from the
ripe seed is used for the treatment of many diseases, including
nervous disorders, insomnia, high fevers with restlessness and
hypertension [18]. The seeds or their extracts have been
reported to possess anti-proliferative [47], anti-fibrosis [48,
antidepressant, anti-inflammation [49], astringent [18],
hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging [21], anti-obesity
and hypolipidemic effects [53], anti-inflammatory [54, 55]
immunomodulatory [56] and antiviral activities [58, 59].
9. Conclusion and Future Prospectus
Ethno-medicinal knowledge has already helped the man to
combat many diseases. Nelumbo nucifera has also been
extensively used for nutritional and traditional medicinal
purpose by people in many parts of the world. Further, the
pharmacological studies have shown tremendous potential of
the plant against a wide range of diseases and infections. So
the need of the hour is to further evaluate the medicinal
importance of Nelumbo nucifera, in view of its large scale use
in traditional medicine and recently identified pharmacological
activities and also to develop the protocols for efficient
extraction and validation of the active principles for their use
to combat different human disease conditions. Additionally,
there is the need to conserve this treasure as the habitat of this
plant is being polluted and threatened due to different
anthropogenic activities.
10. Acknowledgement
The author is highly thankful to Principal, Govt. Degree
College (Boys) Anantnag, for providing the support and
~ 45 ~
Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
facility during this work.
11. References
1. Sayre J. Propagation protocol for American Lotus
(Nelumbo lutea Willd.) Native plants Journal 2004, 1:14-
17.
2. Matthews PGD, Seymour RS. Anatomy of the gas canal
system of Nelumbo nucifera. Environmental Biology,
Aquatic Botany 01/2006.
3. Yoon CK. Published: Heat of Lotus Attracts Insects and
Scientists. New York Times, 1996.
4. Shen-Miller S, Mudgett MB, William SJ, Clarke S, Berger
R. Exceptional seed longevity and robust growth: Ancient
sacred lotus from China. American Journal of Botany
1995; 82(11):1367-1380.
5. Shen-Miller J, Schopf JW, Harbottle G, Cao RJ, Ouyang
S, Zhou KS et al. Long-living lotus: germination and soil
g-irradiation of centuries-old fruits, and cultivation,
growth, and phenotypic abnormalities of offspring.
American Journal of Botany 2002; 89:236-247.
6. Duke JA, Bogenschutz-Godwin MJ, du Cellier J, Duke
AK. Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 2002.
7. Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee D, Maji AK, Rai S, Heinrich
M. The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)-phytochemical
and therapeutic profile. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;
61(4):407-422.
8. Sharma SC, Goel AK. Philosophy and Science of the
Indian Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera).International Sociey of
Environmenal Botanists. Enviro News 2000; 6(1).
9. Qichao W, Xingyan Z. Lotus flower cultivars in China.
China Forestry Publishing House. Beijing China, 2005,
296.
10. Tilt K. Auburn University Horticulture Department. The
Auburn University Lotus Project, 2010.
11. Chiang PY, Luo YY. Effects of pressurized cooking on
the relationship between the chemical compositions and
texture changes of lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.).
Food Chem 2007; 105:480-484.
12. Hu M, Skibsted LH. Antioxidative capacity of rhizome
extract and rhizome knot extract of edible lotus (Nelumbo
nuficera). Food Chem 2007; 76:327-333.
13. Zhong G, Chen ZD, We YM. Physicochemical properties
of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) and kudzu (Pueraria
hirsute Matsum.) starches. Int J Food Sci Technol 2007;
42:1449-1455.
14. Moro CF, Yonekura M, Kouzuma Y, Agrawal GK,
Rakwal R. Lotus – A Source of Food and Medicine:
Current Status and Future Perspectives in Context of the
Seed Proteomics. International Journal of Life Sciences
2013; 7(1):1-5.
15. Sridhar KR, Rajeev B. Lotus - A potential nutraceutical
source. Journal of Agricultural Technology 2007; 3:143-
155.
16. Ou M. Chinese-English Manual of Commonly-used in
Traditional Chinese Medicine. Joint Publishing Co Ltd
Hong Kong, 1989.
17. Mehta NR, Patel EP, Patani PV, Shah B. Nelumbo
nucifera (Lotus): A Review on Ethanobotany,
Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Indian J Pharm Biol
Res 2013; 1(4):152-167
18. Nguyen Q. Lotus A new crop for Australian horticulture.
IHD: Access to Asia Newsletter 1999; (2):1-5.
http://www.nre.vic.gov.au/trade/asiaveg/nlaf-04c.htm
19. Ku-Lee H, Mun-Choi Y, Ouk-Noh D, Joo-Suh H.
Antioxidant effect of Korean traditional Lotus liquor
(Yunyupju). International Journal of Food Science &
Technology 2005; 40:709-787.
20. Ohkoshi E, Miyazaki H, Shindo K, Watanabe H, Yoshida
A, Yajima H. Constituents from the leaves of Nelumbo
nucifera stimulate lipolysis in the white adipose tissue of
mice. Planta Med 2007; 73:1255-1259.
