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Nicotine alkaloids in Solanaceous food plants

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... Nicotine We assumed that a level of 1000 ng nicotine per kilogram (kg) of food would be accepted as safe. According to Moldoveanu et al. [18], levels of nicotine in edible parts of tomato and eggplant are 3000-7000 ng/kg and according to Andersson et al. [19], average nicotine exposure from consumption of vegetables is approximately 1000 ng/day. We also calculated that a typical antibacterial application rate would be 6 mg of colicin per kilogram of meat. ...
... We also calculated that a typical antibacterial application rate would be 6 mg of colicin per kilogram of meat. Therefore, the goal was to reduce the content of nicotine in colicin samples by at least 200-fold [18,19]. ...
... That estimate will actually be much lower because it is unlikely that all consumed meat will be treated with colicins (i.e., less than 100% market penetration for the product). Based on publications summarized in Andersson et al. [19] and Moldoveanu et al. [18], the average daily nicotine exposure from consumption of solanaceous vegetables (mostly tomato, potato, and eggplant) is around 1000 ng/day. Our calculated daily exposure from consumption of meat treated with colicins would consequently be less than 5% of that from vegetables. ...
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Colicins are natural non-antibiotic bacterial proteins with a narrow spectrum but an extremely high antibacterial activity. These proteins are promising food additives for the control of major pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serovars in meats and produce. In the USA, colicins produced in edible plants such as spinach and leafy beets have already been accepted by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as food-processing antibacterials through the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) regulatory review process. Nicotiana benthamiana, a wild relative of tobacco, N. tabacum, has become the preferred production host plant for manufacturing recombinant proteins-including biopharmaceuticals, vaccines, and biomaterials-but the purification procedures that have been employed thus far are highly complex and costly. We describe a simple and inexpensive purification method based on specific acidic extraction followed by one chromatography step. The method provides for a high recovery yield of purified colicins, as well as a drastic reduction of nicotine to levels that could enable the final products to be used on food. The described purification method allows production of the colicin products at a commercially viable cost of goods and might be broadly applicable to other cost-sensitive proteins.
... Nicotine acts as an agonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, therefore, it has been used as a pesticide because of its toxicity to organisms. Previous studies have revealed the presence of nicotine not only in solanaceous crops, namely, potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (S. lycopersicum), eggplant (S. melongena) and pepper (Capsicum annum), but also in wild mushrooms and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) [5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. These findings suggest that nicotine is widely distributed in plants and fungi. ...
... Compared with other plant species, e.g. solanaceous; < 100 μg kg −1 FW (fresh weight) on average [8,10], it was confirmed that the content of nicotine contained in tea was of same level. Based on the EFSA report 2011 [4], intake of nicotine via a cup of tea (1.5 g leaf/150 ml) calculated from our results is 0.008 to 0.500 μg when calculated at a transition rate of 48% (median), and it is 0.017 to 1.041 μg when it is 100%, these were also reported to be of same level ( 1 μg day −1 ) as in solanaceous, and much lower than that via passive smoking (80 μg day −1 ) or smoking (number of cigarettes × 1 mg day −1 ) [10]. ...
... solanaceous; < 100 μg kg −1 FW (fresh weight) on average [8,10], it was confirmed that the content of nicotine contained in tea was of same level. Based on the EFSA report 2011 [4], intake of nicotine via a cup of tea (1.5 g leaf/150 ml) calculated from our results is 0.008 to 0.500 μg when calculated at a transition rate of 48% (median), and it is 0.017 to 1.041 μg when it is 100%, these were also reported to be of same level ( 1 μg day −1 ) as in solanaceous, and much lower than that via passive smoking (80 μg day −1 ) or smoking (number of cigarettes × 1 mg day −1 ) [10]. According to an EFSA report 2011 [4], tea is the major source of ingested nicotine among herbal infusions and spices, but its maximum contribution amounts to only 0.7% of acceptable daily intake. ...
Article
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Endogenous nicotine was confirmed to be present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of tea samples from tea-producing regions in six Asian countries. All samples contained nicotine (0.011–0.694 μg g⁻¹ dry weight). Nicotine contents remained constant during manufacturing of green, oolong and black teas, implying that nicotine is stable against heating, drying, enzymatic oxidation and mechanical damage during processing. Flower buds and seeds of cultivar Yabukita also contained nicotine (0.030–0.041 μg g⁻¹ dry weight). A comparison of two cultivars revealed that higher nicotine contents were found in the black tea cultivar Benifuki. All plant parts of hydroponic Yabukita contained nicotine (0.003–0.013 μg g⁻¹ dry weight). Tea cells cultured in B5 medium as well as roots and stems of tea seedlings contained nicotine levels similar to those of new leaves from field-grown plants. Although the levels of endogenous nicotine in tea plants are extremely low and sample contamination cannot be discounted, these levels exceed the maximum acceptable limit in Japan (0.01 μg g⁻¹ dry weight).
... This case stressed the higher toxicity of cigarette butts, in which nicotine is concentrated [17]. At lower doses it has many pharmacological effects [4]. Ingestion of parts of the tobacco plant may cause various symptoms and severe cases may result in a coma. ...
... Smoking tobacco affords some protection, most likely because a tolerance to nicotine develops [4]. ...
... He experienced sharp general weakness, vertigo and nausea. Although the condition progressed into an unconscious and very critical state, he recovered after receiving an oxygen-air mixture and supplemental [4]. ...
Article
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Poisoning plant cause significant losses of livestock every year in some countries which lead to birth defects or death. Records of harmful effects by many of these plants are based solely on poisoning of livestock rather than on actual cases of human ingestion. Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana gluaca have been medicinally used and considered as toxic and teratogens. They are contains toxic piperidine and pyridine alkaloids. These alkaloids are acutely toxic and teratogenicity to human, animals and causing mutation whish may lead to cancer or death. This paper aims to present a review of some existing studies and statues of the toxicity, teratogenicity and genotoxicity effect of N. tabacum and N. gluaca, to benefit from their results and conclusions.
... This increased binding capacity is the result of a greater number of nicotine cholinergic receptors in the brain tissue of smokers. The nicotine synthesis is done in many plant species, but this process is studied mostly for the genus Nicotiana because of the highest accumulation of nicotine in these plants (6). Nicotine is also present in plants which are very present in human diet, primarily tomato, potato, eggplant and paprika. ...
... After testing the examinees to natural nicotine sources (mature and unsaturated tomato, eggplant, pepper, potatoes), the cutaneous response of all respondents was negative. It should be said that nicotine is a natural ingredient of some plants that synthesize this alkaloid in endogenous processes (6). The presence of nicotine in fresh food or plants of the Solanaceae family was first discovered by Castro and Monji (8). ...
... Moldoveanu et al. (2016) also had an interesting research which, besides discovering nicotine in the mentioned plant species, also revealed the presence of very small amounts of nicotine in carrots, bananas, pears, apples, blueberries and strawberries (25). It should be noted that some authors attribute the presence of nicotine in the species mentioned in this paper to the environmental pollution with high nicotine content or the nicotinecontaining pesticides being used (6). Species of Solanaceae family contain a low concentration of nicotine and do not cause an allergic reaction. ...
