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Vegetation and floristic diversity in Gibraltar range and part of washpool national parks, New South Wales

The Washpool/Gibraltar Group of the Central Eastern
Rainforest Reserves of Australia (CERRA) is a World
Heritage-listed area that contains the largest expanse of
coachwood warm temperate rainforest in the world (RACAC
1996; Adam 1994). It also includes one of the largest areas
of un-logged sclerophyll forest in New South Wales, and
signicant sections of wild and scenic rivers supporting
riparian rainforest. Two declared wilderness areas occur
within the study area: Bindery-Mann and Washpool.
This paper presents part of the results of a comprehensive
ora and vegetation survey of Gibraltar Range National Park
and adjoining sections of eastern Washpool National Park.
These areas lie approximately 65 km east of Glen Innes and
90 km west of Grafton (Fig. 1) (29°31’S 152°18’E). This
investigation was commissioned by the Northern Tablelands
Region of the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service in
order to provide baseline information to assist in determining
appropriate land management strategies (Sheringham &
Hunter 2002). In addition to the descriptions of vegetation
communities we have also assessed changes in diversity
attributes between the described assemblages. These diversity
attributes can be used along with the baseline community
information to provide further assess the conservation
value and internal dynamics of the vegetation communities
European landuse history and reservation
Due to the rugged nature of the local terrain, the region was
not accessed by graziers until around 1850. Gibraltar Range
was initially used as a stock route linking the tablelands
to the coast (Wright 1991). Tin and gold were discovered
as early as 1852 leading to an inux of people to the area.
Commercial logging followed, particularly in the Washpool
and Cangai areas up until the 1980s (Adam 1987).
The Gwydir Highway, opened in 1960, runs through the
middle of the study area and provides the main link between
Grafton and Glen Innes. The building of this road was the
catalyst for the establishment of Gibraltar Range as a reserve
in 1963. The original dedication incorporated 14 000 ha for
public recreation administered by the Department of Lands.
In 1967 Gibraltar Range National Park was gazetted and
taken under the management of the newly formed National
Parks and Wildlife Service. Adjoining areas of State Forest
have been added since that time, and presently Gibraltar
Range National Park covers 25 406 ha.
Washpool National Park was gazetted in 1983 as a result of
the enactment of legislation designed to resolve disputes over
the logging of rainforest in New South Wales. All rainforests
on public land in New South Wales were protected as a result
of the Forestry Revocation Act 1983. Washpool National
Park was established following the enactment of the
National Parks Reservation Act 1984. Washpool National
Vegetation and floristic diversity in Gibraltar Range and part of
Washpool National Parks, New South Wales
John T. Hunter1 and Paul Sheringham2
1School of Behavioural, Cognitive and Social Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (;
2Department of Environment & Climate Change, Locked Bag 914, Coffs Harbour, NSW 2450 AUSTRALIA
Abstract: The vegetation of Gibraltar Range National Park and adjoining parts of eastern Washpool National Park,
65 km east of Glen Innes (29° 31’S 152° 18’E) on the eastern escarpment of New South Wales is described. In total
124, 20m x 50m full vascular plant oristic sites were recorded and information from an additional 53 sites was
collated. Thirteen vegetation assemblages are dened based on exible UPGMA analysis of cover-abundance scores
of all vascular plant taxa. Many of the vegetation communities are typical of what is found along the north eastern
escarpment of NSW. Three communities are considered to be rare and two vulnerable. A total of 878 vascular plant
taxa from 138 families were recorded, of which only 21 (2%) were of introduced origin and 81 (9%) were found
to be of conservation signicance. Pattern diversity, species density, species accumulation and average geographic
range size, along with general measures of richness and diversity, were analysed for all communities. Each of the
communities described varied considerably in the diversity attributes measured. Communities with a high number of
shrubs had greater constancy between sites compared to those that contained a high number of closed forest species.
The community from rock outcrops had the largest average geographical range size.
Cunninghamia (2008) 10(3): 439–474
440 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Park is included on the World Heritage list (Gondwana
Rainforests of Australia) and a signicant proportion of the
park is a declared wilderness area. Large areas of State Forest
(Spirabo, Little Spirabo, Curramore, Moogem and Forest
Land State Forests) were added to Washpool National Park in
1999 following the Comprehensive Regional Assessment of
public forests in upper northeast New South Wales. Further
strategic purchases of adjoining private lands consolidated
the park During the 1990s Nymboida and Barool National
Parks, which directly adjoin Gibraltar Range and Washpool
National Parks, were also added to the reserve network.
Climate and weather
The climate of the study area is inuenced by its location on
the edge of the Great Escarpment. Annual rainfall increases
with altitude along the eastern edge (1200–1300 mm) to the
central plateau (>2000 mm) and decreases to the west (Bureau
of Meteorology 1999). Mean annual temperatures range
between 12°–13°C on the central plateau and 17°–18°C on
the eastern escarpment. Mean maximum temperatures are in
the mid thirties on the eastern escarpment edge and the high
twenties on the plateau with a mean minimum temperature of
0°–5°C for the plateau and escarpment. The warmest months
are November to March.
During the early part of the day, tablelands winds dominate;
coastal winds move in during the mid to late afternoon.
Late afternoon thunderstorms accompanied by lightning
strikes, heavy rain and sometimes hail are a frequent event
in summer. Widespread rain of reduced intensity but longer
duration is typical of winter weather patterns.
Much of the study area is of undulating to steep topography
dominated by extensive outcropping and subsurface granite
sheets, boulder elds and nubbins. Three main watercourses
drain the study area (Dandahra, Coombadjah & Grassy
Creeks) frequently following joints and faults within the
underlying granite and often forming waterfalls. The atter
terrain on the central plateau contains areas of impeded
drainage forming large mires on Quaternary alluvium.
The Demon fault forms the western boundary of the study
area. Here the granite plateau drops precipitously into the
Cooraldooral Creek valley. This area forms a dividing line
between the resistant Dandahra Granite and the weathered
metasediments of the Coffs Harbour Association. Boulder
and Boundary Creeks drain north and south respectively
along this major fault line. The altitude within the study area
ranges from 300 m on the lower reaches of Dandahra Creek
to over 1170 metres at Waratah Trig and Summit Mountain.
Earlier botanical explorations
Although botanical exploration took place in the north east
of New South Wales in the early 1900s, detailed exploration
of the Gibraltar Range National Park did not take place
until the early 1960s. At this time, botanist John Williams,
of the University of New England at Armidale, made many
plant collections in the Gibraltar Range and compiled an
unpublished species list of the rainforest and granite species.
Floyd (1990) undertook a detailed inventory of NSW
rainforests using random irregular traverses. Many of these
were undertaken in the current study area. Hunter (1991)
placed belt transects within the reserve in an investigation
into the demography of Brachyloma species. Some
investigations into species biology and re responses have
recently occurred (Caddy & Gross 2006; Croft et al. 2006;
Vaughton & Ramsey 2006; Virgona et al. 2006; Williams &
Clarke 2006).
Though much botanical exploration has been done in the
Gibraltar Range area, particularly within close proximity
to the Gwydir Highway, few detailed systematic vegetation
surveys have been undertaken. During comprehensive
regional surveys in north-eastern New South Wales (NRAC
1995; NPWS 1994; NPWS 1999) over 30 systematic sites
were placed in the Gibraltar Range National Park Hunter
(1999) placed 34 systematic sites to describe the granite
outcrop communities. Hunter & Clarke (1998) subsequently
described nine oristic elements and 28 vegetation
communities on the New England Batholith, two of which
occur in the study area. Williams (1995) and Williams &
Clarke (1997) surveyed the sedge heaths in Gibraltar Range
National Park. More recently Hunter & Bell (2007) surveyed
the sedge heaths (bogs) of the region, including those in the
study area, and described these communities in detail along
with aspects of species composition and richness relating to
climatic and spatial factors.
Many adjoining areas have been systematically sampled for
ora and vegetation and include the state forests of the Glen
Innes Management Area (Binns 1992), the western extensions
to Washpool National Park (Hunter 1998b; 2000b; 2005a),
Nymboida National Park (Benwell 2000) and Mann River
Nature Reserve (Hunter 2004b).
Vegetation survey and community classification
The survey was carried out in a stratied random manner in
order to sample and replicate major environmental changes.
The strata used were a combination of mapped geological,
altitude and broad scale vegetation units (plateau complex,
dry open forest, wet open forest, disturbed remnant and
rainforest). The combination of these elements produced
24 strata; sites were allocated to these strata based on the
number of hectares covered. Additional sites were placed
in specialised communities that were not included in the
a priori sampling strategy or to stratied classes that were
not spatially replicated in the sampling design. 124 x 0.1 ha
full vascular plant oristic sites were surveyed specically
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 441
for this investigation, together with information from an
additional 53 sites; a database of 177 sites.
Good quality voucher material of species that needed
conrmation of identication were lodged at the Coffs
Harbour Herbarium (CFSHB). Nomenclature follows that
of Harden (1993; 2000; 2002) except where more recent
taxonomic changes have been made.
Analysis and data exploration were performed using options
available in the PATN Analysis Package (Belbin 1995a &
b). A scree plot analysis was performed to assess the most
appropriate level of dissimilarity for community denition.
For nal presentation of results all species (including exotics)
and their cover abundance scores were used. Analysis was
performed using the Kulczynski association measure, which
is recommended for ecological applications (Belbin 1995a
& b) along with exible Unweighted Pair Group arithmetic
Averaging (UPGMA) and the default PATN settings.
Rock outcrops were not part of the stratication as these
areas were deemed to have been sufciently surveyed
and described (Hunter & Clarke 1998). Evidence for the
distinctiveness of outcrop assemblages from the surrounding
matrix of the study area is given in Hunter (2002a).
Geographic range size
The mean geographic range size of the component ora
has been calculated for each of the communities dened
to assess their level of endemicity and uniqueness. This
was achieved by creating a matrix of all species from each
community scored according to their occurrence in each of
the 97 ‘ecological regions’ of Australia, as dened by Hnatiuk
(1990). The richness of each within each ‘ecological region’
Fig. 1. Location of the study area.
442 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
was divided by the total species pool size of each community
as captured in survey sites. These scores were then summed
across all the 97 ‘ecological regions’ in order to produce a
score that represented the average occupancy of the ora of
each community across all the ‘ecological regions’. A higher
score indicates that on average the ora of the community
is more widespread, i.e. occupy more ‘ecological regions’
within Australia.
Species diversity patterns
Species diversity is derived from a combination of species
richness, measured as the number of species per sample area
(density) and the evenness of abundances. Aspects of richness
are the most commonly studied, and differences between
their values arise from geographical patterns of speciation,
extinction and re-establishment ability (Hunter 2005d) and
therefore are of importance in designing management plans
for conservation.
Here species density is dened as the number of vascular
plant species predicted to be found within 0.1 ha of sample
area after 1000 randomised iterations of each community
dataset with at least four samples using EstimateS (Colwell
1997). Modelling density in this fashion, within each dened
community, is advantageous as it avoids spatial pseudo-
replication in subsequent between community comparisons
(Hurlbert 1984; Srivastava 1999; Gering & Crist 2002;
Hunter 2005d).
Fig. 2. Summary dendrogram of sites surveyed during this investigation using Kulczynski association and flexible UPGMA fusion strategy.
Communities are defined at a dissociation of 0.8.
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 443
It is of great importance that the method for determining
pattern diversity (spatial turnover within a habitat or
community) matches the aims of the study, as no single
estimator can model all aspects of geographical species
turnover (Heegaard 2004). Many issues arise from currently
used methods for determining turnover particularly as many
measures tend to ignore the magnitude of gains and losses
between sample units, or describe compositional differences
more than differences in species richness (Whittaker 1960,
Koleff et al. 2003). Here the slope of a log-log plot of the
discontinuous Coleman curve (species accumulation curves)
which has been calculated after 1000 randomisations of each
community dataset containing a minimum of four sample
sites using EstimateS (Coleman 1981, Colwell 1997) is used
as a surrogate for pattern diversity. This method was rst
described and used by Hunter (2005d). As each community
has been delineated at the same dissimilarity they are
of at least a minimal and similar oristic independence
(Kulczynski dissimilarity of 0.8.).
A total of 878 vascular plant taxa were recorded from existing
site data and subsequent sampling in the present study
(Appendix 1). Only 21 (2%) taxa recorded were introduced/
exotic. 552 taxa were recorded from the 124 new survey
sites and a further 224 were recorded opportunistically. The
remaining 97 taxa were recorded from previous surveys but
not during this investigation. The recorded taxa represented
450 genera in 138 families. The families with the greatest
Fig. 3. Vegetation map of Gibraltar Range National Park and the southern parts of Washpool National Park.
444 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
number of taxa recorded were Fabaceae (85 taxa), Myrtaceae
(74), Orchidaceae (66), Asteraceae (42), Poaceae (44),
Cyperaceae (33), Proteaceae (27), Rutaceae (25), Ericaceae
(21), Euphorbiaceae (17) and Lauraceae (16). The richest
genera were Eucalyptus (30), Acacia (24), Leptospermum (12),
Hibbertia (11), Solanum (10), Pterostylis (8), Callistemon (8),
Leucopogon (8), Lepidosperma (7), and Cryptocarya (7).
12 plant communities are described (Figure 2) with species
listed in order of decreasing summed cover-abundance
score in each stratum. Species with low cover-abundance
scores were considered to have low constancy and not
included. Introduced taxa are not included. Figure 3 shows a
generalised map of vegetation distribution .
Community 1: Eucalyptus olida (Gibraltar Ash)
Eucalyptus ligustrina (Privet-leaved Stringybark)
Eucalyptus cameronii (Diehard Stringybark) forest and
Habitat: associated with the Dandahra Granite. Found mainly on
exposed to intermediate slopes in a range of topographic positions
including crests and drainage lines, on sandy granitic soils above 900
m. Soils are shallow to skeletal.
Structure: heathy open forest and woodland or shrubland. Upper layer:
4–30 m; 10–40% cover. Upper middle layer: 2–8 m; 10–90% cover.
Lower middle layer: 0.5–4 m; 15–80%; 0.1–2 m. Ground layer to 1 m,
10–90% cover.
Trees: Eucalyptus olida, Eucalyptus ligustrina, Eucalyptus cameronii,
Eucalyptus radiata subsp. sejuncta, Eucalyptus pyrocarpa, Eucalyptus
oreades, Eucalyptus acaciiformis, Eucalyptus dalrympleana subsp.
heptantha, Eucalyptus caliginosa, Eucalyptus williamsiana.
Shrubs: Leptospermum trinervium, Dillwynia phylicoides, Hakea
laevipes subsp. graniticola, Petrophile canescens, Persoonia rufa,
Daviesia umbellulata, Monotoca scoparia, Dampiera stricta, Boronia
algida, Boronia microphylla, Banksia cunninghamii subsp. A,
Patersonia sericea, Leucopogon melaleucoides, Melichrus procumbens,
Grevillea acerata, Pimelea linifolia, Mirbelia speciosa, Comesperma
ericinum, Styphelia triflora, Phyllota phylicoides, Acacia venulosa,
Leptospermum polygalifolium, Acacia barringtonensis, Leucopogon
sp. aff. appressus, Hibbertia riparia, Hibbertia villosa, Conospermum
burgessiorum, Leucopogon microphyllus, Aotus subglauca.
Climbers & trailers: Billardiera scandens, Cassytha glabella,
Cassytha pubescens.
Ground cover: Caustis flexuosa, Platysace ericoides, Bossiaea neo-
anglica, Bossiaea scortechinii, Goodenia rotundifolia, Xanthorrhoea
johnsonii, Entolasia stricta, Patersonia sericea, Gleichenia dicarpa,
Dianella caerulea, Hovea heterophylla, Schoenus melanostachys,
Lindsaea linearis, Trachymene incisa, Lepidosperma laterale,
Gonocarpus teucrioides, Tetrarrhena juncea, Pteridium esculentum,
Poa sieberiana, Lomandra filiformis, Lomandra longifolia.
