Book

Tanzania in transition: From Nyerere to Mkapa

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Abstract

This book is the first comprehensive contribution to understanding the character of important societal transitions in Tanzania during Benjamin Mkapa's presidency (1995- 2005). The analyses of the trajectory of these transitions are conducted against the background of the development model of Tanzanian's first president, Julius Nyerere (1961-1985), a model with lasting influence on the country. This approach enables an understanding of continuities and discontinuities in Tanzania over time in areas such as development strategy an ideology, agrarian-land, gender and forestry issues, economic liberalization, development assistance, corruption and political change. The period of Mkapa's presidency is particularly important because it represents the first phase of Tanzania's multi- party political system. Mkapa's government initially faced a gloomy economic situation. Although Mkapa's crusade against corruption lost direction, his presidency was characterised by relatively high growth rates and a stable macro-economy. Rural and agrarian transitions were dominated by diversification rather than productivity growth and transformation. Rural attitudes in favour of land markets emerged only slowly but formal land disputes showed more respect for women's rights. Some space emerged for widening local participation in forest management, but rural dynamics was mainly found in trading settlements feeding on economic liberalization and artisanal mining. The transitions documented and analysed of Mkapa's presidency, however, indicate only limited transformational change. Rural poverty is therefore likely to remain deep and the sustainability of economic development to be at risk in the future. Mkapa was, however, able to protect the legacy of peace and political stability of Nyerere, but there were nevertheless important challenges to the first multiparty elections and governance, and particularly in Zanzibar. The post- script (covering 2005 2010), indicates that the incumbent president, Jakaya Kikwete, has yet to prove that he can change this legacy of Mkapa. Co-published with the Nordic Africa Institute and the Sokoine University of Agriculture, the contributions to the eleven chapters of this book are evenly shared between Tanzanian, Nordic and other European researchers with a long-term commitment to Tanzanian development research. he book is dedicated to the youth of Tanzania.
... The nationalist ideology was implemented through the modernization of economy. The state took itself as an actor and agent for the modernization process with the aim to promote socio economic growth and the provision of basic needs [20] while the local government was used as a vehicle for improving the provision of basic services. To that effect, it was necessary to establish an overall local government system [28] . ...
... Despite the introduction of a local government system, the gap between the government and the people widened and the vision of social equality and justice which were embedded in the nationalist movement was threatened [20] . Following that, from 1964 centralization was strengthened and the channels for citizens" participation were closed [20] . ...
... Despite the introduction of a local government system, the gap between the government and the people widened and the vision of social equality and justice which were embedded in the nationalist movement was threatened [20] . Following that, from 1964 centralization was strengthened and the channels for citizens" participation were closed [20] . Authoritarian government gained foot and the economic activities were also centralized [20] . ...
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Chapter
In this chapter Elbra provides an overview of the gold mining industry in Ghana, South Africa and Tanzania. The chapter begins with an overview of African gold mining, its relative importance to the global economy and developing African countries and concludes with an in-depth discussion of each country. It is demonstrated that all three countries share a history of poor natural resource governance, resulting in the negative outcomes associated with the resource curse. While in all three cases GDP per capita has increased in tandem with government revenues from mining, entrenched poverty, inequality and social malaise, such as a failure to improve health and educational outcomes, have remained. Overall, it is shown that these countries remain resource cursed.
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