Article
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Aim: The intensity of allergenic effects after administration of pure nicotine extract from various sources (cigarettes and unprocessed tobacco, tomato, potato, eggplant and bell-pepper) was analyzed in this study. Methods: Prick and prick-to-prick methods were used to induce dermal allergic reactions and a diameter of the hives was determined. Examinees were divided into two groups: smokers (n=15) and non-smokers (n=15). The study was performed at the Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Results: Nicotine from the fruits and tubers did not cause any allergic reaction. Among non-smokers, 20% of respondents had an allergic reaction to nicotine and 7% of smokers were positive to the test. The diameter of the urticaria was the smallest in smokers (3.14 mm), and the highest diameter was detected among non-smokers (4.42 mm). Cigarettes of different manufacturers cause different levels of allergic reactions. A positive correlation was determined between nicotine from cigarettes and untreated tobacco with the size of urticaria. Conclusion: Nicotine from untreated tobacco caused a stronger allergic reaction compared to nicotine from commercial cigarettes. Nicotine allergy causes a greater diameter of the urticaria in individuals with a previous diagnosis of an allergic reaction to tree and grass pollen.
... Processed products contained equivalent or slightly higher levels of nicotine than fresh products (up to 34 μg/kg). Somewhat higher levels were found in fresh eggplant fruits (up to 100 μg/kg) [131]. The amount of nicotine absorbed from these foods is negligible relative to the amount obtained from active smoking [131]. ...
... Somewhat higher levels were found in fresh eggplant fruits (up to 100 μg/kg) [131]. The amount of nicotine absorbed from these foods is negligible relative to the amount obtained from active smoking [131]. However, even nicotine blood levels reached from environmental tobacco smoke exposure, much lower than that from active smoking, are sufficient to saturate a substantial portion of α4β2 nicotine receptors in the human brain [123]. ...
... While only 30-40% of the nicotine is transferred to the systemic circulation after oral consumption, almost 100% of the nicotine is transferred by inhalation. 22 Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), a Solanacea plant, is a crop of high importance in Turkey, just as it is in many countries and areas (e.g. USA, EU, China, India, Egypt). ...
... It has been reported that 30-40% of orally consumed nicotine reaches the systemic circulation. 22 Accordingly, via consumption of a single-grafted cv. Sweet tomato fruit (∼20.8 g), a person could be exposed to almost 21.3 µg of nicotine in his/her diet and only 6.4-8.5 µg nicotine would enter the systemic circulation. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: Two different tomato scions, cv. Elazig and cv. Sweet (cherry) (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were self-grafted and grafted onto tobacco root stock (Nicotiana tobacum L.). Then, grafted tomato plants were evaluated in terms of flower and fruit yield. Tobacco-grafted tomato plant fruits were also evaluated for nicotine content. RESULTS: Tobacco grafting had a positive effect on the tomato plant cultivation performance; the onset of flowering was almost 15 days earlier and the tomato flower and fruit yields increased in both tomato cultivars. Tobacco grafting resulted in 5.0% and 30.1% increase in total fruit weight for cv. Sweet and cv. Elazig, respectively. Because the level of nicotine was within acceptable ranges, tobacco-grafted tomato fruits were considered to be safe for consumption. Self-grafted tomato cultivars also had flowering time onsets almost 11 days earlier. However, self-grafting caused 6.0% and 7.6% less total fruit yield per cv. Sweet and cv. Elazig, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results show that tomato–tobacco grafting is a novel and promising technique for improvement of not only tomato plant performance and yield, but also that it can be employed to various tomato varieties. Copyright
... [6][7][8][9][10] The amount of nicotine absorbed from these foods is negligible relative to the amount obtained from active smoking, and probably lower than that from environmental tobacco smoke. 11 However, even nicotine blood levels reached from environmental tobacco smoke exposure, much lower than that from active smoking, are sufficient to saturate a substantial portion of a4b2 nicotine receptors in the human brain. 12 Stimulation of nicotine receptors protects dopaminergic neurons in animal models of PD using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) 13 or rotenone. ...
... We also note that tomatoes and potatoes are probably more important than peppers with regard to the absolute amount of nicotine ingested, 11 yet the PD-Solanaceae association we observed was largely due to peppers. An absence of data on foods such as tomato-based sauces and salsas, and boiled and fried potatoes including chips and French fries, may have muted associations for tomatoes and potatoes. ...
Article
Objective To test whether risk of Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with consumption of nicotine-containing edibles from the same botanical family as tobacco, Solanaceae, including peppers, tomatoes, and potatoes. Methods In a population-based study with 490 newly diagnosed idiopathic PD cases diagnosed during 1992-2008 at the University of Washington Neurology Clinic or Group Health Cooperative in western Washington State and 644 unrelated, neurologically normal controls, we examined whether PD was associated with self-reported typical frequency of consumption of peppers, tomatoes, tomato juice, and potatoes during adulthood, while adjusting for consumption of other vegetables, age, sex, race/ethnicity, tobacco use, and caffeine. ResultsPD was inversely associated with consumption of all edible Solanaceae combined (relative risk [RR]=0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.65-1.01 per time per day), but not consumption of all other vegetables combined (RR=1.00, 95% CI=0.92-1.10). The trend strengthened when we weighted edible Solanaceae by nicotine concentration (p(trend)=0.004). An inverse association was also evident for peppers specifically (p(trend)=0.005). The potentially protective effect of edible Solanaceae largely occurred in men and women who had never used tobacco or who had smoked cigarettes <10 years. InterpretationDietary nicotine or other constituents of tobacco and peppers may reduce PD risk. However, confirmation and extension of these findings are needed to strengthen causal inferences that could suggest possible dietary or pharmaceutical interventions for PD prevention. Ann Neurol 2013;74:472-477
... In the 16th century, tobacco was already known in the Iberian Peninsula, and its further spread through Europe was due to a French physician and diplomat, Jean Nicot de Villemain, who recommended the use of nicotine as medication. Trace amounts of nicotine are found also in potatoes, tomatoes and sweet pepper [1]. Nicotine content in tobacco leaves approximates 1.5 % of their dry weight. ...
... Nicotine was isolated from tobacco in 1828; its structure was established 15 years later, and it was synthesized in 1904 [1]. ...
Article
Nicotine dependence is a disease of constantly growing importance. This mini-review describes the effects of nicotine in humans and focuses on the various laboratory animal models developed to study the dependence-related behavioral effects of nicotine. In addition, we outline the current therapeutic approaches designed to substitute nicotine from cigarette smoke with safer compounds or to relieve symptoms of nicotine withdrawal during smoking abstinence. Since several pharmacotherapies have failed to be efficacious in all patients, we also assess the clinical effectiveness of newer agents in relation to existing drugs.
... Nevertheless, both bottled mineral water samples presented the highest detected nicotine concentrations (Fig. 2). Low concentrations of nicotine are also present in other plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, such as tomatoes, aubergines , peppers and potatoes (Andersson et al., 2003 ). However, grasslands dominate the surroundings of the springs of the AB and FS samples. ...