Variability: along drainage lines Eucalyptus radiata subsp. sejuncta
is often the dominant tree. Eucalyptus cameronii and Eucalyptus olida
are present in most sites, but are replaced by Eucalyptus ligustrina in
more exposed situations with skeletal soils. The understorey species
composition comprises a uniform cover of shrubs in particular
Leptospermum trinervium and Hakea laevipes subsp. graniticola.
Notes: community 1 is the most widespread community throughout
the study area. Closely-related assemblages in which Eucalyptus olida-
Eucalyptus ligustrina-Eucalyptus williamsiana- Eucalyptus cameronii
co- dominate have been recorded from the Timbarra Plateau, Malara
State Forest, Gibraltar Range/Washpool and south to Guy Fawkes River
NP. This association is generally found at high altitude in outcropping
granite areas with skeletal soils.
Conservation status: community 1 is largely restricted to the study
area and is reserved elsewhere within Guy Fawkes River and Nymboida
NPs. Occurrences of related floristic assemblages on the Timbarra
Plateau and north east of Tenterfield (the Desert) are not reserved within
Demon NR or Basket Swamp NP (Hunter et al. 1999; Hunter 2005ab).
It is likely however that the majority of its distribution is contained
within reserves and is relatively extensive; it should be considered
adequately reserved.
Community 2: Eucalyptus olida (Gibraltar Ash)
Eucalyptus pyrocarpa (Large-fruited Blackbutt)
Eucalyptus planchoniana (Needlebark Stringybark)
forest and woodland
Habitat: granite sites on the plateau above 900 m. Usually found on
exposed ridge tops and northerly to westerly slopes on the edge of the
granite plateau on shallow to skeletal soils.
Structure: mostly dry open forest to low open woodland and mallee
shrubland. Upper layer: 4–40 m; 15–50% cover. Middle layer: 1.5–10
m; 5–60% cover. Ground layer; 0.3–4 m; 20–80% cover.
Trees: Eucalyptus olida, Eucalyptus pyrocarpa, Eucalyptus
planchoniana, Eucalyptus cameronii, Eucalyptus codonocarpa,
Eucalyptus caliginosa, Eucalyptus williamsiana, Eucalyptus oreades.
Shrubs: Leptospermum trinervium, Pultenaea tarik, Persoonia rufa,
Acacia obtusifolia, Petrophile canescens, Monotoca scoparia, Banksia
cunninghamii subsp. A, Leucopogon lanceolatus, Lomatia silaifolia,
Amperea xiphoclada, Leucopogon melaleucoides, Boronia algida,
Telopea aspera, Hibbertia villosa, Acacia novaanglica, Hibbertia
riparia, Acacia ulicifolia, Phyllota phylicoides, Hakea laevipes subsp.
graniticola, Boronia microphylla, Grevillea rhizomatosa, Choretrum
candollei, Xanthosia pilosa, Podolobium ilicifolium, Grevillea
acerata, Gompholobium latifolium, Elaeocarpus reticulatus, Dampiera
purpurea, Acacia suaveolens.
Climbers & trailers: Billardiera scandens, Smilax glyciphylla,
Cassytha pubescens, Cassytha glabella.
Ground cover: Platysace ericoides, Caustis flexuosa, Bossiaea
scortechinii, Patersonia sericea, Entolasia stricta, Patersonia
glabrata, Pteridium esculentum, Lepidosperma laterale, Dianella
caerulea, Bossiaea neo-anglica, Xanthorrhoea johnsonii, Gonocarpus
teucrioides, Lomandra longifolia, Lindsaea microphylla, Gonocarpus
tetragynus, Goodenia rotundifolia, Gahnia microstachya, Cryptostylis
subulata, Tetrarrhena juncea.
Variability: structure varies considerably from tall open forests to
mallee woodland. Three overstorey sub-associations are discernible in
the field. Firstly sites in which Eucalyptus olida dominates. Secondly
an association of Eucalyptus planchoniana and Eucalyptus pyrocarpa
with or without Eucalyptus olida and Eucalyptus williamsiana. At high
altitudes on the larger rock massifs mallee woodland merges with the
taller woodlands within this assemblage.
Notes: as with Community 1, this assemblage is largely restricted to the
Gibraltar Plateau on Dandahra Granite. Within Nymboida NP 583 ha
occur along the common boundary with Gibraltar Range NP (Benwell
Conservation status: it is likely that this assemblage is almost entirely
restricted to the study area with minor incursions into Nymboida
National Park. This community should be considered rare and therefore
of importance, however due to its almost complete restriction within
the study region, it should be considered adequately reserved.
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 445
Community 3: Baeckea omissa (Baeckea) Epacris
obtusifolia (Blunt-leaf Heath) Leptospermum arachnoides
(Prickly Tea-tree) Bogs (Sedge Heaths)
Habitat: within areas of impeded drainage at high altitude on granite.
Structure: most commonly low closed heath or sedgeland but
sometimes open woodland with emergent Banksia marginata or more
rarely Eucalyptus dissita or Eucalyptus ligustrina. Shrub/sedge layer
0–2 m; 40–90% cover. Often a sparse ground cover (10%) of Drosera
spatulata, Goodenia bellidifolia and Gonocarpus micranthus.
Trees: rarely emergent Eucalyptus ligustrina, Eucalyptus dissita or
Banksia marginata.
Shrubs: Baeckea omissa, Epacris obtusifolia, Leptospermum
arachnoides, Banksia marginata, Hibbertia rufa, Epacris microphylla,
Boronia polygalifolia, Prostanthera saxicola var. major, Hakea laevipes
subsp. graniticola, Notelaea linearis, Grevillea acanthifolia subsp.
stenomera, Dampiera stricta, Bauera rubioides, Mirbelia speciosa,
Comesperma defoliatum, Brachyloma daphnoides subsp. glabrum.
Climbers & trailers: Cassytha glabella.
Ground cover: Lepidosperma limicola, Lepyrodia scariosa, Drosera
spatulata, Baloskion fimbriatum, Amphipogon strictus, Xyris
operculata, Entolasia stricta, Gonocarpus micranthus, Blandfordia
grandiflora, Goodenia bellidifolia, Drosera binata, Tetrarrhena juncea,
Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus, Logania pusilla, Lindsaea linearis,
Thelionema caespitosum, Rhytidosporum diosmoides, Panicum
paludosum, Lycopodium laterale, Hypericum gramineum, Drosera
peltata, Boronia parviflora, Utricularia dichotoma, Trachymene incisa,
Thelionema grande, Sphaerolobium vimineum, Schoenus turbinatus,
Orthoceras strictum, Lepyrodia anarthria, Hybanthus monopetalus.
Variability: this community has a number of species with high
constance and many that were poorly associated, in particular many of
the shrub taxa are ubiquitous (Hunter & Bell 2007). These communities
are generally isolated, small and of limited distribution in the landscape
and as such, although a number of species will usually be present and
dominant the other associated taxa are likely to be highly variable. The
community as defined here may be separated into indistinct bands of
grass and cyperoid dominated areas along with shrubby patches. This
is primarily driven by depth and duration of water logging which may
vary from year to year (Hunter & Bell 2007). In a very few localities
Sphagnum bogs have developed along small creek lines and may be
only a few metres wide.
Notes: similar associations are restricted to higher altitudes on the
tablelands particularly along the eastern margin of the divide and are
included within Community 8 Baeckea omissa – Epacris obtusifolia/
Lepidosperma limicola – Xyris operculata Hunter & Bell (2007). This
assemblage type is quite unlike other bogs of the Northern New England
(Hunter & Bell 2007). Communities such as these are usually highly
divergent across relatively small distances and as such most occurrences
are unique. This proven by the community scoring the highest pattern
diversity score of all communities measured (Table 1). Hunter and Bell
(2007) have shown that this community is largely restricted to Gibraltar
Range with an outlier on the Malara Plateau to the north.
Conservation status: broadly similar assemblages are known to
be reserved within Warra NP, New England NP, Basket Swamp NP,
Boonoo Boonoo NP, Bald Rock NP, Girraween NP, Demon NR,
Cathedral Rocks NP, Mann River NR, Coolah Tops NP, western
Washpool Western NP, Werrikimbe NP, Capoompeta NP and Butterleaf
NP (Hunter et al. 1999; Hunter 2000; Whinam & Chilcott 2002; Hunter
2004b & c; Hunter 2005a & c; Hunter & Bell 2007). In the narrow
sense however this assemblage type is known from the Demon NR,
Gibraltar Range NP and Carrai NP and SCA (Hunter & Bell 2007).
Benson and Ashby (2000) considered this type of assemblage to be
moderately conserved within the state. Despite the above, areas which
may develop peat are listed as endangered on the under the endangered
ecological community Montane peatlands and swamps of the New
England Tableland, NSW North Coast, Sydney Basin, South East
Corner, South Eastern Highlands and Australian Alps bioregions (17
December 2004) NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act (1995).
Only a few surviving samples of communities containing significant
amounts of Sphagnum are in good condition and it is likely that only a
few hectares of these bogs occur across the whole tablelands (Whinam
& Chilcott 2002; Hunter & Bell 2007).
Community 4: Eucalyptus campanulata (New England
Blackbutt) Eucalyptus cameronii (Die-hard Stringybark)
forest and woodland
Habitat: all sites are located on Dandahra granite, predominantly on
sheltered to intermediate aspects on mid to lower slopes in more exposed
aspects or on upper slopes and ridge tops in sheltered to intermediate
aspects at altitudes of 800–1000 m. This assemblage usually occurs
down slope of communities 1 and 2 but above 7 and 10. Soils are deep
to shallow sand or loam.
Community Mean
range size
Site richness
range (average)
Number of
Area in ha (%
of study area)
Number of
species recorded
Community 1 14.7 0.423 39.1 29–54 (39) 22 6,826 (31) 156
Community 2 15.7 0.454 39.1 30–62 (39) 18 3,042 (14) 153
Community 3 14.9 0.446 20.9 12–26 (20) 7 567 (3) 50
Community 4 18.8 0.514 38.2 23–51 (38) 28 3,064 (14) 229
Community 5 13.7 NA NA 25–32 (29) 2 2 (<0.1) 49
Community 6 16.8 NA NA 20–45 (35) 3 2 (<0.1) 84
Community 7 17.4 NA NA 21–22 (22) 2 27 (0.1) 31
Community 8 22.9 0.765 38.3 28–54 (43) 41,053 (5) 98
Community 9 20.3 0.477 42.6 39–48 (43) 4 1,054 (5) 82
Community 10 14.0 0.621 36.9 30–44 (37) 51,699 (8) 100
Community 11 13.4 0.595 30.4 19–35 (31) 51,058 (5) 79
Community 12 17.8 0.626 33.8 13–57 (29) 51,058 (5) 85
Community 13 17.7 0.440 35.7 25–47 (36) 25 2,373 (11) 164
Table 1. Summary of selected attributes measured for each described community.
446 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Structure: tall open forests to dry open forests. Upper layer: 10–45
m; 25–50% cover. Upper middle layer: 2–20 m; 5–60% cover. Lower
middle layer: 0.5–6 m, 15–80% cover. Ground layer: 0.1–1.5 m, 10–
70% cover.
Trees: Eucalyptus campanulata, Eucalyptus cameronii, Eucalyptus
brunnea, Eucalyptus microcorys, Banksia integrifolia subsp. monticola,
Allocasuarina torulosa, Allocasuarina littoralis, Eucalyptus obliqua,
Eucalyptus olida, Corymbia intermedia, Eucalyptus caliginosa,
Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus notabilis, Eucalyptus oreades,
Lophostemon confertus, Caldcluvia paniculosa.
Shrubs: Acacia nova-anglica, Dampiera purpurea, Leucopogon
lanceolatus, Pultenaea tarik, Lomatia silaifolia, Polyscias
sambucifolius, Acacia obtusifolia, Persoonia rufa, Hakea eriantha,
Amperea xiphoclada, Elaeocarpus reticulatus, Podolobium aestivum,
Choretrum candollei, Monotoca scoparia, Coopernookia chishomii,
Boronia algida, Leucopogon melaleucoides, Leucopogon melaleucoides,
Grevillea rhizomatosa, Trochocarpa laurina, Persoonia adenantha,
Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Hibbertia riparia, Hibbertia aspera, Hakea
salicifolia, Cryptocarya rigida, Hibbertia empetrifolia, Acrotriche
aggregata, Acacia ulicifolia.
Climbers & trailers: Glycine clandestina, Hibbertia dentata,
Billardiera scandens, Hibbertia scandens, Eustrephus latifolius,
Kennedia rubicunda, Hardenbergia violacea, Desmodium varians,
Cissus hypoglauca, Clematis aristata, Clematis glycinoides, Smilax
glyciphylla, Pandorea pandorana, Geitonoplesium cymosum, Rubus
parviflorus, Palmeria scandens, Muehlenbeckia gracillima, Morinda
jasminoides, Desmodium rhytidophyllum, Desmodium gangeticum,
Cissus antarctica.
Ground cover: Calochlaena dubia, Pteridium esculentum, Imperata
cylindrica, Lomandra longifolia, Dianella caerulea, Gonocarpus
teucrioides, Entolasia stricta, Poa sieberiana, Viola betonicifolia,
Viola hederacea, Blechnum cartilagineum, Patersonia glabrata,
Lepidosperma urophorum, Platysace ericoides, Lepidosperma laterale,
Lagenifera gracilis, Corybas aconitiflorus, Bossiaea scortechinii,
Opercularia hispida, Sorghum leiocladum, Patersonia sericea,
Tetrarrhena juncea, Hydrocotyle peduncularis, Goodenia rotundifolia,
Gonocarpus tetragynus, Xanthorrhoea glauca, Sticherus lobatus,
Pomax umbellata, Lomandra confertifolia, Lepidosperma elatius,
Goodenia hederacea, Geranium solanderi, Cyathea australis.
Variability: there are three field definable overstorey floristic sub-
assemblages. The first and most widespread is a tall open forest
dominated by Eucalyptus campanulata, with a tall shrub layer of Acacia
nova-anglica, a dense low shrub layer of Pultenaea sp ‘Gibraltar Range’
and a ground layer of grass and ferns. The second sub-association of
Eucalyptus obliqua with a mesic middle layer of tree ferns and a dense
ground layer of water and bracken fern. The third sub-association is of a
dry open forest dominated by Eucalyptus campanulata with Corymbia
intermedia and Allocasuarina torulosa as a small tree layer, with a
sparse shrub layer and a dense cover of ferns and herbs.
Notes: Eucalyptus campanulata has an almost ten-fold greater cover
than the nearest tree in this grouping. The assemblage is allied to Beadles’
(1981) E. campanulata Alliance that is described as occurring at higher
altitudes from just over the Queensland border to the Barrington Tops
area (McDonald & Whiteman 1979; Binns & Chapman 1993; Binns
1995a & b; Hunter 2004; 2005a & c). All described occurrences are
at altitudes above 900 m. Binns (1995b) considered this association
as possibly the most widespread community in the Tenterfield district
above 900 m on all geological substrates. Clarke et al. (1998) describe
a slightly divergent but very similar community as occurring on a
metasediment pendant at Torrington.
Conservation status: this assemblage is well-represented locally and
across its range. Despite being fairly extensive in the broad sense, as
described here the assemblage is probably fairly restricted and centred
on the escarpment from Guy Fawkes River north to the Timbarra
Plateau. It is well reserved in Nymboida NP (3,530ha) (Benwell 2000),
western areas of Washpool NP (9,363 ha) (Hunter 2005), Mann River
NR (1,834 ha) (Hunter 2004), Guy Fawkes River NP (6,783 ha) (Hunter
& Alexander 1999), Basket Swamp NP (1,059 ha) (Hunter 2004c) and
the present study area (3,064ha).