21. Ono Y, Hattori E, Fukaya Y, Imai S, Ohizumi Y. Anti-
obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract in mice
and rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006; 106:238-
244.
22. Shoji N, Umeyama A, Saito N, Iuchi A, Takemoto T,
Kajiwara A et al. Asimilobine and liridine, serotonergic
receptor antagonists from Nelumbo nucifera. Nat Prod
1987; 50:773-774.
23. Onishi E, Yamada K, Yamada T, Kaji K, Inoue H,
Seyama Y et al. Comparative effects of crude drugs on
serum lipids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1984, 32:646-
650.
24. Bera S, Bhattacharya S, Pandey JN, Biswas M. Thin layer
chromatographic profiling and evaluation of analgesic
activity of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in Swiss mice.
Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research
2011; 1(6):259-265. ISSN 2249-3379.
25. Lin RJ, Wu MH, Ma YH, Chung LY, Chen CY, Yen CM.
Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo
nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis
nana Int J Mol Sci 2014; 15:3624-3639.
26. Du H, You JS, Zhao X, Park JY, Kim SH, Chang KJ.
Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot
water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a
high fat diet. J Biomed Sci 2010; 17(Suppl 1):S42.
27. Patel KK, Toppo FA, Singour PK, Chaurasiya PK, Rajak
H, Pawar RS. Phytochemical and pharmacological
investigations on the aerial parts of Nelumbo nucifera
Gaertn. for hematopoietic activity. Indian journal of
natural products and resources 2012; 3(4):512-517.
28. Kim T, Kim Hj, Cho Sk, Kang Wy, Baek H, Jeon Hy et
al. Nelumbo nucifera extracts as whitening and anti-
wrinkle cosmetic agent. Korean J Chem Eng 2011;
28(1):424-427.
29. Mukherjee PK, Das J, Saha K, Pal M, Saha BP. Diuretic
activity of the rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn
(Fam. Nymphaeaceae). Phytother Res 1996; 10:424-425.
30. Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Balasubramanian R, Pal M, Saha
BP. Studies on psychopharmacological effects of
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Rhizome extract J
Ethnopharmacol 1996; 54(2):63-67.
31. Mukherjee K, Saha K, Pal M, Saha B. Effect of Nelumbo
nucifera rhizome extract on blood sugar level in rats.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1997; 58:207-213.
32. Huralikuppi JC, Christopher AB, Stephen P. Antidiabetic
effect of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn): Part I Preliminary
studies in rabbits. Phytother Res 1991; 5:54-58.
33. Lee MW, Kim JS, Cho SM, Kim JH, Lee JS. Anti-
diabetic constituent from the nodes of lotus rhizome
(Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn). Nat Prod Sci 2001; 7:107–
109.
34. Mukherjee PK, Das J, Saha K, Giri SN, Pal M, Saha BP.
Antipyretic activity of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome extract.
Ind J Exp Biol 1996; 34(3):275-276.
35. Shinha S, Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K, Pal M, Mandal
SC, Saha BP. Evaluations of antipyretic potential of
Nelumbo nucifera stalk extract. Phytother Res 2000;
~ 46 ~
Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies
14:272-274.
36. Rakesh PD, Sekar S, Kumar KLS. A comparative study
on the antidiabetic effect of Nelumbo nucifera and
glimepiride in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2011;
2(2).
37. Wu MJ, Wang L, Weng CY, Yen JH. Antioxidant activity
of methanol extract of the lotus leaf (Nelumbo nucifera
Geartn.). Am J Chinese Med 2003; 31:687-698.
38. Jung HA, Kim JE, Chung HY, Choi JS. Antioxidant
principles of Nelumbo nucifera stamens. Arch Pharm Res
2003; 26:279-285.
39. Hyun SK, Jung YJ, Chung HY, Jung HA, Choi JS.
Isorhamnetin glycosides with free radical and ONOO
scavenging activities from the stamens of Nelumbo
nucifera. Arch Pharm Res 2006; 29:287-292.
40. Brindha B, Arthi D. Antimicrobial activity of white and
pink Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn flowers. Asian journal of
pharmaceutical research and health carw 2010; 2(2).
41. Saengkhae C, Arunnopparat W, Sungkhajorn P.
Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn On
oxidative stress-induced erythrocyte hemolysis in
Hypertensive and normotensive rats. J Physiol Sci 2008;
20:70-78.
42. Krishnamoorthy G, Chellappan DR, Joseph J, Ravindhran
D, Shabi MM, Uthrapathy S et al. Antioxidant activity
of Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn) flowers in isolated perfused
rat kidney. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 2009;
19(1b).
43. Venkatesh B, Dorai A. Antibacterial and Antioxidant
potential of White and Pink Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn
Flowers. IACSIT Press Singapore 2011; 5:213-217.
44. Durairaj B, Dorai A. Free radical scavenging potential of
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn flowers (white and pink).
International Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2014;
2(8):133-146.
45. Vahitha Bi SM, Banumathi V, Anbu J, Anjana A, Kumar
MP. Aphrodisiac activity of venthamarai magarantha
chooranam (stamens of Nelumbo nucifera white variety)
on healthy wister albino rats. International journal of life
science & pharma research 2012; 2:44-50.