Article
The presence of pharmaceuticals in surface and drinking water has been evidenced in numerous studies. Despite representing one of the most common consumption sources, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pharmaceutical compounds in bottled mineral water. Pollution of these sources not only could pose a serious human health risk, but would also warn about the quality of the water in our aquifers, a vital and vulnerable source of water, essential for the future water supply. Fifty eight pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) belonging to the 12 main therapeutic groups were analyzed in 10 bottled mineral water brands produced in Spain. Nicotine was detected in concentrations ranging from 7ngL(-1) to 15ngL(-1) in 5 of 10 bottled mineral waters. Despite the low nicotine concentration measured, the presence of this compound in bottled water still raises concern. Health risk assessment researchers have postulated that the risk to adult healthy humans from oral intake of nicotine at low levels is negligible. However, no studies have been conducted to assess the human health risk of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and newborns. This population is the target of advertising on the purity and quality characteristics of bottled mineral water.
... Although humans are exposed to anatabine on a daily basis through consumption of common foods from the Solanaceae plant family such as peppers, potatoes, and tomatoes, the greatest exposure to anatabine and related alkaloids comes from the use of tobacco products. [13][14][15] Several epidemiological studies have found that cigarette smoking is inversely related to the incidence of several autoimmune diseases characterized by excessive inflammation, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, and ulcerative colitis. [16][17][18][19][20] Interestingly, two large, longitudinal epidemiological studies found that smokers also have lower rates of osteoarthritis than nonsmokers, 21,22 and the protective effects of smoking on osteoarthritis are recognized on the CDC's website. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anatabine is a Solanaceae plant family alkaloid marketed in the United States as a dietary supplement. It has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, and may be useful for musculoskeletal aches and pains. The purpose of this internet-based survey study was to provide more information about anatabine users who report benefits for joint pain or stiffness. Of the 282 survey respondents, 232 (82%) reported a benefit from anatabine supplementation for one or more joint pain conditions, most commonly the knee, wrists/hands/fingers, shoulder, and back, most often due to osteoarthritis or injury to the joint. Mean scores of joint pain and stiffness were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced after starting anatabine supplementation, and for most respondents joint pain was virtually eliminated. Around 90% of all individuals rated the effect of anatabine supplementation as good or excellent for joint pain, stiffness, functionality, and overall effects. These results provide evidence that anatabine supplementation can lead to substantial improvement of musculoskeletal aches, pains, and stiffness, and can provide benefits in some individuals for various medical conditions in multiple joint locations.
... Nevertheless, both bottled mineral water samples presented the highest detected nicotine concentrations (Fig. 2). Low concentrations of nicotine are also present in other plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, such as tomatoes, aubergines, peppers and potatoes (Andersson et al., 2003). However, grasslands dominate the surroundings of the springs of the AB and FS samples. ...
Article
There are a number of reports in the literature which describe the occurrence of so-called emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, in surface water. Few of these studies have reported values from large cities in relatively arid areas, such as in Spain. The persistence of some pharmaceuticals to usual wastewater treatments allows their discharge into surface waters. It is increasingly evident that mental health problems are of special concern for public health since psychiatric drugs are used in large amounts. Compared to other countries, Spain has a high pharmaceutical consumption rate, and Madrid metropolitan area is one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of different psychoactive pharmaceuticals and metabolites in the main rivers of Madrid metropolitan area: Jarama, Manzanares, Guadarrama, Henares and Tajo. Sampling was done downstream of ten sewage treatment plants (STP) discharging into these rivers. Control points upstream of STPs discharge points were also sampled. Pharmaceutical compounds and metabolites for analysis were selected according to human consumption and prescription rates in Madrid, and the availability of valid techniques for detection. We observed residues of the antidepressants fluoxetine (80% of the sampling sites), citalopram (60%) and venlafaxine (100%), the anxiolytics nordiazepam (90%), oxazepam (80%) and 7-aminoflunitrazepam (10%) and the anticonvulsant carabamazepine (70%). Measured concentrations equalled or exceeded those reported for other geographical areas, although there is a pronounced lack of information for the anxiolytics and venlafaxine. This is of special concern given that Wyeth-Ayerst's venlafaxine, Effexor, was the 10th greatest selling pharmaceutical worldwide in 2006. We conclude that the origin of pharmaceutical pollution in the rivers of Madrid is mainly the discharge of sewage treatment plants in Madrid's metropolitan area and a comprehensive monitoring program should be implemented.
... Although the presence of anabasine and anatabine has not been adequately established in edible vegetables of Solanaceae, if the content in the fruits is at similar levels to that in dried tobacco from cigarettes, this can also be assumed to be negligible. [23] The aim of this study was to assess whether anatabine and anabasine could be measured in actual wastewater samples. The results demonstrated that it can be done with the validated detection method described here. ...
Article
Wastewater analysis, the chemical analysis of municipal sewage, is fast becoming the technique of choice to monitor changes in community consumption of a range of compounds over time. Currently wastewater analyses which estimate tobacco consumption focus on the major alkaloid nicotine and its urinary metabolite, cotinine. As nicotine is also present in replacement therapies such as nicotine gum and patches, this analysis is not specific and hence does not truly reflect the harmful consumption of tobacco. Two alkaloids - anabasine and anatabine - which are specific to dried tobacco, were assessed as biomarkers for tobacco consumption in wastewater, together with nicotine and cotinine. Consequently, solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods for the detection of anabasine, anatabine, nicotine, and cotinine in municipal wastewater were validated. All compounds were detected in wastewater extracts and found to have satisfactory recovery, accuracy, precision, and stability in wastewater. Daily flow volume and catchment population of the wastewater facility were used to estimate normalized consumption figures of mg/day/1000 people for composite samples collected over one week, in an application of the method. Anabasine and anatabine were found to be suitable wastewater biomarkers of tobacco and can be used to assess tobacco consumption of communities via wastewater analysis. Application of this methodology can be used to collect temporal consumption data which could be used to determine the efficacy of tobacco reduction strategies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... The primary commercial source of nicotine is its extraction from N. tabacum or N. rustica, and -in lower quantities -from tomato, potato, eggplant, and green pepper. It is also found in the leaves of the coca plant [9,10]. The nicotine content of N. tabacum varieties grown commercially generally ranges from 0.3 to 3% of dry weight of the leaves, although 5% and even 7% have been reported [11]. ...
Article
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Tobacco is the most widely grown non-food crop in the world. Nicotine is the most abundant volatile alkaloid in tobacco leaves. This work aimed at measuring nicotine levels in the leaves of seven different varieties of Nicotine was extracted according to approved method and its concentration was determined by LC/MS/MS in comparison with a standard material dilution series. The percentage of nicotine concentration was calculated manually. Statistical analysis was used to assess the significance of differences among variables and to perform multiple comparisons. The amount of nicotine in dry weight of tobacco leaves represented 6.7% in Virginia variety, 4.9% in Burlip, 4.84% in Katrina, 4.67% in Shk al-bent, 4% in Zegrin, 3.3% in Basma and
... If 0.5 kg (three or four tomatoes) of H2274/S fruits, which have the highest nicotine concentration with 5.6 μg kg FW −1 , were consumed, the nicotine uptake would be 2.8 μg, which is below ADI. In addition, it has been reported by other researchers that only 30-40% of orally consumed nicotine reaches the systemic circulation (Andersson et al. 2003). ...
