Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is the second most frequently demyelinating, autoimmune, and inflammatory Central Nervous System (CNS) disease, and its prevalence varies greatly according to geography and ethnicity.
To determine the prevalence and phenotype of NMOSD at a reference center for demyelinating diseases in Goiás State.
This was a ... [Show full abstract] cross-sectional study, approved under CAAE number 8380.9317.9.0000.5078. All patients fulfilled the 2015 international consensus criteria.
Our study showed NMOSD as 9.37% of all demyelinating diseases registered in. It occurred predominantly in women (81%) and non-white individuals (83.4% had self-declared mixed skin color), and the median age at onset was 48 years. Amerindian ancestry was significantly higher (68.75%) than others. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) alone ≥3 vertebral segments (35%) and optic neuritis (ON) alone (35%) were the most common onset manifestations. The median length of time from disease beginning to study enrollment was 48 months. A relapsing course and moderate disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 3.0-4.0) were most commonly observed. The worst neurological impairments, characterized by EDSS>4.5, occurred more frequently in males (44.5% among men versus 20.5% among women). The majority of the patients had been receiving immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine since the diagnosis of NMSOD: 77% (37) had a good therapeutic response. The prevalent outcome (84%) was permanent disability: 52% became physically handicapped; 54% had permanent visual impairment (25% with bilateral and 75% with unilateral amaurosis) and 30% had sphincter disability (82% with neurogenic bladder and 18% with ostomy).
The estimated prevalence of NMOSD in Goiás is 0.79/per 100,000 inhabitants. The predominant phenotype comprises women, non-whites, onset in the fourth decade of life, relapsing course, and permanent moderate disability. Our study was the first on the epidemiology of NMOSD in Goiás, where NMOSD predominantly correlates with Amerindian ancestry.