46. Naturia. Lotus 2006,
http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/plants/Lotus.htm
47. Yu J, Hu WS. Effects of neferine on platelet aggregation
in rabbits. Acta Pharm Sin 1997; 32:1-4.
48. Xiao JH, Zhang JH, Chen HL, Feng XL, Wang JL.
Inhibitory effect of isoliensinine on bleomycin induced
pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Planta Med 2005; 71:225-
230.
49. Bi Y, Yang G, Li H, Zhang G, Guo Z. Characterization of
the chemical composition of Lotus plumele oil. Journal of
Agricultural and food chemistry 2006, 6. Boca Raton:
CRC Press.
50. Kim J, Kang M, Cho C, Chung H, Kang C, Parvez S et
al. Effects of Nelumbinis semen on contractile dysfunction
in ischemic and reperfused rat heart. Arc Pharm Res 2006;
29:777-785.
51. Follett J, Douglas J. Lotus root: Production in Asia and
potential for New Zealand. Combined proceedings
International Plant Propagators Society 2003; 53:79-83.
52. Khare CP. Indian Herbal Remedies: Rational Western
Therapy, Ayurvedic, and Other Traditional Usage,
Botany, 1st edn. USA: Springer 2004, 326-327.
53. You JS, Lee YJ, Kim KS, Kim SH, Chang KJ. Anti-
obesity and hypolipidemic effects of Nelumbo nucifera
seed ethanol extract in human pre-adipocytes and rats fed
a high-fat diet. (wileyonlinelibrary.com) 2013.
54. Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Das J, Pal M, Saha BP. Studies on
the anti-inflammatory activity of rhizomes of Nelumbo
nucifera. Planta Medica 1997; 63:367-369.
55. Lin JY, Wu AR, Liu CJ, Lai YS. Suppressive effects of
lotus plumule (Nelumbo nucifera Geartn.)
supplementation on LPS-induced systemic inflammation
in a BALB/c mouse model. Journal of Food and Drug
Analysis 2006; 14(3):273-278.
56. Mukherjee D, Khatua TN, Venkatesh P, Saha BP,
Mukherjee PK. Immunomodulatory potential of rhizome
and seed extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. J
Ethnopharmacol 2010; 128:490-494.
57. Huang B, Ban X, He J, Tong J, Tian J, Wang Y.
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanolic
extracts of edible lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) leaves.
Food Chem 2010; 120(3):873-878.
58. Kashiwada Y, Aoshima A, Ikeshiro Y, Chen YP,
Furukawa H, Itoigawa M et al. Anti-HIV
benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and flavonoids from the
leaves of Nelumbo nucifera, and structure activity
correlations with related alkaloids. Bioorg Med Chem
2005; 13:443-448.
59. Kuo YC, Lin YL, Liu CP, Tsai WJ. Herpes simplex virus
type 1 propagation in HeLa cells interrupted by Nelumbo
nucifera. J Biomed Sci 2005; 12:1021-1034.
60. Subasini U, Thenmozhi S, Venkateswaran V, Pavani P,
Diwedi S, Rajamanickam GV. Phytochemical analysis
and anti hyperlipidemic activity of Nelumbo Nucifera in
male Wistar rats. International Journal of Pharmacy
Teaching & Practices 2014; 5(1):935-940.
... Additionally, its seeds can be consumed as fresh fruit. Besides, many parts of its flower are also employed in important recipes for traditional medicines or herbal drugs, especially in Thai traditional medicines and Chinese traditional medicines [5,6,[8][9][10][11]. The perianth and stamen are also used to prepare herbal teas for relaxation and healthy benefits [5,6,9]. ...
... Besides, many parts of its flower are also employed in important recipes for traditional medicines or herbal drugs, especially in Thai traditional medicines and Chinese traditional medicines [5,6,[8][9][10][11]. The perianth and stamen are also used to prepare herbal teas for relaxation and healthy benefits [5,6,9]. ...
... During the last two decades, the number of research studies to evaluate the potential biological activities of N. nucifera have considerably increased [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. Several parts of this lotus species have been investigated, i.e., the antioxidant effect from stamen methanolic extract [12], the seed hydroalcoholic extract [18], epicarp extract [15], embryo extract [16,19], as well as leaf extract [8,11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Asian lotus has long been consumed as a food and herbal drug that provides several health benefits. The number of studies on its biological activity is significant, but research at the population level to investigate the variation in phytochemicals and biological activity of each population which is useful for a more efficient phytopharmaceutical application strategy remains needed. This present study provided the frontier results to fill-in this necessary gap to investigating the phytopharma-ceutical potential of perianth and stamen, which represent an important part for Asian traditional medicines, from 18 natural populations throughout Thailand by (1) determining their phytochemi-cal profiles, such as total contents of phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin, and (2) determining the antioxidant activity of these natural populations using various antioxidant assays to examine different mechanisms. The result showed that Central is the most abundant floristic region. The stamen was higher in total phenolic and flavonoid contents, whereas perianth was higher in monomeric anthocyanin content. This study provided the first description of the significant correlation between phytochemical contents in perianth compared with stamen extracts, and indicated that flavonoids are the main phytochemical class. This analysis indicated that the stamen is a richer source of flavo-noids than perianth, and provided the first report to quantify different flavonoids accumulated in stamen and perianth extracts under their native glycosidic forms at the population level. Various antioxidant assays revealed that major flavonoids from N. nucifera prefer the hydrogen atom transfer mechanism when quenching free radicals. The significant correlations between various phyto-chemical classes and the different antioxidant tests were noted by Pearson correlation coefficients and emphasized that the antioxidant capability of an extract is generally the result of complex phy-tochemical combinations as opposed to a single molecule. These current findings offer the alternative starting materials to assess the phytochemical diversity and antioxidant potential of N. nucifera for phytopharmaceutical sectors.
