Beyond proprietorship. Murphree's laws on community-based natural resource management in Southern Africa



Dr. Marshall Murphree is a prominent scholar in the elds of common property theory, rural development, and natural resource management. After graduating from the London School of Economics with a doctorate in social anthropology, he returned home to Zimbabwe to work as a missionary before joining the University of Zimbabwe, where he became director, and subsequently Professor Emeritus, of the Centre for Applied Social Sciences. Beyond Proprietorship presents a range of contributions to the May 2007 conference held to honour Murphreeís work, and it conveys his central concerns of equality and fairness. The focus is on marginalised people living in poor and remote regions of Zimbabwe, but also includes important discussions about the policy implications of regional tenure regimes, and the place of local resource management in global conservation politics. The book is essential reading for anyone interested in the recent history and experience of remote area development, semi-arid agriculture, conservation, and wildlife utilisation in southern Africa.
... El fortalecimiento y el empoderamiento del actor local son considerados como fundamental en las estrategias de manejo de la vida silvestre (Murphree, 2009;Mukamuri et al., 2009). El hecho de ser dueño de la propiedad y recibir el derecho de uso del recurso que se encuentra dentro la propiedad aumenta la posibilidad que éste tenga mayor responsabilidad e interés en realizar un aprovechamiento sostenible de la especie. ...
... Its rationale was to reduce human-wildlife confl ict by giving poorer rural communities a fi nancial incentive to conserve wildlife in their area. (12) The schemes primarily raised money through the development of small-scale tourism, sport hunting, and sales of wildlife products-and ivory was identifi ed as one of the most valuable commodities (13) (Hutton et al, 2005;Mukamuri et al, 2009;Stiles, 2004). For Southern African states it was clear that the decision to ban the ivory trade removed a critical source of income from the new CBNRM schemes. ...
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This paper addresses a gap in our understanding of how links between states and nonstate actors intersect with North-South dynamics. It draws together the literatures on NGOs with the debates on privatised forms of global governance to provide a deeper understanding of the growing role of nonstate actors in managing transnational environmental issues. I argue that the inclusion of nonstate actors can serve to reinforce and deepen existing global inequalities. I use the example of the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) to shed light on the complex dynamics that surround (apparently) interstate environmental governance mechanisms. The CITES is one of the earliest examples of engagement with nonstate actors as shapers and drivers of environmental governance. As such, it provides us with important lessons about the problems associated with including a wider range of actors in global environmental governance mechanisms, especially engagement with Southern partners.
... The study area is part of the Communal Areas Management for Indigenous Resources Programme (CAMPFIRE) which is meant to benefit areas situated in wildlife management areas (Mukamuri et al., 2008). The community benefits from part of the proceeds which the local authority earns from trophy hunting. ...
... A number of initiatives aimed at reducing HWC and its related negative perceptions by humans towards wildlife have been proposed by governments and wildlife authorities and conservation groups (Katerere, 2005). The CAMPFIRE programme launched in Zimbabwe was considered as one of the key initiatives adopted to deal with HWC (Mukamuri et al., 2009). But the failure by Campfire to reduce poaching has led decision makers to suggest construction of buffer zones or erecting fences (Samu, 2010), ensuring, like the south part of the Limpopo National Park, that wildlife areas will not extend into agricultural land and vice versa (Magane et al., 2003). ...
Au Zimbabwe, les relations que les populations du district de Hwange entretiennent avec les espaces protégés ont principalement été décryptées en termes de conflits entre humains et faune sauvage à la fois par les organisations internationales, les pouvoirs publics et les universitaires. Cette lecture en occulte une autre, qui a trait à des conflits plus latents, relatifs à l’histoire du territoire et aux injustices spatiales dans un district en marge de l’État. Les habitants des zones communales, expulsés de leurs terres peu après le début de la colonisation à des fins de production agricole (fermes coloniales) et de conservation de la nature (création des espaces protégés, dont le parc national de Hwange, le plus vaste du pays), ont expérimenté des dépossessions répétées de leur territoire. Aujourd’hui, les injustices spatiales associées à la conservation de la nature demeurent prégnantes. Cette thèse interroge, à partir de matériaux ethno-géographiques, l’aconflictualité apparente des faits sociaux dans le district de Hwange en tenant compte des situations semi-autoritaires qui entourent les espaces vécus quotidiens. Elle instruit une hiérarchie du visible entre des conflits passés sous silence (occupation de terres, revendications d’accès aux espaces protégés et aux anciennes fermes coloniales) et ceux qui ne le sont pas (conflits humain-faune sauvage) ainsi qu’une réflexion sur la productivité du sentiment d’injustice à l’échelle microlocale. L’examen des formes d’agir conflictuelles mobilisant le registre du juste et de l’injuste révèle comment se formulent des négociations, des arrangements et des résistances silencieuses.
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A rapid review of academic and grey literature revealed that the links between poverty, poaching and trafficking are under-researched and poorly understood. Yet, the assumption that poaching occurs because of poverty is omnipresent, with little ‘hard evidence’ to support the claim. Despite this, the authors are confident that the links are there, based on the evidence gathered. However, their understandings are hampered by a series of factors: trafficking and poaching are overwhelmingly framed as an issue of conservation/biodiversity loss rather than of poverty and development; it is difficult to collect clear and detailed data on poaching precisely because of its illicit nature; and many of the cases examined are also linked in with conflict zones, making research even more challenging.
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