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Biological effects of rosemary essential oil (Review)

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... Rosemary has antibacterial [3,4], effective chemo preventive and antimutagenic properties [5]. It has also been reported that extracts of this plant have anti-carcinogenic, cognition-improving and certain glucose level lowering properties, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antiviral, antimicrobial, antinociceptive and antidepressant, among others [6,7]. It has been previously reported that rosemary extracts and their components show inhibitory effects on the growth of breast, liver, prostate, lung and leukemia cancer cells and represses the initiation and promotion of tumorigenesis of melanoma and glioma in animal models [8]. ...
... The antioxidative effect was related to the concentration of the active compounds present in the extract [56,57]. Studies showed that there are biologically active compounds in rosemary essential oil exhibiting cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and cognition-enhancing properties [6,58]. Out findings are in accordance with these studies mentioned above. ...
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Bu çalışmanın amacı Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas L. ve Tilia cordata Mill'den elde edilen sulu ekstrelerin (infüzyon ve dekoksiyon), insan periferal kan lenfositleri üzerindeki in vitro sitotoksik ve genotoksik etkisinin araştırılmasıdır.Bu amaçla, 3 kadından alınan lenfositler, R. officinalis (1.5 ve 3 mg / ml), L. stoechas (0,4 ve 1,2 mg/ ml) ve T. cordata (1 mg / ml ve 3 mg / ml) sulu ekstreleri ile 48 saat süreyle muamele edilmiştir. Denemelerde PBS negatif kontrol olarak, Mitomisin C (MMC) (0,25 μg / ml) ise pozitif kontrol olarak kullanılmıştır. Ekstrelerin lenfositlerdeki sitotoksik etkisi, mitotik indeks hesaplanarak belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, lenfositlerideki kromozom aberasyonları ve mikronukleus oluşumları da belirlenmiştir.Deneyde kullanılan sulu ekstreler, kontrol gruplarına kıyasla konsantrasyon artışına bağlı olarak, periferal lenfosit hücrelerinde bölünmeyi önemli ölçüde azaltmıştır (p <0,01). Yine, metafazdaki hücrelerin sayısı da azalmıştır. Bu nedenle, periferal lenfositlerde kromozom incelemesi yapılamamıştır. Bununla birlikte, sulu ekstre muameleleri periferal lenfositlerde kontrol gruplarına kıyasla mikronukleus oluşumuna neden olmıuştur (p <0,01). L. stoechas ve T. cordata'nın 3 mg / ml dekoksiyon ekstreleri, 48 saatlik muameleden sonra lenfositler üzerinde en yüksek sitotoksik etkiyi göstermiştir. En yüksek genotoksik etki ise 1.2 mg / ml L. stoechas dekoksiyon ekstresi ile muameleden sonra ortaya çıkmıştır.
... One of the mechanisms underlying the health related benefits may be associated with their antioxidant properties ). Many herbs and plant extracts possess antimicrobial activities and antioxidant properties that make them useful as natural animal feed additives (Faixova and Faix, 2008). ...
... higher with all dietary supplements than those of the control diet, being the highest values were occurred with ginseng alone or combined with parsley supplement as compared to other supplements. In addition, many herbs and plant extracts possess antimicrobial activities and antioxidant properties that make them useful as natural feed additives (Faixova and Faix, 2008).These extracts present a mechanism of action based on the alteration of the intestinal microbiota, increased enzyme secretion, improved immune response, morpho-histological maintenance of the gastrointestinal tract and antioxidant activity (Brugalli, 2003;Fascina et al ., 2012). Because of these benefits, ginseng extracts may exert positive effects on performance in growth rabbits. ...
... Rosemary contains several acids that may scavenge free radical from the brain, lowering the risk of strokes and neurodegenerative diseases (Frey, 2003). Potentially, many biologically active compounds have been identified in rosemary extracts, including antioxidant compounds such as carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid (Faixova and Faix, 2008), monoterpenoid ketone, and polyphenolic compounds (Frey, 2003;Alu'datt et al., 2017). Rosemary is known in the Arabic language as "Hassa Alban" and is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae. ...
... Reported uses of rosemary oil include the treatment and prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, pepticulcers, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, and tumors (Nusier et al., 2007). One of the major properties of phenolic compounds (e.g., carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid) in rosemary oil is their antioxidant activity (Faixova and Faix, 2008). Their ability to remove of free radicals from the brain may help lower the risk of neurodegenerative brain disease as well as coronary heart disease (Frey, 2003). ...
... The inhibitory zone was considered the shortest distance (mm) from the outside margin of the paper disc to the initial point of the microbial growth. All analyses were applied in triplicate1516171819202122 . Discs impregnated with sterile distilled water served as negative control. ...
... diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Sigma, Aldrich) and the quick microplates method were used for the determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Bactericidal Minimal Concentration (BMC)202122232425262728 . Serial dilutions of extracts were dissolved in distilled water and made in a concentration range from 19µl/ml to 5000µl/ml in sterile test tubes. ...
Research
Insecticide activity study of essential oils of Daucus carota (L.) ssp. carota (Apiaceae) and Chenopodium ambrosioïdes (L.) (Chenopodiaceae) on white larvae of melolontha melolontha
... Rosmarinus officinalis is used widely all around the world as a herb and household plant [ 4 ]. Various Rosemary extracts exhibited antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-carcinogenic and cognition-enhancing effects [5][6][7]. The pharmacological effect of most plants is based on the synergistic activity of all compounds. ...
... The pharmacological effect of most plants is based on the synergistic activity of all compounds. The main compounds of the RO are 1,8 cineole, α-and β-pinene, β-caryophylene, camphene, camphor and borneol [ 5 ]. The essential oil has shown antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect in vivo [ 8 ]. ...
Article
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Rosmarinus officinalis is used widely all around the world and its extracts have shown anti-inflammatory activity. We here analyze the anti-inflammatory effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) by estimation of its effects on the cyclooxygenase (COX) activity. We studied the activity of RO and Indomethacin in vivo and in vitro by evaluation of the COX-inhibitory potential. Male Wis-tar rats were treated intraperitoneally with Indomethacin (10 mg/kg bw), RO (35 and 70 mg/kg bw) and saline (0.9% NaCl). Thirty minutes after treatment the animals received a subplantar injection of Histamine (1% in saline) in the right paw and equal amount saline in the left. The changes in the rat paw volume were measured 5, 7, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60 and 120 min after the subplantar injection. The COX inhibitory activity of both agents was measured spectrophoto-metrically. We found a significant decrease in the paw volume in the RO treated groups (35 and 70 mg/kg bw) in comparison to Indomethacin-treated rats on the 5th, 7th and 15th min after the histamine injection (P < 0.05; n = 7). At the late phase of inflammation (30 to 120 min) similar swelling reduction was observed after treatment with Indomethacin and RO in both concentrations. The essential oil reduced the COX activity in vitro at a higher concentration in comparison to Indomethacin. IC50 of Indomethacin and RO were 0.27 ± 0.03 mg/L and 4.70 ± 0.45 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, RO has anti-inflammatory effect as an Indomethacin, but the mechanism of its action especially at the early phase of inflammation is different.