Article
A previously developed grafting strategy was applied to graft a commercial cultivated variety of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. H-2274) onto Nicotiana rustica L. (cv. Hasankeyf) and Nicotiana tabacum L. (cv. Samsun) rootstocks. Higher growth and leafing, and earlier flower onset were found in grafted than in non-grafted and self-grafted plants. Significant 22.7 and 34.3% increases in fruit yield were obtained with Samsun and Hasankeyf rootstocks, respectively. Leaves of tobacco-grafted plants had significantly elevated levels of nicotine, and highest leaf nicotine levels were measured at 90 days after transplantation (DAT). Leaves from upper sampling levels of plants had significantly less nicotine independent of the sampling DAT. Fruits of all tobacco-grafted plants had significantly higher amounts of nicotine than non-grafted scions. Nicotine levels were higher in fruits sampled from lower parts of the plants for different harvest DAT and rootstocks. Increases in leaf nicotine concentration of tobacco-grafted plants were higher when compared with that of fruit. Grafting tomato onto tobacco rootstocks is a practical and feasible application for different tobacco–tomato unions.
... kemudian ditranslokasikan ke bagian atas tumbuhan (pucuk) yang disimpan dalam dinding sel (Tso 1990). Kandungan nikotin pada tanaman tembakau sebagian besar terdapat pada daun (Andersson et al. 2003). Kandungan nikotin dari berbagai jenis/tipe tembakau di Indonesia yang tinggi adalah tembakau Madura dan Temanggung (1,0 -8,0%) (Wiroatmojo 1980). ...
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Abstrak Ekstrak tanaman untuk insektisida nabati tidak hanya berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas saja akan tetapi juga berpengaruh terhadap aktivitas makan serangga. Tujuan pengujian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstraklimbah daun tembakau madura terhadap aktivitas makan larva instar III Spodoptera exigua. Metode uji ada dua yakni pakan pilihan dan pakan tanpa pilihan. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap (RAL), dengan 6 perlakuan konsentrasi dan 1 kontrol yang diulang 5 kali. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa pemaparan ekstrak limbah daun tembakau dengan metode pakan pilihan: (1) berpengaruh nyata terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi pada semua konsentrasi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, (2) bersifat antifeedant terhadap larva S. exigua dengan indeks hambatan makan berkisar 17,51 – 38,12%, sedang ekstrak limbah daun tembakau pada uji pakan tanpa pilihan (3) berpengaruh nyata pada konsentrasi > 0,21% terhadap bobot daun yang dikonsumsi dibandingkan dengan kontrol, dan (4) bersifat antifeedant dengan indeks hambatan makan lebih tinggi (22,87 – 69,39%) daripada dengan pakan pilihan (17,51 – 32,12%). Abstract Plants extracts used for botanical insecticides do not only influence the mortality but also the feeding activity of insects. The aim of this test was to determine the activity of the extract of Madura tobacco leaf on the feeding activity of the third instar of beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua. There were two test methods, choice and no-choice feeding tests. The design of each test was a completely randomized design (CRD), with six treatment concentrations and one control, replicated five times. The results showed that the exposure of tobacco leaf extracts with the choice feeding: (1) had significant effect on the leaf weight consumed at all concentration compared to the controls, (2) act as antifeedant against the larvae of S. exigua with the index of food consumption barrier ranging from 17.51 to 38.12%; while the extract of tobacco leaf on the no-choice feeding test: (3) had significantly effect on the weight of leaves consumed compared to the control on the concentrations of > 0.21%, and (4) was antifeedant with the index of food consumption barrier higher (22.87 to 69.39%) than the choice feeding (17.51 to 38.12%).
... Like other species of Nicotiana. This plant contains pyridine alkaloids [14]. The alkaloids (nicotine and anabasine) have been widely used as pesticides. ...
Article
Nicotiana glauca Graham is an ornamental plant of the semi-arid region; its leaves are very rich in indolic alkaloids, which give it a larvicidal power that allows us to use it as bioinsecticide. In this work, we aim to evaluate the direct (on longevity) and delayed (on sexual behavior, oviposition and reproduction) effect of N. glauca on the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster; using aqueous extracts of this plant. The treatment is done by ingestion on 2nd stage larvae (L2). The results have shown that mortality rates can reach 100% after 15 days of treatment as we recorded a delay in the development of the flies. Similarly N. glauca reduces the longevity of newly emerged adults (males and females) While, the observation of the sexual behavior in adults from the treatment indicates that N. glauca acts negatively on the different sequences leading to mating in D. melanogaster , as well as on the ovipositor behavior or it decreases the number of eggs and larvae in treated females as it disturbs their layingchoice.
... The results of this study show a selective decrease in TgAb but not TPOAb levels in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis after 12 weeks of anatabine supplementation. Anatabine is an alkaloid found in plants of the Solanaceae family, including tobacco, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, and eggplants (8). Although the mechanism of action of dietary anatabine on thyroid autoimmunity remains to be elucidated, it may produce immunomodulatory effects through activation of ␣4␤2 or ␣7 cholinergic receptors similar to nicotine and other structurally related agonists (9 -11). ...