Community 5: Eucalyptus oreades (Blue Mountains Ash)
Eucalyptus campanulata (New England Blackbutt)
woodland and shrubland
Habitat: restricted to fugitive outcrops particularly in riparian areas.
Structure: upper layer: 8–30 m; 10–30% cover; Upper mid layer: 4–10
m; 5–60% cover. Lower mid layer: 1–4 m; 30–50% cover. Ground
layer: <1 m, 10–30% cover.
Trees: Eucalyptus oreades, Eucalyptus campanulata, Ceratopetalum
apetalum, Banksia integrifolia subsp. monticola.
Shrubs: Leionema dentatum, Pultenaea tarik, Prostanthera caerulea,
Persoonia rufa, Leptospermum novae-angliae, Dillwynia rupestris,
Leptospermum trinervium, Kunzea bracteolata, Hakea salicifolia,
Epacris longiflora, Cassinia aureonitens, Brachyloma saxicola,
Boronia angustisepala, Polyscias sambucifolius, Orites excelsa,
Lomatia silaifolia, Leucopogon lanceolatus, Elaeocarpus reticulatus,
Comesperma ericinum, Callitris monticola, Boronia anethifolia, Bauera
rubioides, Alyxia ruscifolia, Allocasuarina rigida subsp. rigida.
Climbers & trailers: Smilax australis, Billardiera scandens.
Ground cover: Schoenus melanostachys, Lepidosperma urophorum,
Lepidosperma laterale, Pteridium esculentum, Lomandra longifolia,
Gonocarpus teucrioides, Dianella caerulea, Caustis flexuosa,
Trachymene incisa, Thelionema grande, Patersonia sericea, Laxmannia
compacta, Gleichenia dicarpa, Gahnia sieberiana, Entolasia
stricta, Calochlaena dubia, Blechnum cartilagineum, Asplenium
Variability: the two sampled sites vary structurally but are share
many taxa including the overstorey dominants. Eucalyptus oreades is
generally restricted in extent in the study area and is usually associated
with riparian areas on the granitic plateau.
Notes: overstorey associations of Eucalyptus oreades have been
recorded in disjunct occurrences from the Border Ranges NP to
Werrikimbe NP. These other occurrences, however, differ considerably
in understorey floristics compared to those recorded in Community 5.
Conservation status: this is one of the most limited communities
within the reserve. The assemblage should be considered vulnerable
due to its limited occurrence. Its full extent appears to be completely
within the study area, although a somewhat similar grouping of taxa is
known to occur in a limited area on rock outcrops in Basket Swamp NP
(Hunter 2004c).
Community 6: Callicoma serratifolia (Black Wattle) –
Eucalyptus oreades (Blue Mountains Ash) open forest
and shrubland
Habitat: restricted to open granite surfaces or fugitive outcrops in
riparian areas.
Structure: shrubby open forest or shrubland.
Trees: Callicoma serratifolia, Eucalyptus oreades, Ceratopetalum
Shrubs: Leptospermum polygalifolium, Callistemon pallidus,
Callistemon sieberi, Prostanthera caerulea, Hakea salicifolia, Bauera
rubioides, Baeckea omissa, Allocasuarina rigida subsp. rigida, Acacia
venulosa, Prostanthera scutellarioides, Leptospermum trinervium,
Hibbertia rufa, Epacris obtusifolia, Epacris microphylla, Acacia
Climbers & trailers: Billardiera scandens, Cassytha glabella.
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 447
Ground cover: Gleichenia dicarpa, Sticherus lobatus, Schoenus
melanostachys, Tetrarrhena juncea, Pteridium esculentum, Lepyrodia
scariosa, Gonocarpus teucrioides, Entolasia stricta, Drosera spatulata,
Drosera binata, Corybas acontiflorus, Chiloglottis silvestris, Blechnum
Variability: the two sampled sites vary structurally but are share
many taxa including the overstorey dominants. Eucalyptus oreades is
generally restricted in extent in the study area and is usually associated
with shallow soils in riparian areas on the granitic plateau.
Notes: overstorey associations of Eucalyptus oreades have been
recorded in disjunct occurrences from the Border Ranges NP to
Werrikimbe NP. These other occurrences, however, differ considerably
in understorey floristics compared to those recorded here.
Conservation status: this is a very limited community within the
reserve. The assemblage should be considered vulnerable due to its
limited occurrence. Similar diverse shrubby communities area described
for riparian margins on granite in Warra, Basket Swamp and Washpool
(western) NPs (Hunter 1998; Benson and Ashby 2000; Hunter 2004c;
Hunter 2005c).
Community 7: Leptospermum petersonii subsp. petersonii
(Lemon-scented Tea-tree) Phebalium squamulosum
subsp. squamulosum (Phebalium) closed scrub.
Habitat: at high altitude on sedimentary rocks.
Structure: closed scrub. Upper layer: 4–18 m; 70% cover. Middle
layer: to 8 m; 30% cover. Ground layer: <1.5 m, 20–80% cover.
Shrubs: Leptospermum petersonii subsp. petersonii, Phebalium
squamulosum subsp. squamulosum, Banksia integrifolia subsp.
monticola, Alyxia ruscifolia, Leucopogon lanceolatus, Trochocarpa
laurina, Tasmannia insipida, Zieria smithii, Notelaea longifolia,
Acmena smithii.
Climbers & trailers: Pyrrosia rupestris, Hibbertia scandens, Pandorea
pandorana, Cissus hypoglauca, Rubus nebulosus, Rubus moluccanus,
Parsonsia straminea.
Ground cover: Lomandra longifolia, Hydrocotyle peduncularis,
Dianella caerulea, Asplenium flabellifolium, Oplismenus aemulus,
Carex appressa, Galium propinquum, Aneilema acuminatum,
Plectranthus parviflorus, Oplismenus imbecillis, Histiopteris incisa,
Davallia solida var. pyxidata, Asplenium australasicum.
Variability: though varying in structure both sites were floristically
very similar.
Notes: this assemblage is included within Floyd’s (1990) sub-alliance
46 and is described as a closed scrub community characterised by the
occurrence of Leptospermum spp. Notelaea venosa and Prostanthera
spp. Such closed scrubs are described as occurring on high altitude
ridge tops with shallow soils in seasonally dry locations (Floyd 1990)
such as the summit of Wilson’s Peak, Mt Lindesay, Mt Warning and
on high exposed aspects in Washpool NP, including Hayden’s Trig. It
differs from other occurrences of sub alliance 46 at Mt Nothofagus, New
England NP, and Werrikimbe NP, due to the absence of Cryptocarya
nova-anglica and at Mt Hyland, Dorrigo Escarpment by the replacement
of Leptospermum petersonii with Leptospermum polygalifolium. Some
broadly synonymous assemblages at high altitudes dominated by
Leptospermum petersonii have been described within New England
NP and further south within the Kempsey/Wauchope area (Binns &
Chapman 1993).
Conservation status: in the broad sense Community 6 is reserved in
the Border Ranges, Washpool, Gibraltar Range and Mt Warning NPs. In
the strict sense, there appears to be a significant structural and floristic
variation within sub-alliance 46, which requires more detailed study. It
should be considered vulnerable due to its limited extent.
Community 8: Eucalyptus biturbinata (Grey Gum)
Lophostemon confertus (Brush Box) woodland and
Habitat: lower to mid slopes (300–900 m) on the eastern escarpment
on sedimentary soils.
Structure: grassy open forest or woodland. Upper layer: 8–30 m;
10–45% cover. Upper mid layer: 10–15 m, 20–55% cover. Lower mid
layer: 2–6 m; 10–30%. Ground layer: < 2 m; 40–90% cover.
Trees: Eucalyptus biturbinata, Lophostemon confertus, Allocasuarina
torulosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus pyrocarpa, Eucalyptus
microcorys, Eucalyptus fibrosa, Eucalyptus carnea, Eucalyptus
campanulata, Eucalyptus acmenoides.
Shrubs: Ricinocarpos speciosus, Persoonia sericea, Persoonia
oleoides, Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Monotoca scoparia, Maytenus
bilocularis, Lomatia silaifolia, Leucopogon lanceolatus, Indigofera
australis, Clerodendrum tomentosum, Brachyloma daphnoides subsp.
glabrum, Acacia melanoxylon.
Climbers & trailers: Desmodium varians, Rubus parviflorus,
Hibbertia scandens, Hardenbergia violacea, Glycine tabacina, Glycine
clandestina, Eustrephus latifolius, Desmodium rhytidophyllum,
Desmodium brachypodum, Commelina cyanea, Cissus hypoglauca.
Ground cover: Poa sieberiana, Imperata cylindrica, Xanthorrhoea
glauca, Viola betonicifolia, Vernonia cinerea, Senecio prenanthoides,
Pratia purpurascens, Plectranthus parviflorus, Lomandra longifolia,
Helichrysum scorpioides, Goodenia bellidifolia, Entolasia stricta,
Dichondra repens, Dianella caerulea, Cymbopogon refractus,
Cheilanthes sieberi, Arthropodium milleflorum, Wahlenbergia luteola,
Viola hederacea, Veronica calycina, Trachymene incisa, Themeda
triandra, Stackhousia viminea, Senecio quadridentatus, Senecio
lautus, Senecio amygdalifolius, Ranunculus lappaceus, Pteris tremula,
Pteridium esculentum, Pseuderanthemum variabile, Pomax umbellata,
Polygala japonica, Plantago debilis, Pellaea falcata, Panicum simile,
Oxalis exilis, Oplismenus imbecillis, Oplismenus aemulus, Opercularia
hispida, Lomandra multiflora, Lomandra filiformis, Lagenifera gracilis,
Hypericum gramineum, Hydrocotyle peduncularis, Hydrocotyle
laxiflora, Haloragis heterophylla, Gonocarpus teucrioides, Gonocarpus
tetragynus, Geranium solanderi, Euchiton sphaericus, Eragrostis
brownii, Echinopogon caespitosus, Doodia aspera, Dichelachne
micrantha, Capillipedium spicigerum, Botrychium australe, Asplenium
Variability: it is likely that this assemblage was under-sampled.
Lophostemon confertus becomes more dominant in gullies and in other
protected localities.
Notes: this assemblage appears to be broadly related to grassy to
shrubby foothill and escarpment woodlands or forests that occur from
the Queensland border to the Hunter region.
Conservation status: in the broadest terms this community appears
to be represented within reserves across its range and locally is well
represented within the study area and also potentially within Nymboida
NP (10,645 ha) (Benwell 2000), Washpool (western) NP (4,578 ha)
(Hunter 2005), Mann River NR (1,737 ha) (Hunter 2004) and within
Guy Fawkes River NP (2,555 ha) (Hunter & Alexander 1999).
Community 9: Eucalyptus carnea (Thick-leaved
Mahogany) Syncarpia glomulifera (Turpentine)
Corymbia intermedia (Pink Bloodwood) forest and
Habitat: on granite at lower altitudes (300–400 m), upper to lower
slopes on exposed, intermediate and sheltered slopes.
Structure: grassy dry open forest. Upper layer: 18–35 m; 25–45%
cover. Upper mid layer often present: 5–16 m; to 25% cover. Lower mid
layer: 1.5–7 m; 35–55% cover. Ground layer: to 2 m; 70–80% cover.
448 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Trees: Eucalyptus carnea, Syncarpia glomulifera, Corymbia intermedia,
Allocasuarina torulosa, Eucalyptus microcorys, Eucalyptus pyrocarpa,
Eucalyptus planchoniana, Eucalyptus biturbinata, Lophostemon
Shrubs: Leucopogon juniperinus, Dodonaea triquetra, Acacia blakei,
Hibbertia obtusifolia, Persoonia adenantha, Jacksonia scoparia,
Trochocarpa laurina, Pimelea linifolia, Orites excelsa, Dampiera
purpurea, Acrotriche aggregata.
Climbers & trailers: Desmodium rhytidophyllum, Desmodium varians,
Glycine clandestina, Hardenbergia violacea, Pandorea pandorana,
Hibbertia scandens, Geitonoplesium cymosum, Cassytha glabella.
Ground cover: Deyeuxia parviseta, Oplismenus imbecillis, Vernonia
cinerea, Panicum simile, Opercularia hispida, Lepidosperma laterale,
Imperata cylindrica, Pomax umbellata, Lomandra confertifolia,
Lagenifera gracilis, Eragrostis brownii, Entolasia stricta, Dianella
caerulea, Glossogyne tannensis, Digitaria parviflora, Cymbopogon
refractus, Corybas aconitiflorus, Cheilanthes sieberi, Aristida
queenslandica, Pterostylis nutans, Phyllanthus virgatus, Oplismenus
aemulus, Lomandra multiflora, Lomandra filiformis, Lepidosperma
urophorum, Goodenia hederacea, Brunoniella pumilio, Adiantum
Variability: there are a range of overstorey associations that occur
within this assemblage in which either Syncarpia glomulifera,
Eucalyptus carnea and/or Eucalyptus microcorys may dominate.
Conservation status: in the broadest terms this community appears to
be represented within reserves across its range such as at Nymboida NP
[10645 ha] (Benwell 2000), Western Washpool NP [2828 ha] (Hunter
2000) and Guy Fawkes NP (Hunter & Alexander 1999).
Community 10: Eucalyptus campanulata (New England
Blackbutt) Eucalyptus microcorys (Tallowwood) open
Habitat: on sedimentary or acid volcanic rock types from 300–1000+
m. Usually on intermediate to sheltered aspects with deep soils.
Structure: tall open forest. Upper layer: 25–45 m; 30–45% cover.
Upper mid layer: 4–20 m; 15–40% cover. Lower mid layer: 1–8 m;
15–80% cover. Ground layer: <1 m; 10–60% cover.
Trees: Allocasuarina torulosa, Eucalyptus campanulata, Eucalyptus
microcorys, Caldcluvia paniculosa, Lophostemon confertus, Eucalyptus
carnea, Schizomeria ovata, Banksia integrifolia subsp. monticola,
Syncarpia glomulifera, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus obliqua,
Eucalyptus caliginosa.
Shrubs: Trochocarpa laurina, Acacia irrorata, Elaeocarpus reticulatus,
Lomatia silaifolia, Leucopogon lanceolatus, Archirhodomyrtus
beckleri, Zieria smithii, Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Acacia
nova-anglica, Wilkiea huegeliana, Synoum glandulosum, Polyscias
sambucifolius, Pittosporum undulatum, Endiandra sieberi.
Climbers & trailers: Palmeria scandens, Hibbertia dentata, Smilax
glyciphylla, Smilax australis, Cissus hypoglauca, Eustrephus latifolius,
Hibbertia scandens, Rubus nebulosus, Parsonsia induplicata,
Glycine clandestina, Geitonoplesium cymosum, Billardiera scandens,
Streptothamnus moorei, Piper novae-hollandiae, Morinda jasminoides,
Parsonsia velutina, Marsdenia rostrata, Desmodium gangeticum,
Cephalaralia cephalobotrys.
Ground cover: Lomandra longifolia, Calochlaena dubia, Oplismenus
aemulus, Lepidosperma laterale, Dianella caerulea, Blechnum
cartilagineum, Viola hederacea, Lepidosperma elatius, Gonocarpus
oreophilus, Gahnia aspera, Xanthorrhoea glauca, Pteridium
esculentum, Oplismenus imbecillis, Lobelia trigonocaulis, Galium
propinquum, Entolasia stricta, Doodia aspera, Cyperus disjunctus,
Corybas aconitiflorus.
Variability: at higher altitudes Eucalyptus campanulata dominates
in association with Eucalyptus microcorys while at lower altitudes
Eucalyptus carnea may become more prominent along with an
occasional occurrence of Eucalyptus crebra or Eucalyptus tereticornis
particularly along drainage lines.