... Historically, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) was cultivated in the Mediterranean region (4). Many potential biologically active compounds have been identified in rosemary extracts, including antioxidant compounds such as carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid monoterpenoid ketone and polyphenolics (5). Rosemary, known in the Arabic language as Hasa Alban, is a member of the mint family Lamiaceae. ...
... Antioxidant effects are one of the major properties of phenolics found in rosemary oil. These phenolics may have the ability to prevent hydrogen atom abstraction and remove free radicals from the brain, which may lower the risk of coronary heart and neurological diseases (5). The contents of vanillic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, hispidulin, apigenin and rosemanol in rosemary extract are 1.73, 2.95, 32.8, 19.7, 1.1 and 124.1 mg/100 g, respectively as either BP-base or BP-acid. ...
Article
This study evaluated the optimal conditions for the extraction of phenolics from Rosmarinus officinalis. Phenolic extracts were obtained under extraction conditions in which several parameters were varied (time, temperature, solvents and free and bound forms). The results revealed that the optimum conditions for maximum phenolic content extraction and antioxidant activity were achieved using a mixture of methanol and water at 60 °C/1 h. However, the optimal extraction conditions for phenolics with the highest hypertensive (ACE) or diabetic (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) enzyme inhibitory activity were observed using a mixture of acetone and water for extraction at 40 °C/6 h or methanol at 50 °C/8 h, respectively. The results indicated that the free and bound phenolic compounds had antioxidant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties. The predominant free phenolic compound identified in rosemary was thymol, while chlorogenic and caffeic acids were the predominant bound phenolic compounds.
... Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts have been reported to have several and important biological properties, such as hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiproliferative, antiviral, antimicrobial, antinociceptive and antidepressant, among others [4]. Some of these activities point to a promising beneficial effect of rosemary in controlling cancer development. ...
... The antioxidative effect was related to the concentration of the active compounds present in the extract [20,21]. Studies showed that there are biologically active compounds in rosemary essential oil exhibiting cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and cognitionenhancing properties [4]. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to evaluate antitumor effects of roesmarinus (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts (aqueous and methanol) on Rhabdomyosarcoma; RD cell line and a normal cell line; mouse embryo fibroblast; MEF). Chemical detections of Rosemary extracts revealed that the aqueous and methanol extracts were positive for flavonoids, alkaloids, phenol, terpenes, saponine, glycosides, steroids and tannins. The percentage growth inhibition (PGI) of five leaf extract concentrations 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 (μg/ml) were assessed in vitro using RD and MEF. The results revealed that the five concentrations of the plant extracts showed anti-tumor properties in a concentration-dependent manner, and the methanol extract recorded better values of PGI than aqueous extract in RD cell lines, while, less PGI values were recorded in the MEF cell line. This experiment investigated the cytotoxic activity of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rosemary at concentrations (50 -100 -250 -500 -1000 μg/mL) on RD cell lines. A dose-dependent reduction was observed in treated cell line after 24 hrs. of treatment, but lower concentrations exhibited lower cytotoxic effects. Maximum inhibition of proliferation was achieved at the highest concentration (1000 μg/mL).
... 1,2,9 Today, research attention is focusing more closely on whether this herb may have potential to alleviate complications of obesity and diabetes, inflammation-associated conditions, and neurological deficits. Rosemary and its constituents have been the subject of considerable research interest because of their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neurological activities, 1,2,8,10 some of which are discussed in this article. In this overview, reports from in vitro and in vivo studies are discussed separately. ...
Article
The rosemary plant, Rosmarinus officinalis L (family Lamiaceae), is an aromatic evergreen shrub originating in the Mediterranean region and now growing widely in Europe, Asia, and Africa. This plant has been used extensively as a culinary spice in a variety of contexts. Rosemary and its extracts also are used as food preservatives and enhancers of sensory and functional properties. Today, research attention is focusing more closely on whether this herb may have potential to alleviate complications of obesity and diabetes, inflammation-associated conditions, and neurological deficits.
... Rosmarinus officinalis L. family Lamiaceae, is an ordinary household spicy plant and is frequently used in diet formulations owing to its strong anti-radical properties. The pharmacological actions of EO from R. officinalis, including, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antioxidant and hypoglycemic are scientifically validated in several studies (Faixova and Faix, 2008). Moreover, rosemary EO are reported to stimulate the nervous system and thus perk up memory and concentration capacity. ...
Article
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The use of essential oils (EOs) and their components is known since long in traditional medicine and aromatherapy for the management of various diseases, and is further increased in the recent times. The neuroprotective and anti-aging potentials of EOs and their possible mechanism of actions were evaluated by numerous researchers around the globe. Several clinically important EOs and their components from Nigella sativa, Acorus gramineus, Lavandula angustifolia, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Piper nigrum and so many other plants are reported for neuroprotective effects. This review article was aimed to summarize the current finding on EOs tested against neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia. The effects of EOs on pathological targets of AD and dementia including amyloid deposition (Aβ), neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), cholinergic hypofunction, oxidative stress and glutamatergic abnormalities were focused. Furthermore, effects of EOs on other neurological disorders including anxiety, depression, cognitive hypofunction epilepsy and convulsions were also evaluated in detail. In conclusion, EOs were effective on several pathological targets and have improved cognitive performance in animal models and human subjects. Thus, EOs can be developed as multi-potent agents against neurological disorders with better efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness.
... It has been demonstrated that the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L., commonly referred to as rosemary (belongs to mint family), is capable of producing silver nanoparticles and these particles are quite stable in solution ( Sulaiman et al. 2013). Rosmarinus officinalis L. has a long list of claims pertaining to its medicinal usage including antibacterial and antioxidant properties ( Minnunni et al. 1992;Karamanoli et al. 2000;Ozcan 2003;Faixov and Faix 2008). The studies showed that leaf extract of Chenopodium album was able to perform one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Amarendra and Krishna 2010). ...