... This plant has long been used in foods, herbal teas and as an ingredient for traditional medicines in many Asian countries [1,3,4,6,7]. Its flower and stamen are the most important parts for traditional medicine and herbal tea preparation, offering health benefits such as improved blood circulation and boosted immune systems [6,7,9,10]. This lotus plant is recognized using various vernacular names depending on its distribution, e.g., Lotus is a medical plant distributed in Asian regions such as Thailand, Japan, Chin India, Sri Lanka and so forth [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
... This plant has long been used in foods, herbal teas an as an ingredient for traditional medicines in many Asian countries [1,3,4,6,7]. Its flow and stamen are the most important parts for traditional medicine and herbal tea prepar tion, offering health benefits such as improved blood circulation and boosted immu systems [6,7,9,10]. This lotus plant is recognized using various vernacular names depen ing on its distribution, e.g บั วหลวง (Bau Luang) in Thailand, 莲 (Lian) ...
... China and ロータス (Ro Tasu) in Japan. Furthermore, this plant is also called by its com mon name such as sacred lotus, water lily or Indian lotus [1,6,[9][10][11]. However, the legi mate name or the scientific name of this plant species is known as Nelumbo nucifera Gaer As this lotus plant is widely used in both foods and herbal medicines, there are large number of studies on its biological activities [8][9][10][11][12][13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., or the so-called sacred lotus, is a useful aquatic plant in the Nelumbonaceae family that has long been used to prepare teas, traditional medicines as well as foods. Many studies reported on the phytochemicals and biological activities of its leaves and seeds. However, to date, only few studies were conducted on its stamen, which is the most important ingredient for herbal medicines, teas and other phytopharmaceutical products. Thus, this present study focuses on the following: (1) the application of high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection for a validated separation and quantification of flavonoids from stamen; (2) the Nelumbo nucifera stamen’s in vitro and in cellulo antioxidant activities; as well as (3) its potential regarding the inhibition of skin aging enzymes for cosmetic applications. The optimal separation of the main flavonoids from the stamen ethanolic extract was effectively achieved using a core-shell column. The results indicated that stamen ethanolic extract has higher concentration of in vitro and in cellulo antioxidant flavonoids than other floral components. Stamen ethanolic extract showed the highest protective effect against reactive oxygen/nitrogen species formation, as confirmed by cellular antioxidant assay using a yeast model. The evaluation of potential skin anti-aging action showed that the stamen extract has higher potential to inhibit tyrosinase and collagenase compared with its whole flower. These current findings are the first report to suggest the possibility to employ N. nucifera stamen ethanolic extract as a tyrosinase and collagenase inhibitor in cosmetic applications, as well as the utility of the current separation method.
... Almost every part/organ of the sacred lotus has long been used as food, herbal supplements, or herbal medicines, especially in Thailand, China, and India [2][3][4][7][8][9]. Stamen is the most valuable part of sacred lotus, and is employed in several traditional medicines or herbal drugs for relaxation and health benefits, such as boosting the immune system and improving blood circulation [4,10,11]. According to the preparation of various traditional medicines; for example, Chinese traditional medicines, Kampo medicines (the traditional Japanese herbal medicines), and Thai traditional medicines, these raw plant materials are commonly used in the form of an extract [12][13][14][15], following the traditional knowledge that the extract, which consists of major bioactive compounds, will provided synergistic effects for the health benefits of mankind. ...