Notes: this community appears to be intermediate between many
currently described associations with E. campanulata, E. microcorys and
E. saligna as dominants. Differences with other similar communities in
the north-east of New South Wales are the lack of dominant and closed
mesomorphic understorey of rainforest taxa and few or no sclerophyll
species. Communities with similar overstorey components are
described by Young and McDonald (1989) with a patchy distribution
on the McPherson Range along the Queensland/New South Wales
Border near Mount Nothofagus and Mount Ernest. In the survey of
the Demon Nature Reserve a similar forest is described with a more
or less prominent mesomorphic understorey fringing closed forests
(Hunter et al. 1999). Binns (1995c) describes a similar community in
the Casino Management Area. Binns & Chapman (1993) also describe
a somewhat similar community in the Kempsey-Wauchope area.
From these accounts it is likely that similar, if not the same floristic
associations, may occur from as far north as the McPherson Ranges
along the Queensland border along the edge of the escarpment to as
far south as Clouds Creek or possibly to the Wauchope and Kempsey
region. As described here however this assemblage is largely restricted
to the Washpool to northern Guy Fawkes River region. In the strictest
sense, this assemblage appears to be largely centred around the study
region with a few occurrences extending not far north or south.
Conservation status: well reserved locally e.g. Washpool (western) NP
(2,075 ha) (Hunter 2005), Nymboida NP (3,530 ha, possibly a further
6388 ha) (Benwell 2000) and Guy Fawkes NP (northern section; 1,031
ha) (Hunter & Alexander 1999). This assemblage should be considered
adequately reserved.
Community 11: Cryptocarya rigida (Forest Maple)
Synoum glandulosum (Scentless Rosewood) closed forest
Habitat: sediment and acid volcanic rock types above 700 m. Soils are
deep clay loams.
Structure: Emergent layer: 20–50 m; 20–40% cover. Closed forest
layer: 4–25 m; 60–80% cover. Ground cover: < 2 m; 15–20% cover.
Trees: Cryptocarya rigida, Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Synoum
glandulosum, Sloanea woollsii, Orites excelsa, Lophostemon confertus,
Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus microcorys, Eucalyptus campanulata,
Cryptocarya obovata, Caldcluvia paniculosa.
Shrubs: Tasmannia insipida, Trochocarpa laurina.
Climbers & trailers: Parsonsia velutina, Palmeria scandens, Morinda
jasminoides, Cephalaralia cephalobotrys, Tylophora paniculata,
Smilax glyciphylla, Smilax australis, Rubus nebulosus, Piper novae-
hollandiae, Parsonsia induplicata, Pandorea pandorana, Legnephora
moorei, Eustrephus latifolius, Clematis glycinoides, Clematis aristata.
Ground cover: Lomandra spicata, Linospadix monostachya,
Lastreopsis microsora, Blechnum cartilagineum.
Variability: this structurally divergent assemblage commonly straddles
the ecotone between open forest and closed forest at higher altitudes
and thus usually contains a dense closed forest understorey with various
overstorey eucalypt taxa.
Conservation status: similar assemblages are considered adequately
reserved across their range at present.
Community 12: Ceratopetalum apetalum (Coachwood) – Caldcluvia
paniculosa (Soft Corkwood) closed forest
Habitat: on granite usually at high altitudes on lower to mid slopes in
sheltered to intermediate aspects.
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 449
Structure: Upper layer: 15–55 m; 80% cover. Mid layer rarely present:
1–6 m; 70%. Ground cover: < 1m; 20–40% cover.
Trees: Ceratopetalum apetalum, Caldcluvia paniculosa, Sloanea
woollsii, Quintinia sieberi, Orites excelsa, Endiandra sieberi, Endiandra
discolor, Callicoma serratifolia, Cryptocarya meissneriana, Callicoma
serratifolia, Anopterus macleayanus, Acradenia euodiiformis.
Shrubs: Citriobatus pauciflorus, Tasmannia insipida.
Climbers & trailers: Smilax australis, Parsonsia induplicata,
Palmeria scandens, Morinda jasminoides, Tylophora paniculata,
Rubus moluccanus, Pandorea pandorana, Marsdenia rostrata,
Hibbertia scandens, Eustrephus latifolius, Clematis glycinoides, Cissus
hypoglauca, Cephalaralia cephalobotrys.
Ground cover: Microsorum scandens, Lomandra spicata, Lobelia
trigonocaulis, Linospadix monostachya, Histiopteris, incisa, Cyathea
australis, Carex appressa, Asplenium australasicum.
Variability: in general this association would be included within sub
alliance 35 of Floyd (1990) though at some localities the assemblage is
more like sub-alliance 33.
Conservation status: similar assemblages are considered adequately
reserved across their range at present.
Community 13: Kunzea bracteolata (Granite Kunzea)
Leptospermum nova-angliae (New England Tea-tree)
heaths and shrubland
Habitat: restricted to exposed granitic outcrops, particularly on sheet
granite where the community grows within crevices, cracks and shallow
soil islands, but may occasionally occur in a shallow soil skirt around
the margins of outcrops.
Structure: mainly closed heaths although the mallee Eucalyptus
codonocarpa may be present forming shrubby open scrubs (mallee).
Occasionally other trees species occur, such as Eucalyptus campanulata,
Eucalyptus olida, Eucalyptus caliginosa, giving a shrubby low open
woodland structure. In some instances Leptospermum novae-angliae at
its tallest and densest will form closed scrub.
Trees: Eucalyptus codonocarpa, Eucalyptus notabilis, Eucalyptus
ligustrina, Eucalyptus cameronii, Eucalyptus radiata subsp. sejuncta,
Eucalyptus acaciiformis.
Shrubs: Kunzea bracteolata, Leucopogon neoanglicus, Leptospermum
novae-angliae, Boronia anethifolia, Calytrix tetragona, Callistemon
comboynensis, Allocasuarina rigida subsp. rigida, Acacia suaveolens,
Mirbelia confertiflora, Grevillea acerata, Epacris microphylla,
Phebalium squamulosum, Ozothamnus diosmifolius, Dampiera stricta,
Leptospermum trinervium, Acacia brunioides subsp. brunioides,
Mirbelia rubiifolia, Brachyloma saxicola, Pseudanthus pauciflorus
subsp. pauciflorus, Persoonia rufa, Callitris monticola.
Climbers & trailers: Cassytha filiformis, Smilax glyciphylla, Smilax
Ground cover: Lepidosperma laterale, Lepidosperma gunnii,
Trachymene incisa var. incisa, Entolasia stricta, Laxmannia
compacta, Brachyscome stuartii, Lomandra longifolia, Schoenus
melanostachys, Aristida ramosa, Xanthorrhoea glauca, Schoenus
apogon, Platysace ericoides, Lepyrodia scariosa, Austrodanthonia
richardsonii, Gonocarpus teucrioides, Caustis flexuosa, Austrostipa
scabra, Goodenia bellidifolia, Gahnia sieberiana, Bulbostylis densa,
Tetrarrhena juncea, Lepidosperma neesii, Gonocarpus oreophilus,
Cheilanthes sieberi.
Variability: The small population sizes and the harsh environment
afforded by the rock outcrop habitat necessarily means that even adjacent
occurrences are likely to contain very different species assemblages
(Hunter 2000a; Hunter 2002; Hunter 2003a; Hunter 2004a). Although a
few species may be dominant in most situations they may inexplicably
be missing, at least above ground, from nearby sites. Disturbances such
as fire can dramatically change the floristics and structure temporarily
as a suite of short lived disturbance ephemerals establish (Hunter 1995;
Hunter 1998a; Hunter et al. 1998; Hunter 2003b).
Fig. 4. Rarefaction curves for each community with at least four sample sites.
450 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Notes: this grouping includes three of the nine elements of granitic
outcrop vegetation delineated by Hunter and Clarke (1998). Two of
these elements are only sparingly represented within the reserve, with
the majority of the rock outcrop communities within Gibraltar Range
constituting Element 3 of Hunter and Clarke (1998). This element and its
single constituent community are entirely restricted to Gibraltar Range.
This endemic community, though quite divergent, is broadly related to
other outcrop associations that occur along the eastern escarpment of
the New England Batholith from Cathedral Rocks to Boonoo Boonoo
(Hunter and Clarke 1998).
Conservation status: considered adequately reserved and well
represented both locally and across its range, and currently not under
any considerable threat. The assemblage is largely restricted to Gibraltar
Range NP.
Community attributes
Species accumulation varied greatly across communities
(Fig. 4). The highest accumulating curve was achieved
by Community 8 (Eucalyptus biturbinata – Lophostemon
confertus) followed by Community 4 (Eucalyptus
campanulata) and Community 10 (Eucalyptus campanulata
E. microcorys). The least accumulating curve was
Community 3 (Baeckea omissa – Epacris obtusifolia) which
was substantially lower than all others measured, with
second lowest being Community 11 (Cryptocarya rigida
Synoum glandulosum). At the level of four sample sites (0.4
ha) it is expected that Community 3 will contain 41 taxa and
Community 8, 110 taxa. Modelled species density however
was highest within Community 9 (Eucalyptus carnea –
Eucalyptus microcorys) with 42.6 taxa per 0.1 ha (Table 1).
This is in contrast to the Community 3 (Baeckea omissa
Epacris obtusifolia) which contained only 20.9 taxa per 0.1
ha. Spatial turnover within communities (pattern diversity)
was also highly variable with Community 8 (Eucalyptus
biturbinata Lophostemon confertus) having almost twice
as much turnover compared to Community 1 (Eucalyptus
olida – E. ligustrina – E. carnea) and Community 13
(Kunzea bracteolata – Leptospermum novae angliae) (Table
1). Comparatively high turnover was also found within
Community 10 (Eucalyptus campanulata – E. microcorys),
Community 11 (Cryptocarya rigida – Synoum glandulosum)
and Community 12 (Ceratopetalum apetalum– Caldcluvia
Cumulative species occupancy as measured by average
geographic range size was highest in community 13 (Kunzea
bracteolata Leptospermum novae angliae) followed
by community 8 (Eucalyptus biturbinata – Lophostemon
confertus) and community 9 (Eucalyptus carnea
Syncarpia glomulifera Corymbia gummifera) (Table 1).
The lowest average range size was obtained by Community
11 (Cryptocarya rigida Synoum glandulosum) and then
Community 5 (Eucalyptus oreades – E. campanulata) and
Community 10 (Eucalyptus campanulata – E. microcorys)
(Table 1).
Rare and threatened species
81 species of special conservation signicance were recorded
from Gibraltar Range National Park and the southern section
of Washpool National Park (Table 2). Seven taxa are listed
or should be considered for listing on the NSW Threatened
Species Conservation Act 1995, including ve listed as
endangered and two vulnerable (Table 2). 35 species are
listed in Briggs and Leigh (1996) as ‘Rare or Threatened
Australian Plants’ (ROTAPs) or have since been coded and
published by other authors according to ROTAP criteria
(Table 2). A further 40 species are considered to be of regional
or local conservation signicance according to Sheringham
and Westaway (1995) (Table 2).
Significance and conservation issues
The total of 878 taxa recorded within the study area
(Gibraltar Range & southern Washpool NPs) represents a
relatively high species richness and is similar to that found
for other recently surveyed large reserves on the eastern
escarpment (Hunter 1998b; Hunter 2004b; Benwell 2000).
The vegetation reects its placement within the north east
of New South Wales. Many of the major assemblages
along the eastern escarpment of the Northern Tablelands
have distributions that range from just over the border in
Queensland to Barrington in New South Wales. Gibraltar
Range lies almost in the centre of this distribution pattern.
It is not surprising therefore that many of the communities
circumscribed herein, in the strict sense, radiate from the
study area north and south and in the broad sense occur
as far north as the Queensland border and as far south as
Barrington. It is also not surprising that several communities
are apparently endemic to the study area, with few correlates,
even in the broad sense, occurring elsewhere.
Approximately 60% of the woody vegetation in the New
England Bioregion has been cleared (Benson 1999). Half of
the communities described for the study area (Communities
1, 2, 5, 6 and 7) are endemic, or almost exclusively restricted
to, to the area including Community 1 which is the most
widespread of those mapped. Communities 1, 4 and 10
are considered rare, in terms of distributional extent, and
Communities 5 and 7 should be considered as vulnerable, due
to their very limited natural distribution. Despite half of these
assemblages being rare in the landscape, all are considered
to be adequately reserved, as much of their natural extent
is currently within conservation reserves. The remaining
communities are thought to radiate further north and south
from the study area, but with signicant local variation that
is centred, in terms of distribution, within the study area.
81 species of special conservation signicance have been
recorded from Gibraltar Range National Park and southern
section of Washpool National Park representing 10% of the
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 451
Table 2. Summary of rare, threatened and regionally uncommon species. Codes in brackets are suggested but not yet ratified.
Upper North East Codes are those given by Sheringham and Westaway (1995).
Taxon TSC Act Listing RoTAP Code Upper NE NSW Code
1: Eucalyptus dissita Endangered 2RC- -
2: Grevillea mollis Endangered 2ECi -
3. Hibbertia rhynchocalyx [Endangered] [2ECi] -
4: Marsdenia longiloba Endangered 3RC- -
5: Tylophora woollsii Endangered 2E -
6: Cryptostylis hunteriana Vulnerable 3VC- -
7: Grevillea rhizomatosa Vulnerable 2VC-t -
8. Solanum nobile -3VC- -
9: Acacia barringtonensis -3RCa -
10: Acacia beadleana -2VCit -
11: Acacia brunioides subsp. brunioides -3RC- [Disjunct]
12: Acacia cangaiensis -2RC- -
13: Boronia angustisepala -2RCa -
14: Brachyloma saxicola -2RCa -
15: Callitris monticola -3RC- -
16: Chiloglottis sphyrnoides -3KC- -
17: Conospermum burgessiorum -3RCa -
18: Cryptandra lanosiflora -3RCa -
19: Dillwynia rupestris -3RC-t -
20: Dodonaea serratifolia -2RC- -
21: Eucalyptus codonocarpa -3RC- -
22: Eucalyptus olida -2RCa -
23: Grevillea acanthifolia subsp. stenomera -3RC- -
24: Grevillea acerata -2RC-t -
25: Hakea macrorhyncha -[3RC-] -
26: Keraudrenia corollata var. denticulata -3RC- -
27: Kunzea bracteolata -3RC- -
28: Marsdenia liisae -3RC- -
29: Leionema ambiens [Vulnerable] 3RC- [3VC-] -
30: Melaleuca tortifolia -2RC-t -
31: Podolobium aestivum -3RC- -
32: Persoonia rufa -2RCa -
33: Pultenaea pycnocephala -3RCa -
34: Pultenaea sp. B - 2RC-t -
35: Ricinocarpos speciosus -3RCi -
36: Telopea aspera -2RCa -
37: Thelionema grande -3RC -
38: Westringia sericea -3RC- -
39: Hibbertia villosa -3KC- -
40: Plectranthus suaveolens -3KC- -
41: Acacia mitchellii - - Disjunct; Northern Limit
42: Acianthus caudatus - - Regionally Rare; Northern Limit
43: Actinotus gibbonsii - - Regionally Rare
44: Bulbophyllum bracteatum - - Rare in NSW; Southern Limit
45: Caladenia alata - - Regionally Rare
46: Callistemon sp. ‘Big Red’ - - Regionally Rare
47: Callistemon linearis - - Regionally Rare; Disjunct
48: Callitriche muelleri - - Regionally Rare
49: Cassinia aureonitens - - Regionally Rare; Disjunct; Northern Limit
50: Cassinia compacta - - Regionally Rare; Endemic
51: Coopernookia barbata - - Regionally Rare; Northern Limit
52: Correa lawrenciana var. glandulifera - - Regionally Rare
53: Daviesia wyattiana - - Disjunct; Northern Limit
54: Euphrasia collina subsp. paludosa - - Regionally Rare
452 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
total ora, many of which are endemic to the study area.