Article
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Context: Hashimoto's thyroiditis is less prevalent in tobacco smokers. Anatabine, an alkaloid found in Solanaceae plants including tobacco, has been reported to ameliorate a mouse model of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Objective: The effects of anatabine in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were studied. Design, setting, patients, and intervention: This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multisite study. A total of 146 patients (70 treated with anatabine and 76 with placebo) completed the study. Approximately 50% of patients in each group were taking levothyroxine. Anatabine lozenges (9-24 mg/d) or placebo, each containing vitamins A and D3, were administered orally 3 times a day for 3 months. Main outcome measures: Serum thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) levels were assessed. Safety was assessed through adverse events, clinical laboratory evaluations, and vital sign measurements. Results: Anatabine-treated patients had a significant reduction in absolute serum TgAb levels from baseline by study end relative to those receiving placebo (P=.027); however, there were no significant changes or differences in treatment group means for TPOAb or TgAb levels. Mean±SD TgAb values decreased by 46.2±101.1 and 3.9±83.9 World Health Organization units for the anatabine and placebo groups, respectively. Significantly more patients had a >20% drop in TgAb levels in the anatabine than placebo group (P=.023). Overall, the anatabine supplement was safe and well tolerated, although significantly (P<.05) more patients in the anatabine group reported adverse events. Conclusions: These results demonstrate an immunological effect of anatabine on TgAb levels. Further studies are warranted to determine the longer-term effects and possible actions of anatabine on the course of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
... A number of studies have also reported efficacy of nicotine in regulating memory, anxiety, and depression in rodents and humans (Levin, 2002;Terry et al., 2015;Bertrand and Terry, 2018;Terry and Callahan, 2019). In contrast, the effects of other alkaloids from the same chemical class in Solanaceae plans, such as cotinine and anatabine, are less well known (Dwoskin et al., 1995;Lippiello et al., 1996;Andersson et al., 2003;Vazquez-Palacios et al., 2004;Suemaru et al., 2006;Andreasen and Redrobe, 2009;Levin et al., 2014;Anderson and Brunzell, 2015;Terry et al., 2015;Xia et al., 2019). For example, anatabine is mainly known for its anti-inflammatory effect in neurodegenerative models in rodents (Paris et al., 2013a;Paris et al., 2013b;Verma et al., 2015), with a single study suggesting anxiolytic-like effect and improved social interaction and social memory in PS1/APPswe transgenic mice (Verma et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Alkaloids that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are of great interest because of the critical role they play in mood and anxiety. However, understanding of the neuropharmacological effects of nicotinic alkaloids, such as cotinine and anatabine, is very limited. In this study, we investigated the neuropharmacological effects of three naturally occurring alkaloids—nicotine, cotinine, and anatabine—in vitro and in vivo. A single injection of nicotine induced anxiolytic-like behavioral features in mice by using the SmartCube® behavioral profiling system, while cotinine and anatabine had no detectable effect. The results were corroborated by using the zebrafish novel tank test (NTT), which showed a profound anxiolytic-like effect induced by multiple doses of nicotine after a single 20-min treatment. When the regulation of dopamine and norepinephrine release—the neurotransmitter systems relevant for anxiety—were examined in vitro, we found that nicotine stimulated the release of both norepinephrine and dopamine, while cotinine and anatabine mainly stimulated the dopamine release. The molecular targets of nicotine were confirmed to be nAChRs with its most potent activities against α4β2 and α6/3β2β3 subtypes in vitro. Anatabine was a weaker agonist for these receptors than nicotine. Cotinine was the least potent nAChR compound, only being able to activate α4β2 and α6/3β2β3 subtypes at high doses and no detectable activities against α3β4 and α7 subtypes at the concentrations tested. The observed effects were unlikely due to the off-target effect, because these alkaloids did not bind or regulate >160 other molecular targets in vitro. Thus, the present results suggest that natural nicotinic alkaloids can induce an anxiolytic-like behavior in nonclinical animal models, potency of which may depend on the activation of various nAChRs and regulation of various neurotransmitter systems. Further investigations would help understand their effects on humans, because non-clinical studies should not be taken as a direct indication for human behavior and nicotine is not risk free.
... Nikotin diproduksi di akar tanaman tembakau, kemudian ditranslokasikan ke bagian atas tumbuhan (pucuk) yang disimpan dalam dinding sel (Tso 1990). Kandungan nikotin pada tanaman tembakau sebagian besar terdapat pada daun (Andersson et al. 2003). ...
... The residual amount of nicotine is comparable with the nicotine content found in some vegetables. For example, the levels of nicotine in the edible parts of tomato and eggplant are 3-7 ng/g (Moldoveanu, Scott, & Lawson, 2016), and according to Andersson, Wennström, and Gry (2003), the average nicotine exposure from consumption of vegetables is approximately 1,000 ng/day. F I G U R E 2 A scalable process for the enrichment of zein PBs, based on two consecutive tangential flow filtrations. ...
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The encapsulation of biopharmaceuticals into micro‐ or nanoparticles is a strategy frequently used to prevent degradation or to achieve slow release of therapeutics and vaccines. Protein bodies (PBs), which occur naturally as storage organelles in seeds, can be used as such carrier vehicles. Fusion of the N‐terminal sequence of the maize storage protein, gamma zein, to other proteins is sufficient to induce the formation of protein bodies, which can be used to bioencapsulate recombinant proteins directly in the plant production host. In addition, immunostimulatory effects of zein have been reported, which are advantageous for vaccine delivery. However, little is known about the interaction between zein PBs and mammalian cells. To better understand this interaction, fluorescent PBs, resulting from the fusion of the N‐terminal portion of zein to GFP, were produced in N. benthamiana leaves, recovered by a filtration‐based downstream procedure, and used to investigate their internalization efficiency into mammalian cells. We show that fluorescent PBs were efficiently internalized into intestinal epithelial cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) at a higher rate than polystyrene beads of comparable size. Furthermore, we observed that PBs stimulated cytokine secretion by epithelial cells, a characteristic that may confer vaccine adjuvant activities through recruitment of APCs. Taken together, these results support the use of zein fusion proteins in developing novel approaches for drug delivery based on controlled protein packaging into plant PBs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Nicotine is the main alkaloid in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and other tobacco species where it occurs at the concentrations ranging from 2% to 8%; it is synthesized in the tobacco root from ornithine and/or arginine by way of putrescine [1]. This substance naturally occurs at low levels in various plants belonging to the Solanaceae family, such as tomatoes, sweet peppers, potatoes (< 10 µg/kg) and eggplant (< 100 µg/kg) [1][2][3]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a specific and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of the nicotine residues in mushrooms according to SANTE/12682/2019. During the validation process the spiked mushroom samples were extracted using a QuEChERS AOAC method for the extraction (in the alkaline conditions, pH 10-11) and clean-up. The Quick Polar Pesticide Method (QuPPe) was used for the chromatography analyses and quantification, followed by the LC-MS/MS.
... In this study, we investigated the behavioral and pharmacological properties of seven nAChR-activating alkaloids, previously identified to be present in Solanaceous plants [4], to understand their effects on anxiety. Six alkaloidscotinine, anatabine, methylanatabine, anabasine, nornicotine, and metanicotine-were selected due to their chemical similarities with nicotine, a well-established natural alkaloid that can fully activate α4β2 nAChR and regulate memory and anxiety in rodents and humans [2,8,31,61,63,70]. ...
Article
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Alkaloids are a structurally complex group of natural products that have a diverse range of biological activities and significant therapeutic applications. In this study, we examined the acute, anxiolytic-like effects of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-activating alkaloids with reported neuropharmacological effects but whose effects on anxiety are less well understood. Because α4β2 nAChRs can regulate anxiety, we first demonstrated the functional activities of alkaloids on these receptors in vitro. Their effects on anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish were then examined using the zebrafish novel tank test (NTT). The NTT is a relatively high-throughput behavioral paradigm that takes advantage of the natural tendency of fish to dive down when stressed or anxious. We report for the first time that cotinine, anatabine, and methylanatabine may suppress this anxiety-driven zebrafish behavior after a single 20-min treatment. Effective concentrations of these alkaloids were well above the concentrations naturally found in plants and the concentrations needed to induce anxiolytic-like effect by nicotine. These alkaloids showed good receptor interactions at the α4β2 nAChR agonist site as demonstrated by in vitro binding and in silico docking model, although somewhat weaker than that for nicotine. Minimal or no significant effect of other compounds may have been due to low bioavailability of these compounds in the brain, which is supported by the in silico prediction of blood–brain barrier permeability. Taken together, our findings indicate that nicotine, although not risk-free, is the most potent anxiolytic-like alkaloid tested in this study, and other natural alkaloids may regulate anxiety as well.