... According to the preparation of various traditional medicines; for example, Chinese traditional medicines, Kampo medicines (the traditional Japanese herbal medicines), and Thai traditional medicines, these raw plant materials are commonly used in the form of an extract [12][13][14][15], following the traditional knowledge that the extract, which consists of major bioactive compounds, will provided synergistic effects for the health benefits of mankind. Nowadays, the number of research studies on the potential pharmacological activities of N. nucifera are considerably increased [7][8][9][10][11][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nelumbo nucifera is one of the most valuable medicinal species of the Nelumbonaceae family that has been consumed since the ancient historic period. Its stamen is an indispensable ingredient for many recipes of traditional medicines, and has been proved as a rich source of flavonoids that may provide an antiaging action for pharmaceutical or medicinal applications. However, there is no intense study on antiaging potential and molecular mechanisms. This present study was designed to fill in this important research gap by: (1) investigating the effects of sacred lotus stamen extract (LSE) on yeast lifespan extension; and (2) determining their effects on oxidative stress and metabolism to understand the potential antiaging action of its flavonoids. A validated ultrasound-assisted extraction method was also employed in this current work. The results confirmed that LSE is rich in flavonoids, and myricetin-3-O-glucose, quercetin-3-O-glucuronic acid, kaempferol-3-O-glucuronic acid, and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucose are the most abundant ones. In addition, LSE offers a high antioxidant capacity, as evidenced by different in vitro antioxidant assays. This present study also indicated that LSE delayed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wild-type strain DBY746) chronological aging compared with untreated control yeast and a positive control (resveratrol) cells. Moreover, LSE acted on central metabolism, gene expressions (SIR2 and SOD2), and enzyme regulation (SIRT and SOD enzymatic activities). These findings are helpful to open the door for the pharmaceutical and medical sectors to employ this potential lotus raw material in their future pharmaceutical product development.
... Nelumbo nucifera, (2n = 16) commonly known as lotus or sacred lotus is an aquatic perennial plant belonging to family Nelumbonaceae. [1] N.nucifera is an important aquatic economic plant, not only as a dainty and ornamental flower but also as a source of herbal medicine with strong antipyretic, cooling, astringent, and demulcent properties. The species is of religious significance in South East Asia (hence, the name sacred lotus) and the seeds and leaves are also eaten in this region. ...
... By charcoaling the lotus plant parts, as is sometimes done, a hemostatic effect is assured, as charcoal itself has this effect (it promotes blood coagulation). [69] Family: Nelumbonaceae It is considered a sign of success. ...
Article
Full-text available
Plants have always been the backbone of the entire ecosystem of life. Humans depend upon plants not only for fulfilling their basic needs but also for spiritual activities. Their significance has been attributed to their social importance. However, with modernization, these very traditional cultures and practices are increasingly at risk of extinction. Their associations with faith and religious practices have always been a boon for the conservation of plants and the entire ecosystem depends on it. India is a nation of rich cultural heritage, since ages, it has always emphasized the significance of plants in sacred texts and scriptures. Our ancestors linked divinity with several plants for their conservation and categorized them as sacred plants because of their miraculous medicinal properties. This situation reflects that though the knowledge of the medicinal value of the plants has vanished, it is still practiced in their religious culture. The study attempts to analyze both the religious and medicinal aspects of 21 plants on the basis of their analogous use across the subcontinent with respect to religions and shared beliefs which got incorporated in our culture because of their diverse benefits, making a divine way for the protection of nature and culture. This study shall stress the importance of ethnobotany and help in the constitution of realistic conservation strategies aiding sustainable development. The enlisted medicinal plants reveal ancient practices that have been scientifically accurate in terms of health and holistic lifestyle, promoting the sustainable use of plants for the betterment of the environment.
... It belongs to family Nelumbonaceae and is an aquatic perennial herb. [1,2] It has various synonyms like Nelumbium, nelumbo, N. speciosa, N.speciosum, Nymphaeanelumbo. [3] Lotus is considered sacred and is treated as the sign of purity and sanctity due to the uniqueness of the beauty of the flower. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nelumbo nucifera is a perennial aquatic plant belonging to family Nelumbonaceae, also known by various common names such as Indian lotus, bean of India, sacred lotus or only lotus. This plant grows in lakes of Kashmir naturally and in many Kashmiri cuisines its stem is being used extensively. This plant has been a part of Indian cultural traditions and is one of the most important medicinal plants. Lotus is also used for its religious activities and various parts of the plant have brilliant food values. Lotus has been used as a medicinal herb in China and India. All the different plant parts like leaves, seeds, flower, and rhizome have been used in traditional medicines for curing several medicines since ages. N.nucifera has also been used in various kinds of medicine including folk medicines, Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and oriental medicines. In medicine's traditional system, the plant has been used for treating smallpox, cough, fever, cholera, hepatopathy, diarrhea, cancer, tissue inflammation, insomnia and to overcome various nervous disorders. The current review addresses the importance of N.nucifera in traditional medicines, its ethnobotanical, therapeutic activities.
... N. nucifera and N. pubescens plants have excellent medicinal importance in South Asia and China [38,39]. Both plant flowers show antipyretic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiinflammation, hepatoprotective, and antimicrobial activities [38,40]. In the previous study, TPC and TFC of the N. pubescens flower were reported as 69.57 ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Nymphaea lotus L. var. pubescens (Willd.) are both aquatic rhizomatous perennial plants mostly found in the tropical region of Nepal, India, Bangladesh, China, and Eastern Asia. Nymphaea pubescens and Nelumbo nucifera plants are famous for their different biological activities such as antidiabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antidiarrheal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective. The present study majorly focused on the determination of in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea pubescens. Methods. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition was performed using PNPG as a substrate. Antioxidant property of the plant extract was determined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The aluminium trichloride method was done for the estimation of total flavonoid content. Likewise, Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was used for determining total phenolic content. Results. The total phenolic content of N. nucifera and N. pubescens was found to be 172.827 ± 0.41 and 194.87 ± 0.93 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the total flavonoid content was reported 17.12 ± 1.04 and 34.59 ± 1.73 mg QE/g, respectively. The IC50 values of the crude extract and its fractions of N. nucifera against the DPPH free radical ranged from 33.46 ± 0.6 to 3.52 ± 0.09 μg/mL, while that of the N. pubescens ranged from 14.30 ± 0.43 to 1.43 ± 0.08 μg/mL. Similarly, for the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition activity, the IC50 of the crude extract and its fractions of N. nucifera varied from 349.86 ± 2.91 to 29.06 ± 0.24 μg/mL and that of N. pubescens ranged from 224.4 ± 6.85 to 5.29 ± 0.39 μg/mL. Conclusion. Both aquatic plants N. nucifera and N. pubescens show antioxidant properties and can inhibit α-glucosidase in in vitro. Further research is required to identify the inhibiting compounds.