This number of rare and threatened species is the highest yet
recorded for a single reserve within the Bioregion indicating
the signicance of this conservation area in terms of the
conservation of both regionally and continentally important
Community attributes
Community 3, Baeckea omissa- Epacris obtusifolia Bog, has
the lowest modelled species density (per 0.1 ha), a low pattern
diversity (species turnover) and the component ora has on
average low range sizes. In other words this community has
comparatively few species but most of them have a generally
strong constance between sample sites and a relatively
narrow range distribution (Table 1). The taxa of Community
3 are more highly restricted to their habitat, which may not
be surprising as this is a community restricted to wetlands at
high altitudes, a situation that is poorly-represented across
Australia as a whole (Hunter & Bell 2007). The highest
turnover was observed within Community 8, Eucalyptus
biturbinata- Lophostemon confertus forest, which also had
a comparatively high species density (Table 1). There is
generally poor constancy between sample sites within this
assemblage; many new taxa are found in each additional
site. The ora of Community 8 had the highest general range
In general the higher turnover was found within Communities
10, 11 and 12. All three of these assemblages share a
prominent closed forest component; this is also partially true
for Community 8 (Table 1). In contrast the lower pattern
diversity scores were found within Communities 1, 2 and
3 all of which share a prominent shrub component. This
may imply that closed forest species are locally clumped
in distribution and poorly shared between sites, whereas
shrubby species have a more general dispersion, and locally
will be found within many sites. These proposals would,
however, require further investigation.
The ora of Community 11 had the lowest average geographic
range sizes in the study area; its component ora was the
most restricted in terms of Australian distribution. Restriction
may be caused by a number of factors that may occur
independently or together within an assemblage. Reasons
for such general low broader distribution or restriction may
include: the component taxa have poor dispersal abilities,
there may be high numbers of endemic taxa, the taxa have
restrictive requirements or that many taxa may be refugial.
The ora of Community 13 had one of the highest average
geographic range sizes. Surprisingly, this same assemblage,
when compared with other rock outcrop communities,
had one of the lowest range size scores (Hunter 2003a)
but a high score for taxa restricted to the habitat (Hunter
2002). Larger geographic range sizes have been linked
55: Desmodium giganticum - - Regionally Rare; Southern Limit
56: Gahnia microstachya - - Regionally Rare; Disjunct; Northern Limit
57: Genoplesium bishopii - - Endemic
58: Gompholobium inconspicuum - - Regionally Rare; Disjunct; Northern Limit
59: Gompholobium pinnatum - - Disjunct; Northern Limit
60: Hibbertia rufa - - Regionally Rare; Northern Limit
61: Kunzea opposita - - Regionally Rare
62: Lasiopetalum ferrugineum var. cordatum - - Regionally Rare
63: Leionema dentatum - - Disjunct; Northern Limit
64: Lepidosperma neesii - - Disjunct; Northern Limit
65: Myriophyllum pedunculatum ssp.
pedunculatum - - Regionally Rare; Northern Limit
66: Nertera granadensis - - Regionally Rare; Disjunct; Northern Limit
67: Patersonia fragilis - - Disjunct
68: Pelargonium inodorum - - Regionally Rare
69: Pomaderris intermedia - - Regionally Rare; Northern Limit
70: Pomaderris ledifolia - - Regionally Rare; Northern Limit
71: Prostanthera howelliae - - Regionally Rare; Disjunct; Northern Limit
72.: Prostanthera saxicola var. major - - Regionally Rare; Disjunct
73: Pseudanthus pimeleoides - - Regionally Rare
74: Pterostylis daintreana - - Regionally Rare
75: Pultenaea linophylla - - Regionally Rare
76: Pultenaea petiolaris - - Disjunct
77: Sphaerolobium minus - - Regionally Uncommon
78: Sprengelia incarnata - - Regionally Rare; Northern Limit
79. Telfordia whitei - - Regionally Rare
80: Thelymitra cyanea - - Regionally Rare; Northern Limit
81: Tricostularia pauciflora - - Regionally Rare; Disjunct; Northern Limit
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 453
to increasing available energy (light and heat) inputs and
larger available habitats (Kelly 1996; Hunter 2003a; Hunter
2005b). Rock outcrops are very exposed environments
and may be considered to have higher levels of available
energy than other systems in the study area. The other two
assemblages with high average geographic ranges were from
Communities 8 and 9 (Table 1). Both these assemblages are
generally restricted to lower altitudes and have potentially
higher energy inputs from heat. However on this regional
scale, differences in the average range sizes are likely to be
due to a multitude of factors which would need much more
intensive investigation.
The authors would like to thank the staff of the Glen Innes
East Area of the Northern Tablelands Region of the National
Parks and Wildlife Service, in particular Damien Hoffmeyer,
Peter Croft, Kate Harrison and Steve Toms. Thanks to
Stephanie Doelwes, Kate Harrison and Peter Croft for
assistance with eld work. Thanks also to Alex Floyd, Barry
Kemp and John Williams for identifying many difcult plant
specimens. Lachlan Copeland provided helpful comments
on the signicant plant section and draft species list. Thanks
to Sonia Diepeeveen and Karen Martin for entering a large
proportion of the oristic site data. Vanessa Hunter aided
in data compilation and Peter Richards provided useful
comments on the draft of this manuscript.
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Wales. BSc Hons. Department of Botany, University of New
England, Armidale.
Williams, P.R. & Clarke, P.J. (1997) Habitat segregations by
serotinous shrubs in heaths: post-re emergence and seedling
survival. Australian Journal of Botany 45: 31–39.
Williams, P.R. & Clarke, P.J. (2006). Fire history and soil gradients
generate oristic patterns in montane sedgelands and wet heaths
of Gibraltar Range National Park. Proceedings of the Linnean
Society of New South Wales. 23: 27–38.
Young, P.A.R. & McDonald, T.J. (1989) Vegetation Map and
Description of Warwick South-Eastern Queensland. Queensland
Botany Bulletin No. 8. (Department of Primary Industries:
Manuscript accepted 3 March 2008
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 455
Appendix 1 Vascular plant taxa recorded for plant communities in Gibraltar Range and Washpool Na-
tional Parks
Nomenclature follows that of Harden (1990–1993) except where recent changes have occurred (PlantNET 2006). * Indicates
exotic species. Taxa found within the survey sites are scored according to their presence in each of the 13 communities dened.
Some taxa were found in previous surveys or opportunistically and therefore are not assigned to a specic community. Some
orchids may be identied in a broad taxonomic sense (sens. lat.).
Community 1 = Eucalyptus olida – Eucalyptus ligustrina – Eucalyptus cameronii,
Community 2 = Eucalyptus olida – Eucalyptus pyrocarpa – Eucalyptus planchoniana,
Community 3 = Baeckea omissa – Epacris obtusifolia,
Community 4 = Eucalyptus campanulata,
Community 5 = Eucalyptus oreades – Eucalyptus campanulata,
Community 6 = Callicoma serratifolia – Eucalyptus oreades,
Community 7 = Leptospermum petersonii – Phebalium squamulosum,
Community 8 = Eucalyptus biturbinata – Lophostemon confertus,
Community 9 = Eucalyptus carnea – Syncarpia glomulifera – Corymbia gummifera,
Community10 = Eucalyptus campanulata – Eucalyptus microcorys,
Community 11 = Cryptocarya rigida – Synoum glandulosum,
Community 12 = Ceratopetalum apetalum – Caldcluvia paniculosa
Community 13 = Kunzea bracteolata – Leptospermum novae-angliae.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 O
Brunoniella pumilio 9
Adiantum aethiopicum 411
Adiantum formosum O
Adiantum hispidulum 1 6 9
Adiantum silvaticum O
Adiantum solensia 2
Cheilanthes distans O
Cheilanthes sieberi subsp. sieberi 1 4 8913
Pellaea falcata 811 12
Pellaea nana O
Agavaceae O
Cordyline stricta O
Alangium villosum subsp. polyosmoides 11
Euroschinus falcata var. falcata O
Rauwenhoffia leichhardtii O
Arthropodium milleflorum 8
Dichonopogon fimbriatus O
Laxmannia compacta 12513
Laxmannia gracilis 13
Thysanotus tuberosus subsp. tuberosus 124
456 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Actinotus gibbonsii O
Actinotus helianthi O
Daucus glochidiatus O
Centella asiatica 4
Hydrocotyle geraniifolia 12
Hydrocotyle laxiflora 8
Hydrocotyle pedicellosa 10 12
Hydrocotyle peduncularis 4710
Platysace ericoides 1248 13
Platysace lanceolata O
Trachymene incisa subsp. incisa 134 5 6 8 13
Xanthosia pilosa 124 6 8
Alyxia ruscifolia 57 12
Parsonsia fulva O
Parsonsia induplicata 10 11 12
Parsonsia purpurascens O
Parsonsia rotata O
Parsonsia straminea 7
Parsonsia velutina 10 11
Alocasia brisbanensis O
Cordyline rubra O
Cordyline stricta O
Gymnostachys anceps 4 10 12
Astrotricha latifolia O
Cephalaralia cephalobotrys 10 11 12
Polyscias elegans 10 11
Polyscias murrayi 11
Polyscias sambucifolia 4 5 10
Archontophoenix cunninghamiana 10 11
Linospadix monostachya 11 12
Asclepias curavassica* O
Gomphocarpus fruiticosus* O
Hoya australis ssp. australis O
Marsdenia flavescens
Marsdenia jasminoides 412
Marsdenia liisae
Marsdenia longiloba
Marsdenia rostrata 10 12
Tylophora grandiflora
Tylophora paniculata 11 12
Tylophora woollsii
Asphodelaceae O
Bulbine vagans
Arachniodes aristata 10 11
Asplenium attenuatum O
Asplenium australasicum 710 11 12
Asplenium flaccidum subsp. flaccidum O
Asplenium flavellifolium 24 5 7 8
Asplenium polyodon 11
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 457
Cordyline petiolaris 11 12
Cordyline rubra O
Cordyline stricta O
Arrhenechthites mixta 4
Bidens pilosa* 8
Brachyscome stuartii 613
Cassinia aureonitens 5
Cassinia compacta O
Centratherum punctatum ssp. australianum O
Chrysocephalum apiculatum 4
Cirsium vulgare* O
Conyza bonariensis* O
Euchiton gymnocephalus
Euchiton involucratus O
Euchiton sphaericus 13
Glossogyne tannensis 9
Helichrysum elatum 4 10 13
Helichrysum rutidolepis O
Helichrysum scorpioides 489
Hypochaeris radicata* 4 6 8913
Lagenifera gracilis 1 4 89
Lagenifera stipitata 4
Olearia elliptica O
Olearia gravis O
Olearia microphylla O
Olearia nernstii 4 9
Olearia oppositifolia 1 4
Olearia ramosissima O
Ozothamnus diosmifolius 2413
Ozothamnus ferrugineus O
Podolepis jaceoides O
Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum O
Senecio amygdalifolius 89
Senecio bipinnatisectus O
Senecio madagascariensis* O
Senecio minimus O
Senecio prenanthoides 8
Senecio quadridentatus 8
Senecio tenuiflorus O
Senecio vagus O
Sigesbeckia orientalis subsp. orientalis 48
Solenogyne bellioides 13
Sonchus oleraceus* O
Taraxacum afficinale* 13
Telfordia whitei O
Vernonia cinerea var. cinerea 489
Diplazium australe O
Diplazium dilatatum O
Bauera rubioides var. rubioides 135 6
Pandorea pandorana 47911 12
Blechnum cartilagineum 24 5 6 10 11 12 13
Blechnum nudum 412
458 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Blechnum patersonii subsp.
queenslandicum O
Blechnum wattsii 612
Doodia aspera 810
Doodia caudata O
Austrocynoglossum latifolium O
Ehretia acuminata var. acuminata O
Callitriche muelleri O
Wahlenbergia littoricola
Wahlenbergia luteola 8
Wahlenbergia stricta subsp. alterna 4
Wahlenbergia stricta subsp. stricta 1 4
Allocasuarina littoralis 1 4 13
Allocasuarina rigida subsp. rigida 1 5 6 13
Allocasuarina torulosa 489 10 11
Cassine australis var. australis 10 12
Celastrus subspicata O
Denhamia celastroides 10
Denhamia pittosporoides O
Maytenus bilocularis 8
Maytenus silvestris O
Centrolepidaceae 1
Centrolepis strigosa 1
Einadia polygonoides O
Hypericum gramineum 134 6 8913
Aneilema acuminatum 7
Commelina cyanea 8
Pollia crispata O
Dichondra repens 48
Crassula sieberiana 4
Zehneria cunninghamii O
Aphanopetalum resinosum 12
Caldcluvia paniculosa 4 10 11 12
Callicoma serratifolia 611 12
Ceratopetalum apetalum 5 6 11 12
Schizomeria ovata 10 11 12
Callitris monticola 12513
Cyathea australis 4 10 11 12
Cyathea cooperi O
Cyathea leichhardtiana O
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 459
Baumea nuda O
Baumea rubiginosa O
Bulbostylis densa 13
Carex appressa 47 12
Carex gaudichaudiana O
Carex inversa 9
Caustis flexuosa 1258 13
Cyperus disjunctus 10 12
Cyperus tetraphyllus O
Cyperus polystachyos O
Cyperus sanguinolentus O
Cyperus sphaeroideus O
Fimbristylis dichotoma 13
Gahnia aspera 10
Gahnia clarkei 26
Gahnia melanocarpa O
Gahnia microstachya 2
Gahnia sieberiana 25 6 10 12 13
Gahnia subequiglumis
Gymnoschoenus sphaerocephalus 3
Isolepis fluitans
Lepidosperma elatius 24 10
Lepidosperma filiforme 24
Lepidosperma gunnii 2 13
Lepidosperma laterale 124 5 6 9 10 13
Lepidosperma limicola 3
Lepidosperma neesii 2 13
Lepidosperma tortuosum 12
Lepidosperma urophorum 24 5 9
Ptilothrix deusta O
Schoenus apogon 13
Schoenus brevifolius 8
Schoenus ericetorum 1
Schoenus melanostachys 124 5 6 13
Schoenus nitens 6
Schoenus turbinatus 2 3 13
Scleria mackaviensis O
Tricostularia pauciflora O
Arthropteris beckleri O
Arthropteris tenella 12
Davallia solida var. pyxidata 247 13
Calochlaena dubia 24 5 810 11 13
Histiopteris incisa 7 12
Hypolepis glandulifera 11
Pteridium esculentum 124 5 6 810 13
Calochlaena dubia O
Dicksonia antarctica O
Hibbertia acicularis 1
Hibbertia aspera subsp. pilosifolia 4
Hibbertia dentata 4 10
Hibbertia empetrifolia subsp. empetrifolia 24
Hibbertia obtusifolia 4 9
Hibbertia rhynocalyx 4
460 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Hibbertia riparia 124
Hibbertia rufa 36
Hibbertia scandens 4789 10 12
Hibbertia serpyllifolia 13
Hibbertia villosa 12 13
Dioscorea transversa O
Drosera auriculata O
Drosera binata 36
Drosera peltata 2 3 13
Drosera spatulata 2 3 613
Arachnioides aristata O
Lastreopsis acuminata O
Lastreopsis decomposita O
Lastreopsis microsora 11 12
Polystichum fallax O
Diospyros australis O
Diospyros pentamera 11
Aristotelia australasica O
Elaeocarpus grandis O
Elaeocarpus kirtonii O
Elaeocarpus reticulatus 24 5 10
Sloanea australis 12
Sloanea woollsii 11 12
Acrotriche aggregata 4 9
Brachyloma daphnoides subsp. glabrum 13 8
Brachyloma saxicola 5 6 13
Epacris longiflora 12513
Epacris microphylla 12 3 613
Epacris obtusifolia 3613
Epacris pulchella 1
Leucopogon biflorus O
Leucopogon juniperinus 9
Leucopogon lanceolatus var. lanceolatus 124 5 7 8 10 13
Leucopogon leptospermoides O
Leucopogon melaleucoides 12413
Leucopogon microphyllus var. pilibundus 113
Leucopogon neoanglicus 12 13
Leucopogon sp. aff. appressus 12
Leucopogon virgatus 2
Lissanthe strigosa subsp. subulata 2
Melichrus procumbens 12413
Melichrus urceolatus O
Monotoca scoparia 1248 13
Sprengelia incarnata 4
Styphelia triflora 12 13
Styphelia viridis O
Trochocarpa laurina 479 10 11
Anopterus macleayana 11 12
Cuttsia viburnea O
Polyosma cunninghamii 12
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 461
Polyosma cunninghamii 11
Quintinia sieberi 10 11 12
Quintinia verdonii O
Amperea xiphoclada var. xiphoclada 124 6 8
Baloghia inophylla O
Breynia cernua 411
Claoxylon australe O
Cleistanthus cunninghamii O
Drypetes australasica O
Glochidion ferdinandi O
Mallotus philippensis O
Micrantheum hexandrum O
Omolanthus populifolius 11
Phyllanthus gunnii O
Phyllanthus hirtellus 24 6 13
Phyllanthus similis 4
Phyllanthus virgatus 9
Poranthera microphylla 4
Pseudanthus pauciflorus subsp. pauciflorus 2 13
Ricinocarpos speciosus 89
Eupomatia laurina 11
Acacia baeuerlenii 1
Acacia barringtonensis 123413
Acacia beadleana 13
Acacia blakei subsp. diphylla 9
Acacia brunioides subsp. brunioides 13
Acacia brunioides subsp. granitica 1
Acacia cangaiensis 4
Acacia falciformis 124 10 13
Acacia filicifolia 124 6
Acacia fimbriata O
Acacia floribunda 4 6 10 12
Acacia hispidula 2
Acacia irrorata 4 6 10 12
Acacia maidenii O
Acacia melanoxylon 8
Acacia mitchellii 12
Acacia myrtifolia 4
Acacia neriifolia O
Acacia nova-anglica O
Acacia obtusifolia 124 6 8 13
Acacia rubida O
Acacia stricta 1 6
Acacia suaveolens 12 13
Acacia terminalis 8
Acacia torulosa 4
Acacia ulicifolia 1248 13
Acacia venulosa 12613
Acacia viscidula 13
Aotus subglauca var. filiformis O
Aotus subglauca var. subglauca 12
Austrosteenisia blackii 11
Austrosteenisia glabristyla O
Bossiaea buxifolia O
Bossiaea neo-anglica 1248 13
Bossiaea prostrata 8
462 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Bossiaea rhombifolia O
Bossiaea scortechinii 124 6
Chamaecrista nomame var. nomame 12
Crotalaria montana var. montana 9
Daviesia acicularis 1
Daviesia genistifolia O
Daviesia latifolia O
Daviesia nova-anglica O
Daviesia umbellulata 12 8
Daviesia villifera
Daviesia wyattiana 2
Derris involuta O
Desmodium brachypodum 8
Desmodium gangeticum 4 10
Desmodium heterocarpon var.