Chapter
The field of nanotechnology is one of the most active areas of research in modern material sciences. Nanomaterials exhibit completely new or improved properties based on specific characteristics such as size, distribution, and morphology. At the present, there is an increasing commercial demand for nanostructures (nanoparticles and semiconductors) due to their wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a green route towards eco-friendly measures to overcome the toxicity and non-applicability of nanomaterials in clinical uses obtained by conventional physical and chemical approaches. A vast array of biological resources available in nature can be employed for synthesis of nanostructure materials including bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae, and plants. However, owing to the rich biodiversity of biological systems, their potential for biosynthesis is yet to be fully explored. In this chapter, we provide comprehensive information about the current status of biological synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanomaterials, their applications, and scale-up.
... Rosmarinus officinalis is known as a common herb and household plant broadly used all around the world for different medicinal purposes. Results of many experiments showed that rosemary essential oil had antimicrobial (Prabuseenivasan, Jayakumar, & Ignacimuthu, 2006), cognition-improving (Moss, Cook, Wesnes, & Duckett, 2003) and certain glucose level lowering properties which makes it useful as a natural animal feed additive (Faixová & Faix, 2008). The essential oil of rosemary contains several compounds at a rather different concentration. ...
... O desenvolvimento de formulações farmacêuticas visa otimizar a ação farmacológica do ativo e quando possível minimizar os efeitos indesejados. Sabe-se que os óleos essenciais são agentes passíveis de provocar irritação quando aplicados diretamente sobre a pele (BAKKALI, et al., 2008). Desta forma a utilização de óleos essenciais como ingredientes ativos em preparações cosméticas se torna um desafio ao formulador, visto que é necessário encontrar um balanço adequado de dosagem que garanta eficácia com segurança, e que ainda assegure a estabilidade da formulação. ...
... Subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt "fresher" after its inhalation. [36] . It has also been shown to possess excellent brain-stimulating properties as well as an aid for memory improvement. ...
Article
Human intelligence has always intrigued society in general and scientists in particular. So much so that there has been a large interest in drugs and supplements that have a tendency to even show a modicum of activity to enhance intelligence or in some cases, inhibit the stress that comes in with a high functioning brain. This review is a small addition to that line of thought and builds on scientific facts and studies that have been conducted to evaluate and even scientifically establish the use of some of the most commonly used neuroenhancers. These drugs or supplements can sometimes be used alone or in combination to enhance their overall effectivity and this article is an attempt to collect all the research data that supports the use of these supplements for increased cognition, comprehension, memory which invariably leads to better intelligence.
... These compounds had the potential to control glucose level of diabetic patients, to modify rumen microbial fermentation and to enhance bone desorption, but not to enhance immune response [13][14][15]. Essential oils, despite their wide uses and fragrances, constitute effective alternatives to synthetic compounds produced by chemical industry without showing the same side effects as the latter [16]. ...
Conference Paper
Essential oil of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L) was solvent-free microwave extracted and analysed by GC/MS. 36 compounds were identified, and the main constituents of the oil included 1,8-cineole (16.87%), camphor (24.12%), α-pinene (11.04%), β-pinene (5,51%) etc,… The results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil exhibited free radical scavenging activity against DPPH with IC50 = 472.46 µg/ml. Rosemary oil has also been proven effective against all of examined pathogens except P. aeruginosa. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was 8 µl/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and 4 µl/ml for the other four studied strains (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli). These results will open new venues for rosemary oil medical use.
... Remarkably, Rosmarinus officinalis has displayed hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, anticarcinogenic, antitumorigenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties [7]. It has also shown antidiabetic and neuroprotective activities, among others [11]. These biological properties have made rosemary a potential new therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Collect published research articles on the desired topic and summarize their findings in an evaluation of the preservative and therapeutic potential of Rosmarinus officinalis. Design: The research articles used in this review were obtained by searching public databases with keywords such as “Rosmarinus officinalis,” “R. officinalis,” and “rosemary.” The articles were then reviewed, summarized, and organized based on topic. Results: Eighty research articles revealed a wide range of therapeutic applications for Rosmarinus officinalis. Among others, rosemary was found to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Rosemary essential oil and extract were found to contain several biologically active compounds. Compared to synthetic agents, Rosmarinus officinalis displayed low toxicity levels and few side effects. Conclusions: Rosmarinus officinalis shows great promise as a natural food preservative and therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases. The chemical composition of rosemary essential oil and extract includes several compounds that are known to be strong antioxidants. Many of the biological properties of rosemary depend on this antioxidant activity. This is especially true in rosemary’s antidiabetic and anticancer mechanisms, for oxidative stress is a severe complication in both diseases. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of rosemary, along with its low toxicity levels, make Rosmarinus officinalis a promising food preservative with fewer side effects than artificial additives. Despite these encouraging findings, more research on the exact mechanisms of rosemary’s biological activities is needed before it is consistently used to treat human diseases.
... Indeed, oregano has been found to improve meat storage stability after slaughter in rabbits [10]. The rosemary extract exerts anti-oxidative activity, but its constituents have also shown a variety of pharmacological activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy in in vitro and in vivo models [11]. The claim often made of phytogenic feed additives as stimulant of immune function however faces with a poor specific experimental verification in monogastric animals (Lagomorpha). ...
... The essential oils are complex mixtures that contain hundreds of compounds, volatiles, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, aromatic compounds and other derivatives [46]. The essential oil of rosemary obtained by steam distillation from the leaves (up to 2.5%) is colorless to light yellow, water-insoluble and with a characteristic aroma of camphor [38][39]41,47]. The main constituents of the rosemary essential oil are camphor (5.0-21%), 1,8-cineole (15-55%), α-pinene (9.0-26%), borneol (1.5-5.0%), camphene (2.5-12%), β-pinene (2.0-9.0%) and limonene (1.5-5.0%) in proportions that vary according to the vegetative stage and bioclimatic conditions [38,40]. ...
Article
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The worldwide interest in the use of medicinal plants has been growing, and its beneficial effects being rediscovered for the development of new drugs. Based on their vast ethnopharmacological applications, which inspired current research in drug discovery, natural products can provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets. This work pioneers an extensive and an updated literature review on the current state of research on Rosmarinus officinalis L., elucidating which compounds and biological activities are the most relevant. Therefore, a search was made in the databases PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science with the terms ‘rosemary’, ‘Rosmarinus officinalis’, ‘rosmarinic acid’ ‘carnosol’ and ‘carnosic acid’, which included 286 articles published since 1990 about rosemary’s pharmacological activities and their isolated compounds. According to these references, there has been an increasing interest in the therapeutic properties of this plant, regarding carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid and the essential oil. The present manuscript provides an updated review upon the most reported activities on R. officinalis and its active constituents.
... Rosmarinus. officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), the Arabic name is Ikleel al-Jabaland, English name is rosemary; it has been widely used in cooking to change and improve flavors, it is used to prevent and cure colds, rheumatism, pain of muscles and joints in folk medicine. rosmary extracts have a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic and antitumor activities (Faixová and Faix, 2008;Andrade et al., 2018;Rocha et al., 2015;Eilyad et al., 2012). ...
... Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) belongs to the family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) is a well-known aromatic plant used all around the world for different medicinal purposes. Recent research has shown that rosemary extracts have a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, cognition-improving, cancer chemoprevention, anti-diabetic, DNA-protective, choleretic, hepatoprotective, a stimulant and mild analgesic, and it has been considered as one of the most effective herbs for treating headaches, poor circulation, inflammatory diseases, and physical and mental fatigue [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Most pharmacological effects of rosemary are the consequence of high antioxidant activity of its main chemical constituents, which include carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, and caffeic acid. ...
Article
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Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) belongs to the family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) is a well-known aromatic plant used all around the world for different medicinal purposes. Aims: The present work aimed to investigate antioxidant related effects of rosemary in humans by in vitro and in vivo studies. Study design: Chemical antioxidant assays and venous blood from healthy volunteers were used to conduct in vitro experiments. For in vivo study, nine healthy volunteers, each received orally 250 ml of aqueous extract of rosemary daily for 5 days. Venous bloods were taken before and one hour after the first dose of aqueous extract (sample I and II respectively) and then one day after the last dose of day five (i.e. day 6, sample III). The first blood taken before the first dose (i.e. sample I), served as control for the next samples of II and III. Methodology: The following assays were performed: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reducing power, scavenging activity of DPPH, scavenging activity of OH, iron chelating ability, erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), percentage hemolysis, serum total antioxidant status (TAS) and serum selected biochemical tests. Results: Rosemary extract showed efficient total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, scavenging activity of DPPH, scavenging activity of OH and a reasonable iron chelating ability. Pre-incubation of erythrocytes in vitro with methanolic extract of rosemary then exposed to H₂O₂ decreased significantly MDA production (i.e. anti-lipid-peroxidant), PC production (i.e. anti-protein-oxidant) and oxidant hemolysis (i.e. anti-hemolytic) in a concentration dependent manner. Oral administration of aqueous extracts of rosemary to healthy volunteers, for 5 days, increased significantly serum TAS (18% increase), erythrocyte GSH (72% increase), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) (21% increase) and decreased significantly erythrocyte MDA (17% decrease), with no effect on serum biochemical tests for kidney, liver, cardiac and pancreatic, compared to 0 time administration. Conclusion: Rosemary extracts have efficient in vitro and in vivo antioxidant related effects. As the present findings are obtained in healthy humans with no oxidative stress, this indicates that rosemary can improve the base line of the defense mechanisms against possible oxidative stress, with no adverse effects, thus decreasing susceptibility or preventing the progress of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress.
... [33,37] Ayrıca antiseptik, kas gevşetici, hücre yenileyici, antinevraljik, antidepresif, analjezik özellikli ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) ile analjezik, antiseptik, kan dolaşımını artırıcı, sinirleri uyarıcı ve hafıza/dikkat güçlendirici etkileri olan biberiyenin (Rosmarinus of cinalis) yararlı olduğu bildirilmektedir. [38] ...
Article
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Rheumatoid arthritis is a multi-systemic, autoimmune and chronic disease, characterized by in� ammation. Rheumatoid arthritis reduces the quality of life by causing pain, fatigue, morning stiffness, limitation of movement, dif culties in daily life, deterioration in social relations, and depression. Despite using pharmacological methods for management the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, there is no complete cure of the disease today. Patients frequently experience side effects such as toxicity, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, anemia or systemic infection due to used pharmacological treatment. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are applying to complementary and alternative medicine because of side effects of the treatment, incomplete treatment, and chronic pain and fatigue. Aromatherapy and re� exology, which are often preferred and commonly used among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and health care professionals has a positive effect on the management of patients’ pain and fatigue, and on increasing the quality of life. This review article is written in order to inform nurses about the use of aromatherapy and re� exology in rheumatoid arthritis.
... Remarkably, Rosmarinus officinalis has displayed hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, anticarcinogenic, antitumorigenic, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant properties [7]. It has also shown antidiabetic and neuroprotective activities, among others [11]. These biological properties have made rosemary a potential new therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Collect published research articles on the desired topic and summarize their findings in an evaluation of the preservative and therapeutic potential of Rosmarinus officinalis. Design: The research articles used in this review were obtained by searching public databases with keywords such as “Rosmarinus officinalis,” “R. officinalis,” and “rosemary.” The articles were then reviewed, summarized, and organized based on topic. Results: Eighty research articles revealed a wide range of therapeutic applications for Rosmarinus officinalis. Among others, rosemary was found to have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity activities. Rosemary essential oil and extract were found to contain several biologically active compounds. Compared to synthetic agents, Rosmarinus officinalis displayed low toxicity levels and few side effects. Conclusions: Rosmarinus officinalis shows great promise as a natural food preservative and therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases. The chemical composition of rosemary essential oil and extract includes several compounds that are known to be strong antioxidants. Many of the biological properties of rosemary depend on this antioxidant activity. This is especially true in rosemary’s antidiabetic and anticancer mechanisms, for oxidative stress is a severe complication in both diseases. The antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of rosemary, along with its low toxicity levels, make Rosmarinus officinalis a promising food preservative with fewer side effects than artificial additives. Despite these encouraging findings, more research on the exact mechanisms of rosemary’s biological activities is needed before it is consistently used to treat human diseases.
... Rosemary has been used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in traditional Turkish folk medicine [9]. The compounds contained in essential oils also shows biological properties such as antimicrobial and antioxidant properties [2,[4][5][10][11][12]. ...
... Despite their wide uses and fragrances, essential oil constitutes an effective alternate to synthetic compounds produced by chemical industry without having any side effects (Faixova and Faix, 2008). The objective in this present study is to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of essential oil of Citrus limon (Eureka variety) extracted by hydrodistillation. ...
... Rosemary is a medicinal plant and it is used in many ways as a medicinal herb such as it improves the blood circulation [20]. The extract of rosemary relaxes the smooth muscles [14]. The volatile oil of Rosemary is a powerful growth stimulator. ...