... It is a large, perennial aquatic plant that belongs to the family Nelumbonaceae and consists of a sole genus Nelumbo with two species, N. nucifera and N. lutea, which are called Asian lotus and American lotus, respectively [18,19]. In general, lotus refers to the Asian lotus, which is mainly distributed in India, China, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Japan, New Guinea and Australia [20][21][22]. In contrast, the American lotus is predominantly found in the eastern and southern regions of North America and north of South America [18,23,24]. ...
Article
Cancer is one of the major leading causes of death worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests a strong relationship between specific dietary habits and cancer development. In recent years, a food-based approach for cancer prevention and intervention has been gaining tremendous attention. Among diverse dietary and medicinal plants, lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., family Nymphaeaceae), also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus or Chinese water lily, has the ability to effectively combat this disease. Various parts of N. nucifera have been utilized as a vegetable as well as an herbal medicine for more than 2000 years in the Asian continent. The rhizome and seeds of N. nucifera represent the main edible parts. Different parts of N. nucifera have been traditionally used to manage different disorders, such as fever, inflammation, insomnia, nervous disorders, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. It is believed that numerous bioactive components, including alkaloids, polyphenols, terpenoids, steroids, and glycosides, are responsible for its various biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, antiviral, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and hypoglycemic activities. Nevertheless, there is no comprehensive review with an exclusive focus on the anticancer attributes of diverse phytochemicals from different parts of N. nucifera. In this review, we have analyzed the effects of N. nucifera extracts, fractions and pure compounds on various organ-specific cancer cells and tumor models to understand the cancer-preventive and therapeutic potential and underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of action of this interesting medicinal and dietary plant. In addition, the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, and possible toxicity of N. nucifera-derived phytochemicals, as well as current limitations, challenges and future research directions, are also presented.
... Lotus plants are widely cultivated for food production, ornamental horticulture, and traditional medicine. It has several common names such as Indian lotus, Chinese water lily, and sacred lotus (Sheikh, 2014). Its edible parts like flowers, buds, anthers, fruits, leaves, stamens, stalks, and rhizomes (roots). ...
Article
Full-text available
The experiments were carried out optimized the chemical concentration as pre-treatments prior to drying of fresh-cut lotus root slices. The lotus root slices were pretreated by chemicals with Potassium metabisulphite (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 % (w/v)), sodium bicarbonate (2, 4, and 6 % (w/v)), and ascorbic acid (0.5, 1 and 1.5 % (w/v)). The quality parameters of lotus root slices were taken as color parameters such as lightness (L*), redness (a*), and (b*) along with the browning index. The best treatment was decided based on the browning index. The experimental results indicated that the color parameters of fresh-cut lotus root slices and chemicals deteriorate over the time span of 0h to 5h. Besides that, chemically treated samples were improved over the fresh-cut lotus root slices. The lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellow-ness (b*) of 0.30% potassium metabisulphite samples varies from 136 to 116, 1.17 to 248, and 2.87 to 5.34 for a period of time 0h to 5h, respectively. Which is the lowest as compared to all other samples. The browning index pre-treated samples was much lower than samples without treatment. The browning index increased with elapsed time and highly increase in untreated (fresh-cut lotus root slices) samples than pre-treated samples (chemicals treated). The optimized browning index was minimum (1.498 to 4.963) for 0.3 % KMS as compared to 5.337 to 16.02 and 2.73 to 9.227 for 6 % (w/v) sodium bicarbonate and 1.5 % (w/v) ascorbic acid solutions, respectively.
Article
The demand for herbal raw material has increased and there is a requirement for quality control to look at the integrity of the herbal raw materials. There is a need for an easy and fast technique to check the quality and the authenticity of these raw materials. Nelumbo nucifera seeds have been used as traditional medicine for ages for curing various diseases. Its microscopy examination of fruit showed double-layered palisade tissue, rosette scleride, and epidermal pores. The morphology of starch grains were found to be simple, oval, and elliptical to polygonal in shape, which is the unique characteristic of the plant. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and saponin. A comparative study of cold and hot extraction of seed extract was carried out with respect to the HPTLC fingerprint profile. The HPTLC fingerprint of the cold and hot extract was done using butanol: water: acetic acid (4:1:1v/v/v) it showed the presence of 9 bands (RF 0.05–0.94) on the plate. The result shows that both cold and hot extract can be used for fingerprinting. Different concentrations of cold extract (100%, 80%, 50%, 20%) was used to standardize the lowest on plate concentration which can give maximum bands with high resolution, the results shows that a lower concentration of 50% can be used for the study. Thus, microscopy and HPTLC fingerprinting data along with morphological information can be used as a quality control tool to check the authenticity of the Nelumbo nucifera which has potential therapeutic value.