... The current study was conducted to determine the effect of a 5-day administration of the alkaloids nicotine, cotinine, anatabine, anabasine, harmane, or norharmane on anxiety-like behavior by using the zebrafish novel tank test in order to better understand the potential psychoactive properties of these alkaloids. Nicotine, cotinine, anabasine, and anatabine are nAChR-activating alkaloids, and harmane and norharmane are MAO inhibitors, previously identified to be present in Solanaceous plants (Andersson et al., 2003). Based on prior studies implicating nAChR and MAO in mood regulation, it was hypothesized that the aforementioned alkaloids which target one or the other of these systems may produce anti-anxiety-like effects in laboratory animals. ...
Article
Zebrafish provide a valuable emerging complementary model for neurobehavioral research. They offer a powerful way to screen for the potential therapeutic effects of neuroactive drugs. A variety of behavioral tests for zebrafish have been developed and validated for assessing neurobehavioral function. The novel tank diving test is a straightforward, reproducible way of measuring anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish. When introduced into a novel tank, zebrafish normally dive to the bottom of the tank and then gradually explore the higher levels of the water column as time progresses. Buspirone is an effective anxiolytic drug in humans, which has been found, with acute administration, to reduce this anxiety-like response in zebrafish. The current study used the zebrafish model to evaluate the potential anxiolytic effects of alkaloids, commonly found in Solanaceae plants, with known neuropharmacology relevant to mood regulation. In line with previous findings, acute treatment with anxiolytic positive controls buspirone and the plant alkaloid nicotine reduced the anxiety-like diving response in the zebrafish novel tank diving test. Further, both buspirone and nicotine continued to produce anxiolytic-like effects in zebrafish after 5 days of exposure. In the same treatment paradigm, the effects of five other alkaloids-cotinine, anatabine, anabasine, harmane, and norharmane-were investigated. Cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, also caused anxiolytic-like effects, albeit at a dose higher than the effective dose of nicotine. Nicotine's anxiolytic-like effect was not shared by the other nicotinic alkaloids, anabasine and anatabine, or by the naturally present monoamine oxidase inhibitors harmane and norharmane. We conclude that nicotine uniquely induces anxiolytic-like effects after acute and subchronic treatment in zebrafish. The zebrafish model with the novel tank diving test could be a useful complement to rodent models for screening candidate compounds for anxiolytic effects in nonclinical studies.
... Although some controversies remain regarding the nootropic effect of nicotine on specific memory functions and on individual differences in such effects, the preponderance of evidence from nonclinical animal and human studies supports memory-enhancing effects as a clinically relevant dimension of nicotine psychopharmacology 9 . In contrast, the effects of other alkaloids from the same chemical class in Solanaceae plants, such as cotinine and anatabine, are less well known 23,[31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39] . The main findings for cotinine (the major metabolite of nicotine) include, for example, fear memory extinction, working memory, and sensory gating in rodent models of memory deficit 23,[40][41][42][43][44][45] . ...
Article
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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a critical role in the neuropharmacology of learning and memory. As such, naturally occurring alkaloids that regulate nAChR activity have gained interest for understanding and potentially improving memory function. In this study, we tested the acute effects of three known nicotinic alkaloids, nicotine, cotinine, and anatabine, in suppressing scopolamine-induced memory deficit in rodents by using two classic memory paradigms, Y-maze and novel object recognition (NOR) in mice and rats, respectively. We found that all compounds were able to suppress scopolamine-induced spatial memory deficit in the Y-maze spontaneous alternation paradigm. However, only nicotine was able to suppress the short-term object memory deficit in NOR, despite the higher doses of cotinine and anatabine used to account for their potential differences in nAChR activity. These results indicate that cotinine and anatabine can uniquely regulate short-term spatial memory, while nicotine seems to have more robust and general role in memory regulation in rodents. Thus, nAChR-activating alkaloids may possess distinct procognitive properties in rodents, depending on the memory types examined.
... Anabasine and anatabine are present at 10-100 times higher concentrations in tobacco products compared to refill solutions in e-cigarettes (Lisko et al., 2013(Lisko et al., , 2015. While some foods contain trace levels of anabasine and anatabine, these levels are negligible compared to those found in tobacco (Andersson et al., 2003). Thus, anabasine and anatabine could be considered as specific biomarkers in estimating tobacco use in wastewater, and may be more suitable than nicotine metabolites. ...
Article
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Measurement of population tobacco use via wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) provides objective data to evaluate the efficacy of tobacco control strategies. However, current WBE tobacco-use estimates based on nicotine metabolites (cotinine and hydroxycotinine) can be masked by use of non-tobacco nicotine-containing products. To better understand nicotine and tobacco use, we analysed tobacco-specific biomarkers, anabasine and anatabine, as well as nicotine metabolites, cotinine and hydroxycotinine, in wastewater samples collected for 6 weeks per year over 6 years (2012-2017) from an Australian wastewater treatment plant serving approximately 100,000 people. Population-normalised mass loads were used to estimate tobacco and nicotine use trends and were compared with surveys and taxation statistics. Significant annual declines were observed for anabasine, anatabine, cotinine and hydroxycotinine of −3.0%, −2.7%, −2.4%, and −2.1%, respectively. The results corresponded with the annual declining trends reported from surveys (−5%) and taxation statistics (−4%). Significant annual decreases in the ratios of anabasine to cotinine (−1.2%) and anatabine to cotinine (−1.0%) suggested a relative increase in the use of non-tobacco nicotine products at the same time that tobacco use was declining. Monitoring tobacco use with anabasine and anatabine removed influence from nicotine-containing products, showing larger reductions in this Australian city than via nicotine biomarkers, whilst also demonstrating their suitability for monitoring long-term trends.
... Nicotine is an addictive substance that is typically consumed via cigarettes, 1 the primary commercial source of nicotine worldwide. 2,3 The World Health Organization estimated that tobacco products cause 6 million deaths annually worldwide; frequency of tobacco-related deaths is expected to rise to 8 million per year by 2030. 4 Nicotine sustains and drives cigarette addiction and consumption and its related morbidity and mortality. 5 Nicotine from a cigarette is absorbed from the lungs into the blood stream. ...
Article
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Background and aims Studies assessing the cognitive performance effects of nicotine show inconsistent results and tobacco industry funding has been correlated with study outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the primary literature assessing the cognitive performance effects of nicotine and assessed potential associations between tobacco and pharmaceutical industry affiliation and reported study conclusions. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, and Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2009 and 2016 that: (1) were randomized controlled trials; (2) investigated the effects of nicotine on cognitive performance in a laboratory setting; (3) administered nicotine to healthy adults (18-60 years); and (4) included participants were nonsmokers or minimally deprived smokers (⩽2 hours of abstaining from smoking). Study disclosures and tobacco industry documents were reviewed to determine industry funding. Results Searches yielded 3,771 abstracts; 32 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies investigated the effects of nicotine on attention (n = 22). Nicotine had a non-uniform effect on attention: studies reported positive (41%; n = 9), mixed (41%; n = 9), and no effect (18%; n = 4). The majority of study authors had received prior tobacco industry funding (59%; n = 19), however over half of tobacco-industry funded authors did not report this (53%; n = 10). Conclusions Nicotine does not appear to be associated with consistent cognitive performance effects. Although no association was found between reported outcomes and tobacco or pharmaceutical industry funding, findings likely underestimate the influence of industry funding due to strict inclusion criteria and incomplete data on pharmaceutical industry funding. Clinical trial registration Not applicable
... Hristeva and Nikolov (2006) evaluated nine varieties of N. rustica L. as genetic donors in selection procedures aimed at enhancing the smoking quality of common tobacco, and provided the following data about their chemical characteristics: ash (13.08 -15.87 %), reducing substances (6.77 -15.00 %), soluble carbohydrates (6.13 -14.06 %), total nitrogen (1.51 -2.12 %), total alkaloids (0.78 -2.87 %), nicotine (0.30 -1.44 %), chlorogenic acid (0.43 -0.83 %) and rutin (0.73 -1.31 %). In the last two decades the focus of phytochemical research on tobacco has been on the analysis of biologically active secondary metabolites such as plant volatiles, terpenes, carotenoids, sterols, saponins, phenolics and secondary alkaloids, and the results reveal the clear potential of N. tabacum L. and some other Nicotiana species in this aspect (Andersson, Wennstrom & Gry, 2003;Budzianowski, 2014;Chowański et al., 2016;Jassbi et al., 2017;Kodama, Fujimori & Kato, 1984;Rodgman & Perfetti, 2016;Zhou, Li, Feng & Li, 2013). The distinctive phytochemical profile of Nicotiana species justifies their processing by different extraction techniques (traditional, accelerated, microwave or ultrasound assisted solvent extraction, supercritical extraction with liquefied gasses and subcritical water extraction) (Huie, 2002). ...
Article
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Nicotiana rustica L. (Aztec tobacco) is the only Nicotiana species, except common tobacco (N. tabacum L.), which is cultivated for tabacco products. The leaves of N. rustica, however, accumulate various specialized metabolites of potential interest. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate certain classes of metabolites (by HPLC and GC-MS) in the leaves, the essential oil (EO), concrete and resinoid of N. rustica. Three pentacyclic triterpenes were identified in the leaves (by HPLC): betulin (252.78 µg g-1), betulinic (182.53 µg g-1) and oleanolic (69.44 µg g-1) acids. The dominant free phenolic acids in the leaves (by HPLC) were rosmarinic (4257.38 µg g-1) and chlorogenic (1714.40 µg g-1), and conjugated forms of vanillic (3445.71 µg g-1), sinapic (1963.11 µg g-1), and syringic (1784.96 µg g-1). The major flavonoids in the leaves were luteolin (960.44 µg g-1), apigenin (880.66 µg g-1) and hyperosid (780.72 µg g-1). The GS-MS profiling of the EO identified 19 components and the major ones were phytol (43.68 %), solanone (5.54 %), cis-5-butyl-4-methyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (5.23 %), dihydro-β-ionone (4.25 %), α-ionene (3.54 %),and β-damascenone (3.03 %). The major volatiles in the concrete were isoamyl alcohol (28.82 %), oxynicotine (9.02 %), phytol (7.80 %), 4-mеthyl-1-penthanol (6.33 %), cotinine (5.55 %) and 3-metyl-3-penthanol (4.09 %). Resinoid composition was dominant by nicotine (39.75 %), phytol (11.23 %), eicosane (4.88 %), diethyl phthalate (4.19 %), dibutyl phthalate (3.48 %) and solanone (3.27 %). Concrete and resinoid showed weak antibacterial activity . These results create grounds for considering N. rustica as a source to obtain aroma or other bioproducts.
... 11 20 23 33 36 Nicotiana glauca (NG) also known as tree Tobacco, belongs to Solanaceae family, have been selected in the present study. Similar to other Nicotiana species, which are well-known for the occurrence of pyridine alkaloids primarily anabasine and nicotine, 3 can cause death or act as teratogens when ingested by human or animals. 7 8 13 16 17 28 40 NG is also known for its insecticidal properties and have been widely used as pesticides. ...
Article
Nanotechnology is a newer branch of material science that thrives in the interdisciplinary fields including biomedical, therapeutics, diagnostics etc. Among the metallic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in particular are known for their versatile biological applications in several scientific fields in general and specifically the biomedical field. The current article accounts for an environmentally safe method for AuNPs synthesis using the chloroauric acid and ethanolic leaf extract of Nicotiana glauca (NG), for the first time. Various analytical techniques identified properties of synthesized AuNP to include UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform Infrared Radiation (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for surface morphology. The average diameter of synthesized AuNP was about 100 nm. Antimicrobial activity of AuNPs was investigated on Grampositive ( Staphylococcus aureus ), Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli , Proteus mirabilis, and Shigella flexneri ) and fungi ( Candida albicans ) using well diffusion method. Cytotoxic action on Hela/HepG2 tumor cell lines and normal rat splenic cells were tested through cell viability. Furthermore, Larvicidal toxicity was performed on 4th instar larvae of Culex pipens . NG extract (NGEx) alone exerted significantly lower (6–7 mm) antimicrobial activity than that of NG extract with AuNPs (14–15 mm). Cytotoxicity screening revealed that both preparations were growth inhibitory on both cell lines and splenic cells. For larvicidal properties, the extract and gold nanoparticles (NGExAu) showed larvicidal effect against 4th instar larvae of Culex pipiens . NGExAu was more lethal (LC 50 = 164.4072 ppm; LC 90 = 613.366 ppm) against Cx. pipiens under exposure for 24 h with lesser lethal content com- pared to NGEx of only (LC 50 = 752.865 ppm; LC 90 = 4455.726 ppm).
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In this work, a method for qualification and quantification of nicotine in dry tea and tea infusions with LC–ESI–MS/MS has been developed. Sample preparation is based on QuEChERS. Nicotine-d4 served as internal standard. This simple and fast method leads to recoveries of 95–104 % and good repeatability. Coefficients of variation are 3.7 % for intra-day precision and 4.6 % for inter-day precision. Limit of quantification (5.9 µg kg−1) is below the requested value of 10 µg kg−1. For some samples, it was superior to use a HILIC column compared with the originally used RP-18. Application to real samples (n = 87) showed nicotine concentrations in dry tea from <0.01 to 1.95 mg kg−1. In brewing studies of green teas and black teas, it was confirmed that the extraction of nicotine into tea brews was between 49 and 52 % for a steeping time of 5 min.
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For several decades, Nicotiana glauca has been known for its content of the pyridine alkaloid, anabasine. The toxicological effects of this metabolite have been extensively studied, as opposed to its potential insecticidal activity. The anabasine content of leaves of N. glauca, collected from Malta, was 0.258 ± 0.0042% as determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. In the Pieris rapae larval bioassay, the median effective concentrations of anabasine and the alkaloid extract were 0.572 and 1.202 mg per larva, respectively. The presence of other interfering metabolites may have resulted in this elevated EC 50 for the crude extract. Anabasine is quoted to be a very toxic alkaloid not solely to insects, but also to other animals, and its use in minute concentrations in insect traps may well prove it to be an effective natural insecticide.
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p>This study aimed to investigate the effects of grafting tomato on different tobacco rootstocks on quality factors and nicotine content. The commercial variety (Solanum lycopersicum ‘H2274’) (BIOTECH) of the tomato was used as the scion plant, and six different tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) rootstocks were used: Taşova, Tekel, Muş, Samsun, Dişbudak, Hasankeyf cultivars. Cleft grafting method was used in all plants. Yield of non-grafted and grafted plants grown in open-field conditions was calculated, and there was a significant increase in yield in grafted tomatoes compared to non-grafted tomatoes. There was significantly increased lycopene and β-carotene levels (mg kg-1), especially in ‘Tekel’, ‘Taşova’, ‘Samsun’, and ‘Hasankeyf’ tobacco grafts. There was a statistically significant difference between grafted and non-grafted plants according to 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical retention capacities and total phenol (TP) values. Evaluation of quality determinants including pH values, titratable acidity values (citric acid %), soluble solid content (SSC)(oBrix) , fruit size ratios, showed that tomatoes grafted with ‘Muş’ tobacco rootstock were of higher quality. There was no significant difference between grafted and non-grafted plants according to nicotine analysis of the tobacco-grafted tomatoes, and due to acceptable ranges of nicotin level on tobacco grafted tomato plants were considered to be suitable for consumption. It could be concluded that grafting practices have significantly positive effects on tomato yield and quality. </p
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In Peru and worldwide Aedes aegypti L. is the most important disease-borne vector causing dengue fever and yellow fever. Mosquito control measures include the use of conventional chemical insecticides, biologic control and botanical extracts. With the aim to validate mosquitocidal plants and avoid the seasonal raise of dengue fever in summer months in Trujillo city, leaf organic botanical extracts of ten plants species were evaluated. Bioassays were performed under laboratory and simulated field conditions. Results indicated that Nicotiana tabacum L. “tabaco”, Annona cherimola Mill. “chirimoya”, A. muricata L. “guanábana”, Ricinus communis L. “higuerilla” and Argemone subfusiformis G. B. Ownbey “cardosanto” organic extracts at 10% and 5% concentrations from 24 hours of exposure had a mortality index of 100% against fourth instar larvae and pupae. In contrast, Ricinus communis L. “higuerilla”, Ruta graveolens L. “ruda” Schinus molle L. “molle”, Verbena litoralis “verbena” H.B.K., Chenopodium ambrosioides L. “paico” and Tagetes minuta L. “huacatay” aqueous extracts reached a mortality index of 85%. A similar toxicity relation concerning LC50 was shown in all plant species against larvae and pupae. Leaf inorganic and organic extracts from ten plant species shown pupicide and larvicide control under laboratory and simulated field conditions. A. subfusiformis, N. tabacum, A. muricata, A. cherimola and V. litoralis were more effective than Ch ambrosioides, R. communis, R. graveolens S. molle and T. minuta from 24 hours of exposure.
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has chronic and long term consequences for which there are currently no approved pharmacological treatments. We have previously characterized the chronic neurobehavioral and pathological sequelae of a mouse model of repetitive mild TBI (r-mTBI) to two years post-TBI. Despite the mild nature of the initial insult, secondary injury processes are initiated which involve neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative pathways persisting and progressing for weeks and months post-injury and providing a potential window of opportunity for therapeutic intervention. In this study we examined the efficacy of a novel anti-inflammatory compound, anatabine, in modifying outcome after TBI. Our model of r-mTBI involves a series of 5 mild impacts (midline at 5 m/s, 1mm depth, 200ms dwell time) with an interval of 48 hours. Anatabine treatment was administered starting 30 minutes after injury and delivered continuously through in the water. At 6 months, anatabine treatment improved spatial memory in injured mice. Nine months after TBI, a cohort of mice were euthanized for pathological analysis which revealed reductions in GFAP and IBA1 responses in treated, injured animals. Treatments for the remaining mice were then crossed-over to assess the effects of late treatment administration and effects of treatment termination. 9 months following crossover the remaining mice showed no effect of injury on their spatial memory, and while pathological analysis showed improvements in mice who had received delayed treatment, IBA1 increased in post-crossover placebo r-mTBI mice. These data demonstrate efficacy of both early and late initiation of treatment with anatabine in improving long term behavioral and pathology outcomes after mild TBI. Future studies will characterize the treatment window, the time course of treatment needed, and the dose needed to achieve therapeutic levels of anatabine in humans after injury.
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Establishment of an effective, high-throughput processing system to recover protein from tobacco with no nicotine contamination is essential and vital to the development of value-added, alternative applications for tobacco farmers. We have successfully developed a mechanism capable of processing up to 60 kg of tobacco leaves per hour with phosphate buffer (Na(2)HPO(4)-KH(2)PO(4)) simultaneously added to stabilize the protein as the plant was being disintegrated. The optimal processing parameters were identified, including the ratio of buffer to leaf (BLR) at 4.75 (w/w), buffer pH 7.85, and buffer concentration 0.085 mol/L, achieving a maximum yield of soluble protein at 12.85 mg/g fresh leaf. Acetone at -20 degrees C was the most effective among all methods investigated to remove nicotine from protein; however, it also drastically reduced the recovery rate of protein (63.3%). Ultrafiltration was only able to remove about 50% of the residual nicotine, although the protein recovery rate was high (94.7%). The residual nicotine content inherent in the recovered protein was completely removed by rinsing the protein with 85% phosphoric acid at pH 3.5 for three times with a protein recovery of 94.5%. The pilot-scale operation provides a solid foundation for further scale-up to industrial production of nicotine-free tobacco protein that could bring added value to tobacco for nonsmoking applications.
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The roots of Epipremnum aureum, though not synthesizing nicotine themselves, take up exogenously fed nicotine as a xenobiotic. The alkaloid is subsequently translocated to the leaves, via the xylem path, where it accumulates in the mesophyll up to levels comparable with nicotine-rich Nicotiana species. The Epipremnum plants accept nicotine only up to a distinct level; saturation is reached after about 10 days. All mature, non-senescent leaves accumulate the same amount of nicotine. By different experimental approaches, unequivocal evidence could be provided that root pressure is the 'translocative force' for nicotine transport in E. aureum. Xylem sap exudates, collected from shoot stumps that were connected to an intact root system immersed in nicotine solution were analyzed for nicotine content. Nicotine uptake from the medium by the root and its subsequent transfer into the xylem of the shoot persisted for more than 10h without measurable decline of the transport rate, provided the nicotine concentrations applied were < or =0.05%. In intact plants, where both components of water transport in the xylem--root pressure and transpirative water flow--are in operation, no surplus transport of nicotine from the roots into the leaves took place beyond the level observed in amputated plants. Under the influence of inhibitors of root respiration, nicotine uptake was halted slowly in case of oxygen deprivation and in case of cyanide, or it stopped very rapidly when CCCP, an uncoupler of mitochondrial ATP formation, was applied to the roots. This threshold of toxicity against the xenobiotic was established by dose effect curves for nicotine sensitivity of the roots for root respiration and by transpiration measurements. Leaves, bearing a heavy 'nicotine load', showed symptoms of senescence only after 3-6 weeks, as indicated by a decline in the chlorophyll content, the chl a/b ratio, and the maximal quantum yield efficiency (Fv/Fm), and by an increase in catalase activity. Our results provide insight into the mechanisms of uptake, transport and storage of nicotine as a xenobiotic.
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