heterocarpon O
Desmodium rhytidophyllum 489
Desmodium varians 489
Dillwynia phylicoides 12413
Dillwynia rupestris 25
Dillwynia sericea O
Dillwynia sieberi 13
Glycine clandestina 489 10
Glycine cyrtoloba O
Glycine microphylla O
Glycine tabacina 8
Gompholobium huegelii O
Gompholobium inconspicuum O
Gompholobium latifolium 1248
Gompholobium pinnatum O
Goodia lotifolia subsp. lotifolia 4
Hardenbergia violacea 2489
Hovea heterophylla 12
Hovea lanceolata 13
Hovea pedunculata 12613
Indigofera australis 8
Indigofera hirsuta O
Jacksonia scoparia 4 9
Kennedia prostrata 8
Kennedia rubicunda 24
Lespedeza juncea subsp. sericea O
Mirbelia confertiflora 12 13
Mirbelia pungens 13
Mirbelia rubiifolia 12613
Mirbelia speciosa subsp. speciosa 12 3 13
Oxylobium arborescens 1 4
Phyllota phylicoides 12 13
Podolobium aestivum 4
Podolobium ilicifolium 24
Pultenaea daphnoides O
Pultenaea linophylla 124 6
Pultenaea petiolaris O
Pultenaea pycnocephala 12
Pultenaea retusa 13
Pultenaea tarik 124 5 6 10 13
Sphaerolobium minus O
Sphaerolobium vimineum 12 3
Swainsona brachycarpa O
Swainsona galegifolia O
Zornia dyctiocarpa subsp. dyctiocarpa 9
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 463
Berberidopsis beckleri 11 12
Streptothamnus moorei 10
Centaurium erythraea* O
Geranium neglectum O
Geranium retrorsum O
Geranium solanderi var. solanderi 4 6 8
Pelargonium inodorum O
Fieldia australis 12
Gleichenia dicarpa 125 6
Gleichenia microphylla O
Gleichenia rupestris O
Sticherus lobatus 4 6 10
Coopernookia barbata
Coopernookia chisholmii 4
Dampiera purpurea 124 9 10
Dampiera stricta 1234 6 8 13
Goodenia bellidifolia 1234 6 8 13
Goodenia gracilis O
Goodenia hederacea subsp. hederacea 4 9 13
Goodenia heterophylla subsp. eglandulosa
Goodenia ovata O
Goodenia rotundifolia 124
Velleia spathulata
Grammitis billardieri
Grammitis stenophylla 6
Haemodorum planifolium 13
Gonocarpus micranthus subsp.
ramosissimus 3613
Gonocarpus oreophilus 6 10 12 13
Gonocarpus tetragynus 1248
Gonocarpus teucrioides 124 5 6 8 13
Haloragis aspera O
Haloragis heterophylla O
Myriophyllum pedunculatum 6
Cephalomanes caudatum O
Crepidomanes venosum O
Hymenophyllum cupressiforme O
Polyphlebium venosum 6
Hypoxis hygrometrica O
Citronella moorei 12
Pennantia cunninghamii O
Patersonia fragilis 6
Patersonia glabrata 1248 13
464 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Patersonia sericea 124 5 13
Juncus bufonius* O
Juncus continuus O
Juncus pauciflorus O
Juncus remotiflorus O
Juncus subsecundus O
Luzula flaccida 13
Ajuga australis
Plectranthus graveolens 913
Plectranthus parviflorus 47 8
Plectranthus suaveolens
Prostanthera caerulea 1 5 6 10
Prostanthera howelliae 124
Prostanthera microphylla 4
Prostanthera ovalifolia O
Prostanthera nivea 9
Prostanthera saxicola 13 13
Prostanthera scutellarioides 1 6 13
Teucrium corymbosum O
Westringia sericea O
Beilschmiedia elliptica O
Cassytha filiformis 13
Cassytha glabella 1234 6 9
Cassytha pubescens 12 13
Cinnamomum oliveri O
Cinnamomum virens O
Cryptocarya erythraxylon O
Cryptocarya foveolata O
Cryptocarya glaucescens O
Cryptocarya meissneriana 10 11 12
Cryptocarya microneura O
Cryptocarya obovata 11
Cryptocarya rigida 4 10 11 O
Endiandra crassiflora 12
Endiandra discolor 12
Endiandra muelleri O
Endiandra sieberi 10 12
Litsea australis O
Litsea reticulata O
Neolitsea australiensis 11
Neolitsea dealbata 11 12
Lentibulariaceae 3
Utricularia dichotoma 3
Blandfordia grandiflora 34
Schelhammera undulata O
Lindsaea linearis 1234 6 13
Lindsaea microphylla 124
Isotoma axillaris O
Lobelia gibbosa O
Lobelia trigonocaulis 4 10 11 12
Pratia purpurascens 4810
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 465
Logania albiflora 4
Logania pusilla 1234
Mitrasacme palludosa O
Lomandra confertifolia subsp. pallida 4 10
Lomandra elongata O
Lomandra filiformis subsp. filiformis 12489 10 13
Lomandra longifolia 124 5 6 789 10 12 13
Lomandra multiflora subsp. multiflora 12489
Lomandra spicata 411 12
Amyema bifurcatum var. bifurcatum O
Amyema congener 8
Amylotheca dictyophleba O
Muellerina celastroides 8
Eustrephus latifolius 4810 11 12
Geitonoplesium cymosum 4 9 10
Lycopodiella lateralis 36
Lycopodium deuterodensum 12
Lythrum hyssopifolia O
Hibiscus splendens 9
Sida rhombifolia* O
Dysoxylum fraserianum O
Dysoxylum rufum O
Melia azederach var. azederach O
Synoum glandulosum 4 10 11
Toona ciliata O
Legnephora moorei 11
Sarcopetalum harveyanum O
Stephania japonica var. discolor O
Daphnandra apetala O
Daphnandra micrantha
Doryphora sassafras O
Hedycarya angustifolia O
Palmeria scandens 4 10 11 12
Wilkiea austroqueenslandica 11
Wilkiea huegeliana 10
Ficus coronata
Ficus rubiginosa forma rubiginosa 9
Maclura cochinchinensis O
Malaisia scandens subsp. scandens O
Streblus brunonianus
Myoporaceae O
Eremophila debilis O
Embelia australiana
466 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Myrsine richmondensis 10
Myrsine variabilis 4
Acmena smithii 7 12
Angophora subvelutina O
Archirhodomyrtus beckleri 4 9 10
Backhousia myrtifolia O
Baeckea gunniana O
Baeckea omissa 13613
Callistemon comboynensis 13
Callistemon linearis O
Callistemon pallidus 12613
Callistemon pityoides O
Callistemon salignus O
Callistemon sieberi 6
Callistemon sp. aff. montanus 2
Callistemon viminalis 6
Calytrix tetragona 2 13
Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata O
Corymbia gummifera 4 9
Corymbia intermedia O
Eucalyptus acaciiformis 113
Eucalyptus acmenoides 8
Eucalyptus biturbinata 89
Eucalyptus brunnea 4
Eucalyptus caliginosa 124 10
Eucalyptus cameronii 1248 13
Eucalyptus campanulata 24 5 810 11
Eucalyptus carnea 89 10
Eucalyptus codonocarpa 2 13
Eucalyptus crebra O
Eucalyptus dalrympleana subsp. heptantha 1
Eucalytpus dissita O
Eucalyptus fibrosa 8
Eucalyptus laevopinea O
Eucalyptus ligustrina 113
Eucalyptus microcorys 489 10 11 12
Eucalyptus notabilis 413
Eucalyptus obliqua 4 10 12
Eucalyptus olida 124
Eucalyptus oreades 124 5 6
Eucalyptus planchoniana 2 8 9
Eucalyptus pyrocarpa 12 8 9
Eucalyptus radiata subsp. sejuncta 113
Eucalyptus saligna 4 10 11 12
Eucalyptus siderophloia O
Eucalyptus subcaerulea 9
Eucalyptus tereticornis O
Eucalyptus tindaliae O
Eucalyptus williamsiana 12O
Kunzea bracteolata 12513
Kunzea ericoides O
Kunzea opposita O
Leptospermum arachnoides 13 13 O
Leptospermum brachyandrum 13
Leptospermum brevipes 13
Leptospermum microcarpum 1
Leptospermum minutifolium 113
Leptospermum novae-angliae 1 5 13 O
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 467
Leptospermum petersonii subsp. petersonii 2 7 9 O
Leptospermum polygalifolium subsp.
cismontanum 124 6 9
Leptospermum polygalifolium subsp.
montanum 2
Leptospermum polygalifolium subsp.
transmontanum O
Leptospermum trinervium 124 5 6 8 13
Leptospermum variabile O
Lophostemon confertus 489 10 11
Melaleuca tortifolia O
Micromyrtus sessilis O
Rhodamnia rubescens 11 12
Syncarpia glomulifera subsp. glomulifera 9 10
Syzygium australe O
Syzygium coryanthum O
Syzygium crebrinerve O
Syzygium francisii O
Syzygium luehmannii O
Syzygium oleosum O
Tristaniopsis laurina O
Notelaea jonhnsonii 10
Notelaea linearis 134
Notelaea longifolia forma intermedia 47
Notelaea sp. A 10 12
Notelaea venosa O
Botrychium australe O
Todea barbara O
Acianthus caudatus O
Acianthus exsertus 4 O
Acianthus fornicatus 24
Bulbophyllum bracteatum O
Bulbophyllum elisae O
Caladenia alata O
Caladenia carnea O
Caladenia catenata O
Caladenia picta O
Calanthe triplicata O
Caleana major O
Caleana minor O
Calochilus campestris 4
Calochilus grandiflorus O
Calochilus paludosus O
Chiloglottis diphylla 413
Chiloglottis sphyrnoides O
Chiloglottis sylvestris 1 6
Corybas aconitiflorus 24 6 9 10
Corybas fimbriatus O
Cryptostylis erecta O
Cryptostylis hunterana 1
Cryptostylis subulata 12413
Cymbidium canaliculatum O
Cymbidium suave O
Dendrobium aemulum O
Dipodium punctatum O
468 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Dipodium variegatum 4
Diuris maculata O
Diuris punctata O
Diuris sulphurea O
Dockrillia bowmanii O
Dockrillia linguiniformis O
Dockrillia pugioniformis 4 6 12 13
Dockrillia schoenina O
Dockrillia teretifolia O
Eriochilus autumnalis O
Eriochilus cucullatus 4
Gastrodia sesamoides O
Genoplesium bishopii O
Genoplesium fimbriatum 13
Glossodia minor O
Liparis coelogynoides O
Liparis reflexa O
Liparis swenssonii O
Microtis unifolia O
Orthoceras strictum 3
Plectorrhiza tridentale O
Prasophyllum brevilabre 13
Prasophyllum flavum O
Pterostylis abrupta O
Pterostylis baptistii O
Pterostylis curta O
Pterostylis daintreana O
Pterostylis longifolia 413
Pterostylis nutans 4 9
Pterostylis parviflora 13
Pterostylis pedunculata O
Sarcochilus ceciliae O
Sarcochilus falcatus O
Sarcochilus spathulatus 7
Spiranthes sinensis 1
Thelychiton kingianus O
Thelychiton speciosus O
Thelychiton tarberi O
Thelymitra cyanea O
Thelymitra ixioides var. ixioides O
Oxalis chnoodes O
Oxalis corniculata O
Oxalis exilis 4810
Passiflora eudilis O
Passiflora herbertiana O
Peperomia tetraphylla O
Dianella caerulea var. assera O
Dianella caerulea var. caerulea 124 5 789 10 11 12 13
Dianella caerulea var. producta 124 5 12
Dianella revoluta var. revoluta 113
Dianella tasmanica 13
Stypandra glauca 13
Thelionema caespitosum 3 13
Thelionema grande 35
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 469
Phytolacca octandra* 13
Piper novae-hollandiae 10 11
Billardiera scandens var. scandens 124 5 6 10
Bursaria spinosa subsp. obovata 4 9
Hymenophyllum flavum O
Pittosporum multiflorum 11 12
Pittosporum revolutum O
Pittosporum undulatum 4 10 11
Rhytidosporum procumbens 13
Plantago debilis 4
Amphipogon strictus 3 13
Aristida queenslandica 9
Aristida ramosa 2 13
Aristida vagans 4
Austrodanthonia bipartita O
Austrodanthonia monticola O
Austrodanthonia richardsonii 13
Austrostipa bigeniculata 13
Austrostipa pubescens 12
Austrostipa ramosissima O
Austrostipa rudis subsp. nervosa O
Austrostipa scabra 13
Austrostipa sp. A. 1
Axonopus affinis* 36
Bothriochloa macra O
Capillipedium parviflorum O
Capillipedium spicigerum 48
Cleistochloa rigida 13
Cymbopogon refractus 89
Deyeuxia mckiei O
Deyeuxia parviseta 9
Dichelachne micrantha 8
Digitaria breviglumis 13
Digitaria diffusa O
Digitaria parviflora 9
Echinopogon caespitosus var. caespitosus 8
Enneapogon nigricans O
Entolasia stricta 1234 5 6 89 10 13
Eragrostis brownii 89
Eragrostis elongata O
Eragrostis leptostachya 2
Eragrostis tenuifolia* O
Imperata cylindrica var. major 12489
Joycea pallida O
Lachnagrostis aemula 10
Lachnagrostis filiformis O
Microlaena stipoides var. stipoides 248
Oplismenus aemulus 4789 10
Oplismenus imbecillis 4789 10 11
Panicum paludosum 3
Panicum simile 4 6 8912
Paspalidium constrictum 13
Pennisetum clandestinum*O
470 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Poa queenslandica 4
Poa sieberiana 124 6 8913
Setaria pumila* O
Sorghum leiocladum 4
Sporobolus creber O
Sporobolus diander O
Tetrarrhena juncea 1234 6 8 13
Themeda triandra 48 13
Tripogon loliiformis 13
Urochloa foliolosa O
Comesperma defoliatum 3
Comesperma ericinum 124 5 13
Comesperma retusum O
Comesperma sphaerocarpum O
Muehlenbeckia gracillima 4
Muehlenbeckia rhyticarya O
Persicaria decipiens O
Polygala japonica 8
Dictymia brownii O
Microsorum scandens 11 12
Platycerium bifurcatum subsp. bifurcatum 2411 13
Platycerium superbum O
Pyrrosia confluens O
Pyrrosia rupestris 47 12 13
Calandrinia eremaea 13
Calandrinia pickeringii O
Banksia cunninghamii subsp. A 1 24
Banksia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia 4 5 710
Banksia marginata O
Banksia spinulosa var. collina 1368 13
Banksia spinulosa var. neoanglica O
Conospermum burgessiorum 12
Conospermum taxifolium O
Grevillea acanthifolia subsp. stenomera 13
Grevillea acerata 12613
Grevillea mollis 4 9
Grevillea mucronulata 13
Grevillea rhizomatosa 124
Hakea eriantha 124
Hakea laevipes subsp. graniticola 12 3 613
Hakea macrorrhyncha 2 13
Hakea salicifolia 24 5 6 10
Helicia glabriflora O
Isopogon petiolaris 13 13
Lomatia fraseri 4
Lomatia silaifolia 124 5 6 89 10
Orites excelsa 5 9 11 12
Persoonia adenantha 4 9 10
Persoonia cornifolia 13
Persoonia media O
Persoonia oleoides 248
Persoonia rufa 124 5 8 13
Persoonia sericea 48
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 471
Petrophile canescens 1248 13
Stenocarpus salignus O
Telopea aspera 124
Psilotum nudum O
Tmesipteris ovata O
Pteris tremula 12
Pteris umbrosa 11
Clematis aristata 411
Clematis glycinoides 411 12
Ranunculus lappaceus 6
Baloskion fimbriatum 136
Baloskion stenocoleum O
Empodisma minus O
Lepyrodia anarthria 3 13
Lepyrodia leptocaulis 13
Lepyrodia scariosa 12 3 613
Alphitonia excelsa O
Cryptandra lanosiflora 13
Cryptandra scortechinii 1
Emmenosperma alphitonioides O
Pomaderris andromedifolia 413
Pomaderris intermedia O
Pomaderris lanigera 4
Pomaderris ledifolia O
Pomaderris nitidula 4
Ripogonum album 1
Ripogonum fawcettianum O
Rubus moluccanus var. moluccanus O
Rubus moluccanus var. trilobus 7 12
Rubus moorei O
Rubus nebulosus 6710 11
Rubus parvifolius 48
Rubus rosifolius O
Galium binifolium 4
Galium propinquum 4710
Morinda jasminoides 10 11 12
Opercularia aspera O
Opercularia hispida 124 6 89
Pomax umbellata 2489 10 11 13
Psychotria daphnoides 10
Psychotria loniceroides 411
Spermacoce brachystema 9
Acradenia euodiiformis 11 12
Acronychia laevis O
Acronychia oblongifolia O
Acronychia pubescens O
Acronychia suberosa O
Asterolasia correifolia O
472 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Boronia algida 12413
Boronia anethifolia 513
Boronia angusepala 1 5
Boronia bipinnata O
Boronia microphylla 12413
Boronia parviflora 3
Boronia polygalifolia 3
Boronia rubiginosa O
Correa lawrenciana var. glandulifera O
Correa reflexa var. reflexa 4
Eriostemon australasius 2 13
Geijera latifolia O
Leionema ambiens O
Leionema dentatum 513
Medicosma cunninghamii O
Melicope hayesii O
Melicope micrococca 12
Phebalium squamulosum 7 12 13
Phebalium woombye
Sarcomelicope simplicifolia O
Zieria arborescens subsp. arborescens 12
Zieria fraseri subsp. compacta 13
Zieria furfuracea O
Zieria smithii subsp. smithii 4 6 710
Sambucus australasica O
Choretrum candollei 124
Choretrum sp. A 13
Exocarpos strictus 113
Leptomeria acida O
Leptomeria aphylla O
Leptomeria drupacea O
Santalum obtusifolium O
Alectryon subcinereus O
Diploglottis australis O
Diploglottis cunninghamii 11 12
Dodonaea megazyga O
Dodonaea serratifolia 4
Dodonaea triquetra 29
Dodonaea viscosa O
Guioa semiglauca 11
Schizaea bifida 1248 13
Schizaea dichotoma O
Euphrasia collina subsp. paludosa O
Veronica calycina 8
Veronica notabilis O
Veronica plebeia 4
Smilax australis 1 4 5 10 11 12 13
Smilax glyciphylla 24 5 6 10 11 13
Duboisia myoporoides 4 10
Solanum aviculare O
Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks 473
Solanum campanulatum 4 10
Solanum mauritianum* 4
Solanum nemophilum 4 10
Solanum neoanglicum O
Solanum nobile O
Solanum opacum O
Solanum prinophyllum O
Solanum pungetium O
Solanum stelligerum O
Stackhousia viminea 1 4 8
Brachychiton acerifolius O
Keraudrenia corollata var. denticulata O
Lasiopetalum ferrugineum var. cordatum 2
Rulingia dasyphylla O
Rulingia salviifolia O
Seringia arborescens O
Stylidium graminifolium 4
Stylidium laricifolium 413
Guilfoylia monostylis O
Symplocos stawellii O
Symplocos thwaitesii O
Christella dentata O
Pimelea latifolia O
Pimelea ligustrina O
Pimelea linifolia 124 9 13
Pimelea neo-anglica O
Tetratheca thymifolia 1
Trimenia moorei 11
Aphananthe philippinensis O
Dendrochnide excelsa O
Dendrochnide photinophylla O
Elatostema stipitatum O
Urtica incisa O
Clerodendrum tomentosum 4810
Gmelina leichhardtii 10
Lantana camara* 10
Verbena rigida* O
Hybanthus enneaspermus 9
Hybanthus monopetalus 34
Hybanthus vernonii subsp. vernonii O
Viola betonicifolia 1 4 6 8
Viola hederacea 24810 12
474 Cunninghamia 10(3): 2008 Hunter & Sheringham, Vegetation in Gibraltar Range, Washpool National Parks
Cayratia clematidea O
Cayratia eurynema O
Cissus antarctica 1 4 11
Cissus hypoglauca 4 7 8 10 11 12
Cissus sterculifolia O
Tetrastigma nitens O
Vittaria elongata O
Tasmannia insipida 711 12
Xanthorrhoea acaulis 13
Xanthorrhoea australis O
Xanthorrhoea glauca subsp. angustifolia 489 10 13
Xanthorrhoea johnsonii 1 24
Xanthorrhoea latifolia 2 8
Xyris gracilis O
Xyris operculata 3
Alpinia caerulea O
... Part of the Gondwana Rainforests Reserves of Australia, the Gibraltar Range is a World Heritage-listed area that includes the largest expanse of coachwood warm temperate rainforest in the world and is characterised by high biodiversity and species richness, with at least 81 species of conservation significance recorded in the national park (Hunter and Sheringham, 2008;Vernes et al., 2006). Gibraltar Range National Park is home to several rare or endangered plant and animal species, including the giant barred frog, glossy black cockatoos, Barrington wattle (Acacia barringtonensis), A. beadleana, Gibraltar Grevillea (Grevillea rhizomatosa), Persoonia rufa and Gibraltar Range waratah (Telopea aspera) (Croft et al., 2006;Jones and Bruhl, 2006;NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2022). ...
... Gibraltar Range National Park is home to several rare or endangered plant and animal species, including the giant barred frog, glossy black cockatoos, Barrington wattle (Acacia barringtonensis), A. beadleana, Gibraltar Grevillea (Grevillea rhizomatosa), Persoonia rufa and Gibraltar Range waratah (Telopea aspera) (Croft et al., 2006;Jones and Bruhl, 2006;NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2022). Much of the Gibraltar Range is undulating to steep topography with extensive outcropping, granite sheets, and boulder fields (Croft et al., 2006;Hunter and Sheringham, 2008). ...
Clothing and footwear designed for trail running shed microplastics (MPs) during use. Trail running events may therefore present a significant source of MP pollution in conservation and wilderness areas. Microplastics may present long-term risks to biodiversity and endemic plant and animal species in such areas. In this study, we used a before-after-control-impact approach to quantify and characterise MP emissions from clothing and shoe outsoles during trail running events. Microplastic deposition on trail surfaces was assessed using both a controlled study and during two public trail running events in New South Wales, Australia (the Duval Dam Buster and the Washpool World Heritage Trail Race). Microplastics were present on trails after all events and included fibres and rubber fragments. Microplastic counts varied considerably depending on trail surface hardness and gradient, and clothing and footwear properties. The controlled study showed running tights (leggings) and shoes with soft rubber outsoles produced more MPs than shirts and hard rubbers. In the trail running events, abrasive wear to shoe outsoles produced an average of 0.3 ± 0.1 to 0.9 ± 0.2 MPs/linear metre/runner, and clothing produced 0.7 ± 0.3 to 2.0 ± 0.3 fibres/linear metre/runner, with fibres accounting for 63-69% of MPs. Microplastic deposition from both footwear and clothing was higher on sloped and rock trail surfaces than flat and soil surfaces. Laser Direct Infrared (LDIR) Imaging indicated the main types of MPs present on trails were polyurethane, polyethylene terephthalate and polyamide. Trail running is increasing in popularity and large-scale events may cause a rapid and significant input of MPs in protected areas. Land managers, event coordinators and outdoor apparel manufacturers could mitigate MP impacts however, by diverting foot traffic around ecologically sensitive areas, capping participant numbers, and developing abrasion resistant clothing and footwear.
... Seeds of nine Fabaceae species were used for this experiment ( (Sheringham and Hunter 2002;Hunter and Sheringham 2008). This area had experienced a fire of low-to-high burn severity in October 2002 (Kumar et al. 2008). ...
... Nine legume species with a persistent soil seed bank A and a germination cue of heat A used to determine if post-fire temperatures affect germination The table is arranged based on seed mass from the largest to smallest. DSF, dry sclerophyll forest; RO, rocky outcrop; RF, rainforest; WSF, wet sclerophyll forest (Sheringham and Hunter 2002;Hunter and Sheringham 2008 (2002) the experiment, one of the cabinets malfunctioned, with the dark cycle temperature dropping to a minimum of À98C: this affected the viability of seeds that had already imbibed, producing spurious results. The data from this cabinet were excluded from the final analysis, leaving four replicates per treatment. ...
Potential impacts of soil temperatures in a post-fire environment were examined for seeds of legume species with a physical seed dormancy typically found in the eucalypt communities in eastern Australia. Soil temperatures in a post-fire environment may be elevated owing to increased solar radiation and this may influence germination of species with soil-stored seed banks. Seeds were heated at 50, 60 or 70°C, with one unheated control, for 3h per day for 5 days to simulate soil temperatures where canopy gaps existed. More germination of small-seeded species (<12.6mg) occurred owing to changes in simulated soil temperatures than large-seeded species (>14.0mg). Temperatures up to 70°C significantly increased the germination of species with relatively small-sized seeds than large-seeded species (>70°C). This study demonstrated that small-seeded species are able to germinate across a range of temperatures (50–70°C) and can have dormancy broken either during the passage of a fire, or after fire from increased solar radiation, potentially resulting in the decline of the post-fire residual soil seed bank. In contrast, post-fire germination of large-seeded species may be dependent solely on the degree of soil heating during the passage of fire and the species may have a relatively stable residual soil seed bank thereafter.
... "Coogee" of Playfair (1908), are vague and have been degraded or destroyed by clearing and urbanisation. Vegetation surveys by Hunter and Sheringham (2008) indicated that only a few hectares of Sphagnum bogs are in good condition across the New England Tablelands. In the present study, selection of sample sites was based on a review of recent literature and our knowledge of the region (Figure 1). ...
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Desmids associated with Sphagnum L. from terrestrial and aquatic habitats were investigated in the New England Tableland Bioregion. Descriptions and figures for 80 taxa are presented herein, nine of which are newly recorded for Australia, and a further seven are newly recorded for New South Wales. Two novel species of desmid, Micrasterias bicoronata A.Kenins and Cosmarium phymatodeum A.Kenins, are described. The floristic composition of desmids at Basket Swamp and Ebor Common, were compared to assess their conservation value based on an existing and modified scheme better suited to desmids from Australia. Basket Swamp received a relatively high score based on greater species richness and numerous endemics present. In contrast, Ebor Common scored lower due to less diversity and few regionally endemic species. This study also highlights that the desmid community found amongst Sphagnum in Australia is highly diverse (β SOR = 0.82) and can differ markedly among the four assessed sites due to spatial turnover (β RATIO = 0.15). While there are species in common with the much more extensively studied Sphagnum habitats in central and western Europe, Australia has its own distinctive desmid floral elements.
... C. filiformis was also reported to be found in Brazil (Giannerini et al., 2015), Nigeria (Ambi et al., 2017), Puerto Rico (Levins and Heatwole, 1973), Polynesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh (Ara et al., 2007), Brunei Darussalam , Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia, and Fiji (Nugraha et al., 2020), but information regarding host species is lacking. C. glabella is found to be a climber of many plant communities in Gibraltar Range and part of Washpool National Parks in New South Wales, Australia, including Eucalyptus olida-Eucalyptus ligustrina-Eucalyptus cameronii forest and woodland, Baeckea omissa-Epacris obtusifolia-Leptospermum arachnoides bogs, and Callicoma serratifolia-Eucalyptus oreades open forest and shrubland (Hunter and Sheringham, 2008). C. ciliolata is known as a common parasite in the Cape region of South Africa with a number of hosts (Schroeder, 1967). ...
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Cassytha, also known as laurel dodder or love vine, is a stem hemiparasite of the Lauraceae family. It has long been used for medicinal purposes in many countries and has increasingly influenced agricultural and natural ecosystems by its effects on a wide range of host species. Previous studies have focused on the taxonomy and evolutionary position of different Cassytha, with the pan-tropical species Cassytha filiformis being the most widely studied. However, Cassytha–host interactions have never been reviewed, which is an essential issue related to the understanding of mechanisms underlying plant hemiparasitic and the assessment of benefits and damage caused by aerial parasitic plants. This review explores the parasitic habits, worldwide distribution, and host range of Cassytha, and examines its impacts on the biology of host plants and the overall influence of environmental changes on Cassytha–host associations. We also comment on areas of future research directions that require to better understanding Cassytha–host interactions. It appeared that some traits, such as flowering phenology, facilitated Cassytha’s widespread distribution and successful parasitism and that Cassytha preferred woody species rather than herbaceous species as a host, and preferred species from certain families as hosts, such as Fabaceae and Myrtaceae. Cassytha often decreased biomass and impacted the physiology of host species and global environmental changes seemed to intensify the negative impacts of Cassytha on their hosts. Cassytha was not only a noxious weed, but can also function as a biocontrol agent to mitigate alien plant invasion.
... The site data were entered into the data analysis module of the NSW BioNet database and added to an existing data set of 107 sites for the Gibraltar Range National Park (Sheringham & Hunter, 2008). The combined sites were then analysed in PATN using hierarchical agglomerative clustering option with a default beta of -0.1, and the Bray-Curtis association measure. ...
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Remote sensing of pattern, texture and colour using high resolution ADS40 aerial photograph imagery identified 30 known and potential polygons of the listed Vulnerable mallee eucalypt Eucalyptus dissita (Myrtaceae) in Gibraltar Range National Park in the NSW New England Tablelands Bioregion. Targeted field surveys confirmed Eucalyptus dissita in 14 mapped polygons, covering a mapped extent of 7.6 hectares, with an estimated population of 2400-4600 mallee/ tree stems, including two new populations in remote locations along tributaries of Dandahra Creek and proposed as newly named management sites (Dragonfly Swamp and Valley of the Mallees) under the NSW Saving our Species Program. Populations of Eucalyptus dissita were burnt in a November 2014 hazard reduction burn, and again in the extensive December 2019 wildfire. After the 2014 fire, basal resprouting was observed and minimal mortality of pre-fire plants recorded, but no seedling recruitment observed. In May 2019, 4.5 years post-fire, five of 20 tagged individuals at Surveyors Creek were forming floral buds but are likely to require another year to seed production. All of these individuals were burnt again in the December 2019 fire. Full floristic data analysis using hierarchical agglomerative clustering revealed that Eucalyptus dissita forms a quantitatively distinct vegetation assemblage that groups with the vegetation of swamps and rocky riparian areas, adjoining granite hills. Cunninghamia (2021) 21: 017-026
... Vegetation on inselbergs is often visually discordant from the adjacent matrix and can have a high degree of taxonomic novelty (McGann 2002). Within eastern Australia, inselbergs in areas of high rainfall (>1000 mm per annum) generally support dense, closed heath within a matrix of open or closed forests (Hunter and Clarke 1998, Hunter 2003b, Hunter and Sheringham 2008. Within the New England Bioregion (NEB) of eastern Australia, 24 % of inselberg species are restricted to and dominate the habitat, with inselbergs in the far northeast sharing almost no species with the adjacent matrix (McGann 2002). ...
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The vegetation on granite inselbergs (island mountains) within the New England Bioregion of eastern Australia and the adjacent matrix were chosen to study the effects of above ground biomass removal on community recovery. Undisturbed inselberg vegetation was treated to manual removal of biomass by clipping and also to burning. Inselbergs and the adjacent matrix that had been burnt the previous year were also treated to an additional burn. The recovery of vegetation was followed over the following year across all experiments. The change in vegetation composition was analysed using Dentrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), Generalised Linear Modelling (GLM) and variance partitioning of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) results, along with SIMPER and PERMANOVA analysis of composition difference and treatment interactions. Turnover between start and end points of monitoring was also tested for significance between treatments. Comparison of floristic composition before experimentation and at the end point (12 months later) indicated that one off clipping of biomass had little statistical effect on inselberg floristic composition. In contrast, previously unburnt inselbergs treated to fire did not recover to starting conditions. There was no significant difference between before treatment and after treatment on inselbergs and within the matrix to the imposition of a second burn. Subsequent fires on inselbergs increase species richness within plots. This increase in richness was associated with a loss of the previous endemic obligate seeding dominants and an increase in ubiquitous resprouting taxa leading to the homogenisation of inselberg floras and decreasing their distinctiveness from the matrix.
... The vegetation on inselbergs in this region is largely of closed to open heaths, shrublands, or herbfields with the adjacent matrix comprised of rainforest, forest, and woodlands. Analysis of the relationships between the matrix and inselberg floras and detailed descriptions of the vegetation types, flora, and mapped distribution covered by this investigation are contained within Clarke et al. [36], Hunter and Clarke [37], Hunter et al. [38,39], J. T. Hunter and V. H. Hunter [40], Hunter [41], Hunter [42], and Hunter and Sheringham [43]. Rainfall is seasonal and occurs mostly in summer (60-70%) with snow occurring occasionally at higher altitudes (Bureau of Meteorology ...
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Inselbergs and the adjacent matrix represent extremes of different environmental conditions and should shed light on the changing allocation of plant resources across strong and abrupt resource gradients. Here I use collated life history trait data from 840 taxa found within typical insular inselberg and adjacent matrix floras from the New England Batholith region of eastern Australia. These species were sorted into guilds of specificity to the inselberg environment. Scored traits include life form, plant height, leaf area, fruit size, seed size, mono- or polycarpy, underground storage organs, regenerative/clonality, and flowering phenology. With reduced water and nutrient resources, typical of inselbergs, allocation of plant resources to vegetative reproduction and storage organs is a disadvantage. Plants restricted to inselbergs were shorter, usually polycarpic shrubs, with smaller leaves, fruits, and seeds. Flowering time was found to be earlier and reduced in length; diaspores often have dormancy and are dispersed locally in comparison to the matrix. The results show that with limited resources the creation of underground storage organs or vegetative reproduction becomes unviable on habitats characterised by shallow soil. Inselberg taxa of the study region are likely to be under greater threat than the matrix due to anthropogenic climate change.
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National parks are storehouse for wildlife and habitat and endowed with potentials. Although local community participation and tourism development can enhance the potentials of national park, identifying the significant factors influencing outcomes of maximizing opportunity of the Gashaka Gumti National Parks is important. Based on the backwards selection method of community support for tourism development, help to local community, tourism development bring job opportunity and community conservation initiative significantly contributes to the likelihood of maximizing opportunity of Gashaka Gumti National in conserving biodiversity. Thus it can be concluded that local community involvement and tourism development are more likely to impact biodiversity conservation in Gashaka Gumti national Parks than strict conservation.
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Native vegetation of the NSW south coast, escarpment and southeast tablelands was classified into 191 floristic assemblages at a level of detail appropriate for the discrimination of Threatened Ecological Communities and other vegetation units referred to in government legislation. Assemblages were derived by a numerical analysis of 10832 field sample quadrats including 8523 compiled from 63 previous vegetation surveys. Past bias in the distribution of field data towards land under public tenure was corrected by extensive surveys carried out on private land. The classification revises and integrates the units described in recent vegetation studies of Eden, Cumberland Plain and Sydney-south coast into a single, consistent classification. Relationships between floristic assemblages and climate, terrain, substrate and vegetation structure were used to map the distribution of communities prior to clearing at 1:100 000 scale. The extent of clearing was mapped using interpretations of remote imagery (1991–2001) from previous work, standardised and merged into a single coverage and supplemented with additional work. Profiles for each assemblage, which we term ‘communities’ or ‘map units’, describe their species composition, vegetation structure, environmental habitat, the extent of clearing and conservation status. Lists of diagnostic species were defined using a statistical fidelity measure and a procedure for using these for community identification is described. Approximately 66% of the study area retains a cover of native vegetation, primarily in areas with low fertility soils and dissected topography. Communities subject to over-clearing (>70%) are concentrated in a few large areas characterised by clay/loam soils and flat to undulating terrain. These include the Sydney metropolis, Wingecarribee Plateau, Illawarra Plain, Shoalhaven floodplain, Araluen Valley and Bega Valley, and various smaller river valleys. Forty-one percent of remaining native vegetation is protected within conservation reserves while 31% occurs on private land, 20% in State Forests and 8% on other Crown lands. Forty-five Threatened Ecological Communities (TECs) were recorded in the study area. The majority of TECs are represented by a single map unit, although in some cases a TEC is included within a broader map unit. Twelve TECs are represented by combinations of two or more map units.
Delayed seed release (serotiny) is a convergent plant trait in fire-prone regions of the world but explaining the degree of serotiny has remained elusive because of the paucity of community data. Selective forces involving seed predators, fire and soil nutrients have been suggested as factors influencing serotiny. We tested whether protection of seeds and/or synchronized dispersal were associated with different levels of serotiny and if resprouting ability influences selection for strong serotiny. We compared the numbers and abundance of 146 woody species with delayed dispersal among five community types varying in combinations of fire severity, fire frequency, soil fertility and seed predators. The strength of the relationship between levels of serotiny and environmental factors was tested among community types ranging from rainforests to heathlands. Highest levels of serotiny were recorded in low nutrient shrublands with intermediate fire return intervals that burn at high severity, while the lowest were recorded in high nutrient, low flammability forests. Both protection of seeds and synchronized seed release were related to fire effects in nutrient-limited environments. Strong serotiny is prominent in species killed by fire whereas weak serotiny is more common in resprouting species. Recruitment failure in the inter-fire interval appears to drive selection for strong maternal care of seeds and synchronized seed dispersal in fire-prone environments. Weak serotiny is proposed as a bet-hedging strategy that relies on resprouting after fire for population persistence and higher probability of inter-fire recruitment. The spectrum of serotiny (weak to strong) in these communities is proposed to be driven by the interactive effect of both fire and soil nutrients on the selection for delayed seed dispersal.
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Chapter 2: PhD Thesis: Study Area, Stratification and Data Storage
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Vegetation survey, floristic analysis and vegetation mapping of part of Guy Fawkes River National Park, New England, New South Wales, Australia
The Rare or Threatened Australian Plants (ROTAP) list and associated coding system was developed and has been maintained by CSIRO since 1979, and lists taxa that are Presumed Extinct, Endangered, Vulnerable, Rare or Poorly Known at the national level. This edition provides the most up-to-date list for conservation purposes. A significant number of endangered and Vulnerable taxa are included, which have not yet been considered for inclusion on either the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council list or the Commonwealth's Schedule 1. This is the first ROTAP publication to include subspecies and varieties, and the list now includes 5031 taxa. There have also been at least 3270 amendments to data for listed taxa. A total of 2012 additional records of regional data for tax already listed has been included. A key factor in the development of public opinion, and the design of effective management schemes, lies in the production of accurate data to tell the story. What is threatened? Where is it found? These are two of the most fundamental questions to answer before any strategic plans can be drawn up. Obtaining such apparently simple statistics is a huge task. Rare or Threatened Australian Plants is therefore an important reference for the national status of threatened species, particularly for Rare and Poorly Known species.
Rainforest management in NSW is currently in a state of transition. Current emphasis in rainforest management is on the preservation of areas of particular scientific value or interest, and on the provision of appropriate recreational and interpretative facilities in the extensive areas that have been set aside as national parks or equivalent reserves. At the same time, close to half the total area of rainforest in NSW (131 000ha out of a total area of 266 000ha) remains as State forest zoned as available for multiple use management, including where appropriate wood production. In reality, a maximum area of perhaps 90 000ha of rainforest on State forest appears to be available for continued wood production. The manner in which this resource will be managed in the future is still highly speculative, though past practices give many leads as to approaches which could be used in specific cases. However, two matters seem clear: wood production will be largely restricted to high value speciality timbers, and wood production will generally have to take second place to the maintenance of other, environmental values at a high level. -from Author
Fire responses are reported in four rare species at Gibraltar Range National Park following hazard-reduction burning. Acacia barringtonensis Tindale, Grevillea rhizomatosa P.M.Olde & N.R.Marriot, Persoonia rufa L.A.S.Johnson & P.H.Weston and Telopea aspera M.D. Crisp & P. H. Weston were the species investigated. In each species, individuals were tagged prior to a hazard reduction fire and their fates followed for 34 months. In Acacia barringtonensis, individuals survived fire and resprouted from buds at the base of stems and from rhizomes but the resprouts were heavily browsed by insects and Swamp Wallabies (Wallabia bicolor Desmarest). In Grevillea rhizomatosa, individuals survived and resprouted from underground rhizomes and no seedlings were found after fires. After fire in Persoonia rufa, all scorched plants died but seedling recruitment occurred from a soil-stored seed. In Telopea aspera, most burnt individuals resprouted from basal shoots and survived despite heavy post-fire grazing pressure. Increasing fire frequencies by hazard-reduction burning may threaten the survival of all four species, and it is suggested that other methods of reducing fuel be used to manage fire in this area of Gibraltar Range National Park.
Self-compatible species can often produce seeds when pollinators are scarce or unreliable, but any advantage may be lessened if selfed progeny are less fit than outcrossed progeny due to inbreeding depression. We use hand self-pollinations to determine whether Banksia marginata is self-compatible and examine the relative fitness of seeds derived from self- and open-pollination at several early life-cycle stages to gauge the likely impact of inbreeding depression. Substantial numbers of fruits and seeds were produced following selfing, indicating that plants are self-compatible. However, differences between self- and open-pollinated inflorescences indicated that relative self-fertility was less than one. Compared with open-pollinated seeds, selfed seeds were smaller and produced smaller seedlings that were less likely to survive. Percent germination of self- and open-pollinated seeds was similar. Cumulative fitness estimated over several life-cycle stages, including seed production, indicated that selfed progeny were on average only 62% as fit as open-pollinated progeny. These differences in relative fitness indicate that despite self-compatibility, populations have experienced a history of outcrossing. Banksia marginata plants at Gibraltar Range National Park are killed by fire, and self-compatibility may be associated with this trait.
Grevillea rhizomatosa Olde & Marriott (Proteaceae) is a threatened species of shrub known only from 12 populations within a 7 x 8 km area within Gibraltar Range and Washpool National Parks, northern New South Wales, Australia. Prior to this study it was believed that the species only reproduced from rhizomatous suckers as seed and fruit were never detected in the wild. A concern for the reproductive and evolutionary potential of the species in the event of a catastrophic disturbance was the basis for an investigation into the reproductive ecology of G. rhizomatosa. Such an event occurred in October 2002 with an intense wildfire affecting most of the populations. Five populations were studied in detail for demography and fecundity prior to this fire and two populations were resurveyed in August 2005. In 2000, 916 individual stems were recorded across these populations and only small to large shrubs were found; no seedlings were recorded. Post-fire response was documented in two populations where plants were found to be resprouting and suckering from underground stems. In the pre-fire surveys of 2000 and 2001 flowering occurred in all populations, but since the fire of October 2002 flowering has only occurred in unburnt habitats. Flowers on shrubs in two of the five populations failed to produce fruit, but low fruit-set (7-13% of flowers) occurred in three populations. Seeds collected from two populations (n = 14) were tested for viability using tetrazolium chloride and were 100% viable. Ramets were detected in all populations and resprouting from underground stems was observed after wildfire. This is the first record of viable seed in this species and fertile populations require specific management to prevent loss of fertile plants. Loss of fertile plants could occur if repeated burning selects for vegetative reproduction and sterile plants.
The New England Batholith rock outcrop flora has been chosen for a study of nested species-subset patterns. The floras of 24 aggregated outcrop regions were sampled via placement of 399 x 0.1 ha plots on 216 rock outcrops. Investigations of nested patterns were made at three levels of grain and extent. The flora in most situations was significantly nested at all sizes of scale. Nestedness was low or medial compared to other published studies. Although a number of hypotheses has been suggested for low nestedness most of these were not appropriate in the context of the rock outcrops. A model incorporating Range Saturation (index of cumulative range size) and the Quotient of Insularity (index of habitat specificity) explained a significant proportion of the variation in nestedness. Nestedness was negatively correlated with saturation (spatial structure effects on species richness). Thus, specificity to the rock outcrop habitat and the study region was found to lower nestedness. Additionally it is suggested that species restricted to rock outcrops competitively exclude ubiquitous or matrix taxa to smaller outcrops and that nestedness may have a temporal component.