Article
Rosmarinus officinalis is a medicinal plant which belongs to family Lamiaceae. It is an evergreen bush. It was analyzed for its phytochemical constitution and antibacterial activity. For this purpose flowers, leaves and stem of aqueous and methanolic extracts were used. The tests of phytochemical screening showed that flavonoids, terpenoids, reducing sugar and saponins were present in different concentrations, while tannin was absent in all parts of plant. The antibacterial activity was determined against E. coli with different concentrations (i-e 0.5gm, 1gm and 1.5gm) kept for 24 hours and 48 hours duration. The results showed that the highest mean inhibition zone was observed in the methanolic extracts of leaves 1.5gm kept for 48 hours (28.6 ± 4.261mm).In the stem the methanolic extracts showed the highest inhibition zone with the concentration of 1.5gm (13.4 ± 1.624mm) kept for 24 hours. In the flower the highest inhibition zone in methanolic extracts was observed in 1gm (25.4 ± 2.416mm) kept for 48 hours. In the aqueous extracts the highest inhibition zone values were (17.6 ± 4.029mm, 15.8 ± 2.993mm, 14.4 ± 2.33mm) for stem, flower and leaves respectively.
... Rosemary has antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria (Naiel et al. 2019). Other effects of rosemary in broiler chickens include depressing plasma concentrations of calcium (Faixova and Faix 2008). Besides, rosemary oil improved the humoral responses to Newcastle disease (Khazaei et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Globally, there is increasing demand for safe poultry food products free from antibiotic residues. There is thus a need to develop alternatives to antibiotics with safe nutritional feed derivatives that maximize performance, promote the intestinal immune status, enrich beneficial microbiota, promote health, and reduce the adverse effects of pathogenic infectious microorganisms. With the move away from including antibiotics in poultry diets, botanicals are among the most important alternatives to antibiotics. Some botanicals such as fennel, garlic, oregano, mint, and rosemary have been reported to increase the poultry’s growth rate and/or feed to gain ratio. Botanicals’ role is assumed to be mediated by improved immune responses and/or shifts in the microbial population in the intestine, with the elimination of pathogenic species. In addition, modulation of the gut microbiota resulted in various physiological and immunological responses and promoted beneficial bacterial strains that led to a healthy gut. There is thus a need to understand the relationship between poultry diets supplemented with botanicals and good health of the entire gastrointestinal tract if we intend to use these natural products to promote general health status and production. This current review provides an overview of current knowledge about certain botanicals that improve poultry productivity by modulating intestinal health and reducing the negative impacts of numerous pathogenic bacteria. This review also describes the efficacy, negative effects, and modes of action of some common herbal plants applied in poultry as alternatives to reduce the use of antibiotics.
... Remarkably, Rosmarinus officinalis has displayed hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, anticarcinogenic, antitumorigenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties [27]. It has also shown antidiabetic and neuroprotective activities, among others [28]. These biological properties have made rosemary a potential new therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases. ...
... Rosemary is now widely used for antioxidant purposes to increase the shelf life of animal products (Raadt et al. 2015). It was stated that REO has antimicrobial effects in addition to antioxidant effects and that it can change the rumen fermentation direction in favour of the ruminant (Faixova and Faix 2008). EOs are a potential feed additive that could be used as a natural antioxidant in animal nutrition to support and enhance animal performance (Kotsampasi et al. 2018). ...
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This study aimed to determine the effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oil (REO) in lamb fattening diets on blood, rumen parameters, fattening performance and meat quality. Thirty Norduz male lambs weaned at 4 months of age with average body weight 22.0 ± 4.41 kg were used. Lambs were divided into three groups: no rosemary oil (control, R0), with 250 mg/kg DM (R250) and with 500 mg/kg DM (R500) rosemary oil added to the basal ration, and fed for 70 d. The daily feed intake of the R500 lambs (1.63 kg) was lower than other groups (1.70 kg) (p = .01). Rosemary oil did not change the density of methane-producing bacteria in the rumen fluid. Rumen pH was 6.31 in R250 lambs, while it was 6.16 in control (p < .04). The proportion of propionic acid (PA) increased in R250 (26.5 molar%) and R500 (26.0 molar%) lambs compared to control lambs (22.7 molar%) (p < .001). Serum glucose levels increased with REO dose (p < .01) and serum IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in R250 lambs (p < .001). The dose rates of REO used in fattening lambs had limited effect on fattening performance, carcase and meat quality. The results showed that although it does not affect the final live weight, the negative effect of REO on feed intake at 500 mg/kg was considered as a limiting factor and 250 mg/kg dose of REO may have positive effects on ruminal fermentation. Hence, it may be beneficial to try doses lower than 500 mg in further studies. • Highlights • Rosemary oil may improve rumen pH and the propionic acid (PA) concentration at 250 mg of REO/kg DM of the diet. • Serum IGF-1 levels were significantly increased with 250 mg/kg dose of REO. • Feed intake and feed conversion ratio were negatively affected by REO at 500 mg/kg DM. • Lambs supplemented with 500 mg REO/kg DM in the diet had the lowest CLA. • The effect of rosemary oil on slaughter-carcase characteristics and meat quality was limited.
... The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal nutrition is facing reduced social acceptance due to the appearance of residues and resistant strains of bacteria; antibiotic use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006.Natural feed additives of plant origin are generally believed to be safer, healthier and less subject to hazards for humans and animals. Many herbs and plant extracts have antimicrobial activities and antioxidant properties which make them useful as natural animal feed additives (Faixova and Faix 2008). Many of the medicinal plants commonly available have not been scientifically studied to validate the efficacy and to identify the phytochemical constituents that may be responsible for their medicinal values. ...
... The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal nutrition is facing reduced social acceptance due to the appearance of residues and resistant strains of bacteria; antibiotic use has been banned in the European Union since January 2006.Natural feed additives of plant origin are generally believed to be safer, healthier and less subject to hazards for humans and animals. Many herbs and plant extracts have antimicrobial activities and antioxidant properties which make them useful as natural animal feed additives (Faixova and Faix 2008). Many of the medicinal plants commonly available have not been scientifically studied to validate the efficacy and to identify the phytochemical constituents that may be responsible for their medicinal values. ...
... Recently many studies were conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activities of dietary natural and synthetic antioxidants. Natural antioxidants such as herbs are used as a substitute for synthetic antioxidants (Radwan et al., 2008) and are generally believed to be safer, healthier and less subject to hazards for human and animals which make them useful as natural animal feed additives (Faixova and Faix, 2008). Phytochemicals; flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds are potent free radical scavengers and are known to modulate the activities of various enzyme systems due to their interaction with various biomolecules (Devipriya and Shyamaladevi, 1999), this effect will rise their antioxidant activities like increasing the levels of glutathione and catalase (Sudheesh et al., 1999), also, it has protective effect on liver by stimulating superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity in this organ (Huang et al., 1992). ...
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of natural and synthetic antioxidants on productive performance, blood biochemical composition and liver oxidation status of broiler chickens. One day-old Ross broiler chickens(n=210)were fed on basal diet during the first week of age, then divided randomly into seven treated groups:T0(control group) without any addition,T1=0.75g Withania somnifera leaves(WSL)/kg diet,T2=1.5gWSL/kg diet,T3=0.75g rosemary leaves(RL)/kg diet,T4=1.5gRL/kg diet,T5=0.75g vitamin E/kg diet and T6=1.5g vitamin E/kg diet. Results showed that supplementing broilers with 1.5g WSL significantly increased final live body weight, body weight gain, dressing percentage and improved feed conversion ratio. Results of serum biochemical tests indicated that dietary supplementation with natural and synthetic antioxidants significantly (p≤0.05) reduced serum cholesterol as compared to control group. High levels of RL and vitamin E significantly decreased LDL as compared to control. Dietary supplementation with 1.5g RL significantly decreased serum albumin and glucose and increased globulin as compared to vitamin E supplemented groups. No significant differences were found between all experimental groups in serum HDL, VLDL, triglycerides, total protein, AST and ALT. In liver,1.5g WSL significantly reduced peroxide value and malondialdehyde levels as compared to RL. It can be concluded from this study that adding herbs like Withania somnifera as natural antioxidant to broiler diet had positive effect in reducing lipid oxidation and minimize harmful effect of oxidation damage.
... Thus, the key phytochemicals of R. officinalis L. are phenolic metabolites, di-and triterpenes and essential oils (Aumeeruddy-Elalfi et al. 2015. Leaf-derived REO is generally colourless to very light yellow and insoluble in aqueous solutions and represents a characteristic aroma of camphor (Faixová and Faix 2008;Begum et al. 2013). The main constituents of the REO are 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, borneol, camphene, camphor, β-pinene and limonene, and their content may be varied depending on the age and growth stage of the vegetation as well as physiological and ecological settings (Begum et al. 2013;Satyal et al. 2017). ...
Chapter
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Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), the representative of Lamiaceae family is known for its various medicinal uses that are accompanied by their hallmark secondary metabolites, i.e., carnosol, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid (mostly the polyphenolic diterpenes). In the age of medicines and methodologies, when we are floating through the advancements and achievements, we are being hijacked by various diseases leading to increased number of young deaths. Neurological disorders are one of them and characterized by any impairment in the nervous system, brain or spinal cord. The majority of young and aged people around the globe are manifested by neurological disorders, i.e., stroke, epilepsy, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and migraine. A large number of therapeutic approaches mend the symptoms in early stages of these disorders, but with the span of time, patients become progressively more disabled as they may suffer from drug-associated adverse effects. Emphasizing on the urgent need of alternative therapeutic regimens, natural products are encouraged worldwide in terms of safety and to minimize the aforesaid loss. In this order, the current chapter summarizes the protective role of R. officinalis L. and its bio-active metabolites against various neurological disorders via targeting amyloid-beta (A-β) aggregation, neuronal cell death, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), neuroinflammation, β-secretase (BACE-1) activity, mitochondrial redox status, etc. Based on the multifunctional nature due to effective bio-active secondary metabolites, R. officinalis can be a terrific alternative therapeutic source against many neurodegenerative diseases.
... The same plant products could be put to several new uses, including preservation and control of postharvest losses [4,5]. Various researchers have ascertained the potential benefit of using essential oils in the control of microbial contamination of foods [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. The essential oils could effectively replace synthetic chemicals, which are becoming unpopular due to global environmental and public health concern, in controlling pest and microbial spoilage of agricultural produce. ...
... Given this, the functional properties of several plant extracts have been investigated for their potential use as novel nutraceuticals; these biological substances are 'pharmacological multitaskers' [25]. Research into the use of natural antioxidant and health-promoting compounds from plant sources has resulted in experimental feeding trials, which have examined the effects of plant extracts/nutraceuticals in the diet of dairy and meat-producing animals [26][27][28], derived from their capacity to improve animal health and the quality and nutritional value of food due to the content of bioactive compounds, which may be considered 'natural functional ingredients'. ...
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The purpose of the study is to determine the nutritional characteristics of some by-products derived from fruit juice and olive oil production to evaluate their use in pig nutrition. Five by-products of citrus fruit (three citrus fruit pulp and two molasses) and three by-products of olive oil (olive cake) obtained by different varieties are analysed for chemical composition. The fermentation characteristics are evaluated in vitro using the gas production technique with swine faecal inoculum. All the citrus by-products are highly fermentable, producing gas and a high amount of short-chain fatty acids. The fermentation kinetics vary when comparing pulps and molasses. Citrus fruit pulps show lower and slower fermentation rates than molasses. The olive oil by-products, compared to citrus fruits ones, are richer in NDF and ADL. These characteristics negatively affect all the fermentation parameters. Therefore, the high concentration of fiber and lipids represents a key aspect in the nutrition of fattening pigs. The preliminary results obtained in this study confirm that the use of by-products in pig nutrition could represent a valid opportunity the reduce the livestock economic cost and environmental impact.
... Scientific evidence exist that herbs and plant extracts stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria and minimize pathogenic bacterial activity in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry (Gill, 1999;Langhout, 2000) and antioxidant properties (Faixova and Faix, 2008). The Ocimum sanctum is considered to be the "Queen of herbs" due to its greater medicinal values. ...
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An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of dietary supplementation of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) leaf powder and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seed powder as herbal feed additives on feed intake and growth performance in broilers. A total of 210-day-old broiler chicks of Cobb-400 strain were divided into seven treatment groups with three replicates of 10 chicks in each replicate using completely randomized design. The control group (C) was fed on basal diet without any supplementation and other six treatment groups were supplemented with 0.5% Tulsi leaf powder, 1% Tulsi leaf powder, 0.5% fenugreek seed powder, 1% fenugreek seed powder, 0.25% Tulsi leaf powder + 0.25% fenugreek seed powder and 0.5% Tulsi leaf powder + 0.5% fenugreek seed powder in T 1, T 2, F 1, F 2, T 1 F 1 and T 2 F 2 groups, respectively. Statistical analysis of data revealed no significant effect of Tulsi and fenugreek supplementation alone or in combination on feed intake. The body weight and body weight gain was significantly higher (P<0.01) in Tulsi and fenugreek supplemented groups as compared to control with highest for T 1 group . FCR was significantly (P<0.05) lower and PER was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the Tulsi and fenugreek supplemented groups compared to control group. It could be concluded that in high ambient temperature in heat stressed broilers inclusion of Tulsi leaf powder alone at 0.5% level, fenugreek seed powder alone at 0.5% level and combination of both i.e. Tulsi leaf powder and fenugreek seed powder at 0.5% level is quite effective and could be viable proposition for lucrative rearing of broilers for meat production.
... and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. on persistent attention [36,37]. Rosmarinus officinalis L. of family Lamiaceae which is frequently used in diet formulations was also found to be a great source of EOs with strong antiradical, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties [38]. Rosemary EOs are also reported as neurostimulants, moderate AChE inhibitors, locomotor activity enhancers, vigor motivators, and cerebral cortex stimulators [39]. ...
... A wide range of oxygenated monoterpenes are identified: oxides, such as 1,8-cineole, and alcohols, such as borneol and α-terpineol. Chemical composition of rosemary essential oil can vary between regions and it depends mostly on climate, soil composition, plant organ, age and stage of vegetative cycle (Faixova and Faix, 2008). ...
... In the last decades there has been a great interest in emphasizing the antioxidant properties of some medicinal and aromatic plants. The antioxidant effect of some aromatic plants would be the result of the presence of the hydroxyl groups from the phenol compounds, (Shahididi and Wanasundara, quoted by Faixova and Faix, 2008). Among the antioxidant compounds, the polyphenols and the flavones represent the object of various plant studies (Blaschek et al., 2007;Wichtl, 2009;Hasani-Ranjbar et al., 2009). ...
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This paper focuses on the activity of some oxidoreductases (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide-dismutase) in barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L.) after 6 hours of seeds treatment with different concentrations (0,01 – 0,50%) of ethyl-methane-sulfonate and 12 hours with hydro-alcoholic 0,5% rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (EHR). The EMS treatments led to an obvious increase of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activity in plants, while the application of the hydro-alcoholic rosemary extract, after the EMS treatment, led to a significant decrease of the activities of these enzymes, since the rosemary extract has an obvious antioxidant effect.
... O desenvolvimento de formulações farmacêuticas visa otimizar a ação farmacológica do ativo e quando possível minimizar os efeitos indesejados. Sabe-se que os óleos essenciais são agentes passíveis de provocar irritação quando aplicados diretamente sobre a pele (BAKKALI, et al., 2008). Desta forma a utilização de óleos essenciais como ingredientes ativos em preparações cosméticas se torna um desafio ao formulador, visto que é necessário encontrar um balanço adequado de dosagem que garanta eficácia com segurança, e que ainda assegure a estabilidade da formulação. ...
Conference Paper
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Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae), popularly known as alecrim-pimenta, is an aromatic plant typical of the Brazilian northeast, whose leaves are used to extract essential oil from with antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Thymol, a major component of the oil, is one of the most potent natural antiseptics, however some essential oils can cause irritation when applied directly to the skin. The study and development of formulations aims to optimize the pharmacological action of the active and when possible minimize the undesired effects, and in this sense, nanotechnology is a very useful tool. Thus, the present study was aimed at the development and characterization of nanosystems (nanocapsules and nanoemulsions) containing essential oil extracted from Lippia sidoides (Alecrim Pimenta) standardized on terpene bioactive thymol. The preparation of the nanosystems was performed by the nanoprecipitation method. Eight formulations were made, 5 formulations of nanocapsules (A, B, C, D and E), and 3 nanoemulsions (F, G and H). The preparations were characterized by diameter, polydispersity index (PDI), potential zeta - PZ (electrophoretic mobility), active content (high performance liquid chromatography - HPLC), active release (Franz cells) and neutrophil degranulation was evaluated by the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). Almost all formulations demonstrated homogeneous macroscopic appearance, with the exception of nanocapsules A and B; and of the nanoemulsion H, which presented precipitation soon after the production. Macroscopically stable formulations were evaluated for size with particles between 174 to 388 nm and PZ with negative values between -12 and -22 mV. In relation to the PDI, formulations that presented values lower than 0.2 were only formulations E (nanocapsules) and F (nanoemulsion), these being those selected for subsequent studies. The assay assay revealed a process yield of greater than 70%, where the nanoemulsion F had a content of 2.9 mg / mL thymol and the 2.8 mg / mL E nanocapsule formulation. The active release test from the nanocapsules E showed that in the first 6 hours 14.4% of the active had already been released, after 12 hours, 27.8%, in 24 hours 38.9%, and in 48 hours approximately of thymol was already available in the medium. The PMA-induced degranulation assay demonstrated that after 30 minutes of incubation, the 100 ng / mL E nanocapsules reduced the release of MPO by up to 52%. Indomethacin (36 μg / mL), the standard drug, inhibited neutrophil degranulation in 76% (76, 32 ± 1.06%). Therefore, with the results obtained in this research, it was possible to conclude that the preparation process of the nanosystems presented a narrow distribution of particle size, high yield, and the dosing method allowed to standardize nanocapsules and nanoemulsions as to the content of the bioactive compound thymol. It was also verified that the formulation E demonstrated to sustain the release of the active for at least 48 hours, which indicates that this nanotechnological input has great potential for the development of cosmetic products in which it is expected a long lasting effect. In addition, the in vitro assay of the effects of the nanocapsules E on the degranulation of the neutrophils activated by PMA demonstrated that this nanosystem was able to inhibit in a manner comparable to the standard the release of the enzyme myeloperoxidase, thus suggesting potential anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
... The same plant products could be put to several new uses, including preservation and control of postharvest losses [4,5]. Various researchers have ascertained the potential benefit of using essential oils in the control of microbial contamination of foods [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. The essential oils could effectively replace synthetic chemicals, which are becoming unpopular due to global environmental and public health concern, in controlling pest and microbial spoilage of agricultural produce. ...
Article
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Staphylococcus aureus, one of the opportunistic species responsible for clinical and / or bacteriological infections may react with biotic and abiotic surfaces and produces biofilm. In this form the bacteria become somewhat vulnerable to various physical and / or chemical antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of PVI, alone and in combination with essential oils (EO) of three aromatic plants, Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus capitatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis, against biofilms of four clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from intravenous catheter associated infections. These strains isolated at the university hospital of Tlemcen, were characterized and identified, in a previous study, as strongly adherent using the microtiter plate method. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum bactericidal (MBC) concentrations of different essential oils sole and in combination with PVI for studied strains grown in biofilm, were determined by microbroth dilution method. The antibacterial effect of EOs and PVI, alone and in combination, against biofilmforming staphylococci, was also demonstrated. EO of E. globulus was more effective, in comparaison with the two other EOs. In addition, the antibacterial effects of the three EOs studied in combination with PVI were deemed synergistic against the biofilm of all tested strains, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5. Accordingly, we could suggest the use of PVI in combination with EOs, especially of E. globulus ; since this EO was proved to be more efficacious in enhancing the ntibacterial efficacy of PVI against biofilm of S. aureus.
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This chapter discusses the different health aspects of herbs and spices. It begins by introducing the historical uses of herbs and spices, in diet and in traditional medicine. The phytochemical classes associated with herbs and spices are also discussed. The following section goes on to review the potential for herbs and spices in chemoprevention of cancer through antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, alteration of biotransformation enzyme activity, antitumorigenic mechanisms and antimutagenic and apoptotic activity. The next section discusses the health effects of herbs and spices on the cardiovascular system, diabetes, osteoarthritis and inflammatory response, obesity, gastro-intestinal and hepatoprotection, neuro-degenerative disorders, as well as infections and parasitic diseases. Safety and toxicity concerns from a medicinal perspective are briefly discussed, followed by future trends.
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The present study aimed to identify and quantify the components of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum caribaeum and to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different plant extracts and the essential oil of this plant against different serotypes of Salmonella enterica, which is of greater occurrence and isolated in the western region of Paraná, Brazil. The extraction of the essential oil was performed using Clevenger apparatus and the chemical composition was determined by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The extracts were obtained through different solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and distilled water). The antibacterial activity was carried out according to the broth microdilution technique. The GC-MS analysis resulted in the identification of 15 main components, all terpenes, representing 63.88% of the total essential oil. The major compounds identified were Germacrene-D (20.77%), a-Panasinsene (14.40 %) and b-Selinene (11.68 %). The essential oil presented antibacterial activity against 5 serotypes of Salmonella enterica, with MIC and MBC ranging from 7000 to 437 μg.mL-1. While MIC and MBC from the range from 200 to 25 mg.mL-1, being effective to most serotypes of S. enterica, with the exception of the aqueous extract. The results suggest that the essential oil and leaf extracts of Z. caribaeum represent an alternative for the control of S. enterica in the poultry sector, in this way reflecting a new perspective for studies with natural products.
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Spices are not only just herbs used in culinary for improving the taste of dishes. They are also sources of a numerous bioactive compounds significantly beneficial for health. They have been used since ancient times because of their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and carminative properties. Several scientific studies have suggested their protective role against chronic diseases. In fact, their active compounds may help in arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's, Parkinson, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc.), diabetes, sore muscles, gastrointestinal problems and many more. In the present study, possible roles of spices and their active components, in chronic diseases (cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, etc.) along with their mechanism of action have been reviewed.
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In recent years, phytomelatonin has become even more important because of its numerous useful properties in plant metabolism. In this study, different concentrations of melatonin (MEL) (0, 100 and 200 µM) were used to investigate the changes in the accumulation of phenolic compounds, and the aromatic content of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf explants by callus culture. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP and 2.0 mg/l NAA was used to induce callus production for determining the changes in secondary metabolites. Phenolic compounds such as rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and hesperidin and forty-five aromatic compounds were identified from rosemary leaf calli and measured by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively. 200 μΜ MEL increased the amount of rosmarinic acid (680 µg/g) compared to the control group (275 µg/g). However, 100 μΜ MEL increased the caffeic acid content (34 µg/g) two times higher than in the control group (17 µg/g). These findings were very remarkable for rosemary phenolic compound accumulation and it can be said that MEL could be a useful elicitor for rosemary. Totally, 200 μΜ MEL was more effective than 100 μΜ MEL in changing the aromatic content of rosemary calli. Also, some important aromatic compounds such as linalool, styrene and methional were only detected in MEL treated calli and not seen in the control group.
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Resumo Para que ocorra o controle de doenças na pós-colheita de uvas, são utilizados agroquímicos que, apesar de eficientes, podem causar problemas à saúde humana. Neste sentido, o presente trabalho tem o objetivo de verificar o potencial dos compostos voláteis presentes no óleo essencial de pitanga (OEP), guaçatonga (OEG) e melaleuca (OEM) no controle de Botrytis cinerea tanto in vitro quanto inoculados nas bagas de uvas ‘Rubi’, bem como verificar a indução de resistência nesses frutos. Dessa forma, avaliou-se o crescimento micelial do B. cinerea, o controle do mofo cinzento nas uvas ‘Rubi’, a qualidade pós-colheita dessas bagas e a atividade das enzimas polifenoloxidase (PPO), fenilalanina amônio liase (PAL), glucanase (GLU) e quitinase. De acordo com os resultados, observou-se que os compostos voláteis liberados pelos óleos essenciais reduziram os índices de velocidade de crescimento micelial de B. cinerea e da doença do mofo cinzento. Os tratamentos com voláteis de OEP e OEG ativaram mecanismos de indução de resistência desses frutos. Dessa forma, ressalta-se que OEP e OEG liberam compostos que apresentam a capacidade de agir diretamente sobre B. cinerea e também induzem a resistência de uvas ‘Rubi’, reduzindo o mofo cinzento nessas uvas.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) extracts on in vitro ruminal fermentation using the long-term rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). The RUSITEC system was equipped with six fermenters, each with a capacity of 1000 ml. Each fermenter received daily 5 g barley straw and 5 g barley. The experiment lasted 12 days. After an adaptation period of 6 days, the fermenters divided into 3 groups, first two vessels received no additives (control), second two vessels received 250 mg rosemary extract daily, and third two vessels received 250 mg sage extract daily. During the experimental period rumen fluid pH and protozoa number were determined and samples were collected for the analysis of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA) and dry matter digestibility. Rosemary and sage extracts had no effect on ruminal pH, total-VFA, propionate and butyrate production, total protozoa number, NH3-N concentration and dry matter digestibility. However, acetate production and acetate/propionate ratio decreased (p < 0.05) when compared with the unsupplemented control fermenters. The results of this study showed that rosemary and sage extracts exerted beneficial effects on some fermentation parameters in the RUSITEC system. If these effects were also induced when these substances are added to the rations of ruminants, beneficial changes in the animals performance may be expected.
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