Article
Full-text available
Hyperlipidemia is the leading cause for the development of various diseases made pharmaceutical companies to turn towards the herbal products with fewer side effects. In the present research, the Hyperlipidemia activity of Nelumbo nucifera Flower (NN) along with their phytochemical evaluation has been done. The Hyperlipidemia effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Nelumbo nucifera Flower was evaluated in Poloxamer 407 induced hyperlipidemic in male Wistar rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced by giving Poloxamer 407 intrapertonial route for 15 days. The groups of rats selected for the study were treated with Atorvastatin, ethanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera (NN). The analysis of lipids profile such as cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Triglycerides and liver markers such as SGOT, SGPT were carried out at the end of the study. Administration of NN significantly decreases the Lipid profile and Liver Markers. Likewise, remarkable increase in the level of HDL-C when compared to standard Atorvastatin drug. The levels of SGOT and SGPT were estimated and found to be significantly less than that of hyperlipidemic control group. The results reveal that NN is a rich source for phytoconstituents and can be used as a potent anti Hyperlipidemic agent in pharmaceutical industry.
Article
Full-text available
Hyperlipidemia is the leading cause for the development of various diseases made pharmaceutical companies to turn towards the herbal products with fewer side effects. In the present research, the Hyperlipidemia activity of Nelumbo nucifera Flower (NN) along with their phytochemical evaluation has been done. The Hyperlipidemia effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Nelumbo nucifera Flower was evaluated in Poloxamer 407 induced hyperlipidemic in male Wistar rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced by giving Poloxamer 407 intrapertonial route for 15 days. The groups of rats selected for the study were treated with Atorvastatin, ethanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera (NN). The analysis of lipids profile such as cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, Triglycerides and liver markers such as SGOT, SGPT were carried out at the end of the study. Administration of NN significantly decreases the Lipid profile and Liver Markers. Likewise, remarkable increase in the level of HDL-C when compared to standard Atorvastatin drug. The levels of SGOT and SGPT were estimated and found to be significantly less than that of hyperlipidemic control group. The results reveal that NN is a rich source for phytoconstituents and can be used as a potent anti Hyperlipidemic agent in pharmaceutical industry.
Article
Full-text available
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae), a perennial aquatic plant, has been used as a medicinal herb in China and India. It has been recorded in the most famous medicinal book in China for more than 400 years. Different part of plant (leaves, seeds, flower, and rhizome) can be used in traditional system of medicine. In traditional system of medicine, the different parts of plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as in for the treatment of pharyngopathy, pectoralgia, spermatorrhoea, leucoderma, smallpox, dysentery, cough, haematemesis, epistaxis, haemoptysis, haematuria, metrorrhagia, hyperlipidaemia, fever, cholera, hepatopathy and hyperdipsia. Following the traditional claims for the use of N.nucifera as cure of numerous diseases considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify it’s utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The pharmacological studies have shown that N.nucifera posseses various notable pharmacological activities like amti-ischemic, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, antiobesity, lipolytic, hypocholestemic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, hypoglycaemic, antidiarrhoeal, antifungal, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and diuretic activities. A wide variety of phytoprinciples have been isolated from the plant. The present review is an effort to consolidate traditional, ethnobotanic, phytochemical and pharmacological information available on N.nucifera
Article
Full-text available
Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.), commonly known as the lotus, is an aquatic plant native to India and presently consumed as food, mainly in China and Japan. In addition to its use as food, the lotus plant is also widely used in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Extracts from different parts of the lotus plant have been reported to show several biological activities, such as antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and immuno-modulatory activities. Despite this, little work has been done in isolating and identifying the proteins responsible for these activities. To date, there is no report on systematic protein analysis of the lotus plant. In this review, we discuss the medicinal value of the lotus plant and reported works on its biological activities. We also present a proteomics approach for systematic investigation of the lotus seed proteome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijls.v7i1.6394 International Journal of Life Sciences 7(1): 2013; 1-5
Article
Full-text available
Considering the growing interest in assessing the antioxidant capacity of herbal medicine, the present research was aimed to explore antioxidant potentials of NelumbonuciferaGaertn (Nelumbonaceae )flower in-vitro. Hydroethanolic extract of white Nelumbo nucifera (HEWNN) flower and pink Nelumbonucifera (HEPNN) flower were investigated for Total antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate (FTC), Thiobarbituric acid, Ferric reducing antioxidant power, Phosphomolybdenum, Hemoglobin glycosylation, and reducing power methods were estimated in both flowers and compared with standard ascorbic acid in dose dependent manner. In-vitro assays to inhibit free radicals such as 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl radical (DPPH), superoxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were also carried out. Antioxidant capacity measured by FTC and compared with TBA method showed low absorbance values than control which indicated a high level of antioxidant potential. Both HEWNN and HEPNN flower extracts exhibited maximum activity 16.53 mg and 14.21 mg at 1000 µg/ml extract concentration in FRAP method and 62.5 mg and 56.3 mg ascorbic acid equivalents at 500 µg/ml extract concentration in phosphomolybdenum method. There was also significantly high antioxidant activity (55.5% & 41.6%) of haemoglobin followed reducing power (0.351 & 0.248 Abs) at same 500 µg/ml extract concentration. The results obtained suggest that alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in flowers yield considerable antioxidant activity. The maximum scavenging activity of HEWNN and HEPNN against DPPH (67.52% & 55.51%), superoxide radical (81.2% & 64.5%), nitric oxide (70.2% & 57.7%), and hydroxyl radical (60.53% & 46.72%) and H2O2 (54.29% & 48.13%) were evaluated. The IC50 values were compared to the standard ascorbate in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained suggest that on comparison with HEPNN flower, HEWNN flower extract may act as a better chemo preventive agent providing promising antioxidant property and offering effective protection from free radicals. Our results clearly indicate that both HEWNN and HEPNN flower extracts have potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity in all assays. Nelumbonucifera can be used as a lead compound for drug development in future.
Article
The present study is aimed to evaluate the anti diabetic effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome and flower extracts on serum glucose level in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The various extracts was prepared and screened for their effects on serum glucose level in rahese studies, we can conclude that the Nelumbo nucifera rhizome and flower extract is a promising anti diabetic agent.ts. In streptozotocin induced animals the various extracts showed significant anti diabetic property. From the result of t.
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate effect of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Indian Lotus) on haematological parameters in anaemic rats. Haematopoietic activity of ethanolic extract of aerial part of plant was performed using cyclophosphamide (CP) at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg body weight i.p. and haloperidol (HP) at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight induced aplastic and iron deficiency anaemia in rats, respectively. A morphological study of blood cells was performed along with phytochemical screening and iron estimation of extract by qualitative test and spectrophotometric method. The results of evaluation of the haematopoietic activity induced by cyclophosphamide and haloperidol showed that the plant extract diminish the activity of cyclophosphamide and haloperidol at the 200 mg/kg dose. Qualitative test of extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, carbohydrates, protein and iron. Iron content was estimated by using spectrophotometric method. The data from results supports the use of N. nucifera Gaertn. In traditional medicine for their haematopoietic activity.
Article
The recent interest on alternative medicine has taken up great dimensions in changing the health care scenario across the globe. The worldwide interest in medicinal plants reflects recognition of the validity of studying the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Hence the present study was carried out to explore antibacterial and antioxidant potential of hydroethanolic extract of both white and pink flowers of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nelumbonaceae) flower in vitro. The antibacterial activity was screened against different bacterial strains by detecting zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The zone of inhibition and MIC values were compared with control compared with standard antibiotic disc suggesting their potential as alternatives to orthodox antibiotics in the treatment of infectious caused by these microorganisms. Total antioxidant potential was evaluated in hydroethanolic extract of white Nelumbo nucifera (HEWNN) flower and hydroethanolic extract of pink Nelumbo nucifera (HEPNN) flower by: Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Hemoglobin glycosylation,Reducing power and Phosphomolybdenum and compared with the standard ascorbic acid in dose dependent manner. Both HEWNN and HEPNN flower extracts showed maximum activity 16.53 mg and 14.21 mg at 1000μg/ml concentration in FRAP assay. Significantly high antioxidant activity (55.5% & 41.6%) was noticed in haemoglobin glycosylation followed reducing power (0.52 & 0.45 Abs). The results suggest that alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in flowers provide considerable antioxidant activity. However, in comparison with HEPNN flower, HEWNN flower extract exerted effective antibacterial and potent antioxidant activity which can be used as a lead compound for drug development in the future. Keywords-Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn; antibacterial activity; Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC); antioxidant; agar disc diffusion.
Article
BACKGROUND We conducted this investigation in order to examine the anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects of Nelumbo nucifera seed ethanol extract (NSEE) in vitro and in vivo. METHODS To study the anti-obesity effect of NSEE in vitro and in vivo, human pre-adipocytes were treated with NSEE, and male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat diet with or without NSEE, respectively. RESULTSIn vitro treatment with NSEE resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and leptin in cultured human adipocytes, indicating that it inhibited the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes. Administration of NSEE resulted in significantly reduced body weight gain and adipose tissue weights in rats. Serum triglyceride and leptin level of the high-fat diet + NSEE group was significantly lower, compared to the high-fat group. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of NSEE on adipogenesis. In addition, NSEE had a beneficial effect, reducing adipose tissue weights, ameliorating blood lipid profile, and modulating serum leptin level in rats fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, we suggest that lotus seed has a potential to be developed as an effective agent against obesity-related diseases. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry