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Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of the fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata

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Abstract

The aqueous extract of A. digitata fruit pulp showed a LD50 in mice by i.p. route of 8000 mg/kg and induced a marked and long lasting anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects at 400 and 800 mg/kg per os in rats. The extract showed also a marked analgesic activity in mice at 2 h after administration. Phytochemical screening of the fruit pulp of the plant indicated the presence of sterols and/or triterpenes, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and glycosides.

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... Because of its high natural vitamin C content, baobab fruit pulp has a well-documented antioxidant capability (Brady, 2011). Antioxidants could help prevent oxidative stress related diseases such as cancer, aging, inflammation (Ramadan et al., 1994) and cardiometabolic diseases, since they may eliminate free radicals, which contribute to these chronic diseases (Carlsen et al., 2010). These activities may be attributed to the presence of sterols, saponins, triterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds (Chadare et al., 2009) and triterpenes in the aqueous extract (Brady, 2011). ...
... The solution was left to settle for 24 hours with occasional stirring using a glass rod. The solution was filtered after 24 hours using filter paper and the residue was discarded according to Ramadan et al. (1994). The filtrate obtained was concentrated using a hot plate at 60 0 C until a yellowish semi solid paste was obtained, which was dissolved in phosphate buffer for intraperitoneal administration. ...
... Proper concentrations of Adansonia digitata and vitamin E were administered through a metal oropharyngeal cannula. The LD50 of Adansonia digitata is 8000 mg/kg according to Ramadan et al. (1994). The administration of cottonseed extract was via intraperitoneal injection for a period of 21 days. ...
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Objective: Infertility is the inability of sexually active couples without using birth control to get pregnant after one year of uninterrupted sexual intercourse. Cotton Seed Extract (CSE) has been linked to male infertility by causing oxidative damage to the testes due to the action of its active component, Gossypol. Adansonia digitata has been known to have many medically useful properties, including antioxidant effects. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of Adansonia digitata on Cottonseed extract-induced testicular damage. Methods: Forty (40) Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups of five rats per group (n=5). Group 1 served as the control and received 0.5 ml of phosphate buffer orally; Group 2 received 800 mg/kg b.wt A. digitata orally; Group 3 received 300 mg/kg b.wt Vitamin E only orally; Group 4 received 60 mg/kg b.wt CSE intraperitoneally; Group 5 received 20 mg/kg b.wt CSE intraperitoneally; Group 6 received 60 mg/kg b.wt CSE intraperitoneally and 800 mg/kg b.wt A. digitata orally; Group 7 received 20 mg/kg b.wt CSE intraperitoneally and 800 mg/kg b.wt A. digitata orally; Group 8 received 60 mg/kg b.wt CSE intraperitoneally and 300 mg/kg Vit. E orally. It was administered for 21 days. The testes and epididymis were dissected following abdominal incision. The epididymis was used for semen analysis while the testes was processed for histological analysis and biochemical assay. All the data was analyzed by ANOVA, using the SPSS version 17.0 software. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: CSE administration caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count, found in the group treated with CSE only. However, the Administration of A. digitata caused significant increase (p<0.05) in sperm count, G6PDH, LDH, GPx and SOD; however, MDA levels were decreased. Histological observations showed a decrease in the number of Spermatogonia and differentiating cells in the testes of rats treated with CSE. Conclusions: The results obtained revealed the antioxidant ability of A. digitata in counter-acting the testicular damage caused by CSE administration.
... This effect could be due to the presence of sterols, saponins and triterpenes in the fruit pulp. The extract also shows a marked antipyretic activity (Ramadan et al., 1993). The antipyretic activity of the extract resembles that normally induced by standard dose of administered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in hyperthermic rats (Ramadan et al., 1993). ...
... The extract also shows a marked antipyretic activity (Ramadan et al., 1993). The antipyretic activity of the extract resembles that normally induced by standard dose of administered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in hyperthermic rats (Ramadan et al., 1993). Analgesic and antipyretic activities were also mentioned by UN (2005, cited in Masola et al., 2009, probably due to the presence of sterols, saponins and triterpenes in the fruit pulp. ...
... Fruit pulp and powdered seeds are used in cases of dysentery and to promote perspiration (i.e. a diaphoretic) (Sidibe & Williams, 2002). Baobab fruit pulp has traditionally been used as an immunostimulant (El-Rawy et al. (1997) cited in Al-Qarawi et al., 2003, anti-inflammatory, analgesic (Ramadan et al. (1993) cited in Al-Qarawi et al., 2003), pesticide (Tuani et al. (1994 cited in Al-Qarawi et al., 2003), antipyretic, febrifuge, and astringent in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery (Ramadan et al. (1993) cited in Al-Qarawi et al., 2003). The fruit pulp has been evaluated as a substitute for improved western drugs (le Grand (1985) cited in Al-Qarawi et al., 2003). ...
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Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) is a multi-purpose tree species native to Africa. Its fruit pulp has very high vitamin C content (ffi ten times that of orange), and can be used in seasoning, as an appetizer and to make juices. Seeds contain appreciable quantities of crude protein, digestible carbohydrates and oil, whereas they have high levels of lysine, thiamine, Ca and Fe. They can be eaten fresh or dried, ground into flour and thus added to soups and stews. Processing eliminates a number of anti-nutritional factors present in the seed. Baobab leaves are superior in nutritional quality to fruit pulp, and contain significant levels of vitamin A. The leaves are a staple for many populations in Africa, and are eaten fresh or dried. Several plant parts have interesting anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and baobab has been used extensively since ancient times in traditional medicine. Key words: Baobab, Adansonia digitata L., traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, anti-nutritional factors
... Pharmacologically, Baobab has been shown as an antioxidant [44], anti-inflammatory [49], analgesic/antipyretic [49] antilipidemic [50,51), hypoglycaemic [52,53), antimicrobial [54,55) antiobesity [52][53][54][55][56][57], cardioprotective [58], and hepatoprotective [59][60][61]. ...
... Pharmacologically, Baobab has been shown as an antioxidant [44], anti-inflammatory [49], analgesic/antipyretic [49] antilipidemic [50,51), hypoglycaemic [52,53), antimicrobial [54,55) antiobesity [52][53][54][55][56][57], cardioprotective [58], and hepatoprotective [59][60][61]. ...
... It had been used without limitations as juice, cakes and mixed with other grains for bread [92,45). Adansoina digitata fruit -a nutraceutical of low cost-has a wide therapeutic window (LD 50 = 8000 mg/kg) [49] and no or insignificant side effects. ...
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Metabolic syndrome is a complex of metabolic disorders characterized by oxidative stress which compromises cell functions and entails multiple organs pathologies. We investigated the therapeutic and protective potential of Adansonia digitata fruit -a potent antioxidant- in high sugar/high fat diet-simulated metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. 42 male rats (140-200 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups. G1 was kept on standard laboratory diet (SLD) for all 9 weeks (negative control). 5 groups were fed high Sugar/high fat diet for 6 weeks then switched to SLD for another 3 weeks + oral treatment as follows: G2+ no treatment (positive control), G3-G5 + 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day aqueous A. digitata fruit respectively, G6 + 10 mg/kg/day Simvastatin. G7 + HS/HFD + 400 mg/kg/day A. digitata fruit simultaneously and was terminated at W6. Our results showed that G2-G6 develops dyslipidemia, hyperglycaemia, weight gain, elevated hepatic biomarkers, elevated creatinine and urea plus pathological derangements in the heart, liver and kidney tissues compared to negative control at W6. 200 mg/kg/day A. digitata fruit significantly ameliorated the induced dyslipidemia (P ≤ 0.001), hyperglycaemia (P ≤ 0.001) with a significant reduction in the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (P ≤ 0.000) after 3 weeks treatment. The fruit normalized the elevated hepatic biomarkers as well as creatinine and urea. A dose dependent partial reduction in lesion intensity was observed in the hepatic tissue while the heart and kidney showed mostly reversed to normal histology. The inflammatory infiltration was eliminated. Relevant results were observed for the two higher doses. The simultaneous treatment showed significant lower levels in all biomarkers investigated compared to positive control which could be interpreted as protective activity. A reduction of 4-11% in whole body weight was achieved. CONCLUSION: MetS was successfully simulated with a HS/HFD formula in male Wistar rats. Treatment with aqueous A. digitata fruit showed anti-Metabolic Syndrome potential reflected by weight loss, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hypoglycaemic, renal, hepatic and cardio-protective activities.
... Besides, at a dose of 800 mg/kg, the extract displayed marked analgesic activity at the dose of 800 mg/kg when evaluated using hot plate method. The ability of the extract to induce analgesia was 90% that of standard acetyl salisylic acid analgesia at a dose of 50 mg/kg (Ramadan et al. 1994). Moreover, the aqueous extract produced significant antipyretic activity at the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg by significantly decreasing the rectal temperature of hyperthermic rats at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours (h) post treatment, when compared to the control group (Ramadan et al. 1994). ...
... The ability of the extract to induce analgesia was 90% that of standard acetyl salisylic acid analgesia at a dose of 50 mg/kg (Ramadan et al. 1994). Moreover, the aqueous extract produced significant antipyretic activity at the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg by significantly decreasing the rectal temperature of hyperthermic rats at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours (h) post treatment, when compared to the control group (Ramadan et al. 1994). Besides, a comparative study on cytokine modulatory activities of different sources of A. digitata was conducted. ...
Chapter
The chapter includes traditional uses, secondary metabolites, biological activities and mechanistic interpretation of anti-inflammatory activity of its species
... the formalin-induced rat paw edema test. 196 Some authors have reported that BCG through the inflammatory pathway causes the release of pro-inflammatory markers, including TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, and C-reactive protein. 378,379 In a reported study, the stem-bark methanol extract of A digitata ameliorated BCG-induced fever and depression suggesting possible involvement of anti-inflammatory mechanisms. ...
... LD 50 of the fruit pulp aqueous extract was 8000 mg/kg, underlining its safety. 196 Aframomum melegueta K Schum. (Zingiberaceae) is native to tropical regions of Africa as a perennial spice. ...
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The emergence of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that emanated from Wuhan in China in 2019 has become a global concern. The current situation warrants ethnomedicinal drug discovery and development for delivery of phytomedicines with potential for the treatment of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to provide a detailed evaluation of available information on plant species used in African traditional medicines with antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and COVID-19 symptoms relieving effects. Literature from scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar, African Journals OnLine (AJOL), Science Direct, and Web of Science were used for this review. A total of 35 of the 38 reviewed plants demonstrated a wide range of antiviral activities. Bryophyllum pinnatum, Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola, Sphenocentrum jollyanum, Adansonia digitata, Sutherlandia frutescens, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Moringa oleifera, and Nigella sativa possess a combination of antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and COVID-19 symptoms relieving activities. Nine, 13, and 10 of the plants representing 23.7%, 34.2%, and 26.3% of the plants studied had antiviral activity with 3 other activities, antiviral activity with 2 other activities, and antiviral with one pharmacological activity alone, respectively. The plants studied were reported to be relatively safe at the subchronic toxicity level, except for 2. The study provides baseline information on the pharmacological activities , toxicity, and chemical components of 9 African medicinal plants with antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and symptoms relieving activities, thereby making the plants candidates for further investigation for effectiveness against COVID-19.
... Earlier studies by 12,13,14 suggested that Adansonia digitata has significant antimalarial properties. Its medicinal applications include treatment of intestinal and skin disorders and various uses as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic agents [15][16][17][18] . The present study therefore aims at investigating the antimalarial potentials of extract and some fractions of Adansonia digitata stem bark in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. ...
... Medicinal plants are usually considered to be promising candidates as alternative and rich source of new drugs. The work of Ramadan et al.,15 on the non-toxicity Adansonia digitata explains why various parts of plant, especially leaves, fruit pulp, seeds and bark fibers, have been used traditionally for medicinal and nutritional purposes9,10 . ...
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Background: Malaria is one of the most common major health problems responsible for the death of millions of children, pregnant women and adults. Antimalarial drug resistance has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing malaria control today. Plant resources that either treat or prevent parasite invasion desirable in developing countries are potential targets for research and development of alternative malaria drugs. Objective: This study investigated the suppressive and prophylactic potentials of extracts and some fractions of Adansonia digitata stem bark in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Methodology: The albino mice were administered with two different doses (200mg/kg body weight and 400mg/kg body weight) of aqueous extract (AQ), methanolic extract (ME), chloroform fraction (CF) and ethylacetate fraction (EF) of Adansonia digitata stem bark for five consecutive days. 5mg/kg body weight dose per day of artemether-lumefantrine and 5mg/kg body weight dose per day of chloroquine was used as positive control while the negative control mice received only the vehicle (5% v/v tween 80). In the prophylactic groups, the mice were pretreated daily for five days before they were challenged with inoculums of 1 x 10 7 chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei infected erythrocyte intraperitoneally. Results: The results showed a dose dependent chemosupression in the fractions and the extract treated groups. The 400mg/kg body weight was more effective with respect to the parasite clearance than the 200mg/kg body weight in all the groups. Both the 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight dose of ethylacetate fraction (EF) exhibited the highest chemosupression. The chemosupression caused by Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and Chloroquine (CQ) treated groups were significantly (P< 0.05) higher than the fractions and extract treated groups. The percentage parasitemia also decreased in this manner. There was a mutual delay in parasitemia with EF and ME. The packed cell volume (PCV) increased significantly (P< 0.05) in the AL and CQ, and 400mg/kg body weight dose EF and ME respectively and increased for the other fraction and extract used at 400mg/kg body weight dose compared with the control. Conclusion: This study showed that EF of Adansonia digitata stem bark has potent antimalarial property which could be of future importance in malaria management.
... Leaves, bark and fruits of this tree are traditionally employed in several African countries as food and for medicinal purposes, and for these reasons baobab is named as "the small pharmacy" or "chemist tree" [13]. It is well established for its antioxidant properties [14], anti-inflammatory [15,16], antipyretic activity [17], analgesic property [15]; Bamidele and Ahmed, [18], Hepatoprotective properties [19], antimicrobial activity [20]; antiviral activity [21], antitrypanosomal activity [22], antidiarrheal activity [23]. The pulp is therapeutically utilized as analgesic, antidiarrhoea/ antidysentery and for treatment of smallpox and measles [24]. ...
... Leaves, bark and fruits of this tree are traditionally employed in several African countries as food and for medicinal purposes, and for these reasons baobab is named as "the small pharmacy" or "chemist tree" [13]. It is well established for its antioxidant properties [14], anti-inflammatory [15,16], antipyretic activity [17], analgesic property [15]; Bamidele and Ahmed, [18], Hepatoprotective properties [19], antimicrobial activity [20]; antiviral activity [21], antitrypanosomal activity [22], antidiarrheal activity [23]. The pulp is therapeutically utilized as analgesic, antidiarrhoea/ antidysentery and for treatment of smallpox and measles [24]. ...
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Objectives The role of aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata was investigated against cadmium chloride-induced testicular damage in Wistar Rats. Methods Thirty (30) male Wistar Rats weighing (150–170) were divided into six groups (n=5). Group A served as control and received oral administration of phosphate buffer saline; group B received 800 mg/kg A. digitata only; group C were injected intraperitoneally with single dose 2 mg/kg b.w cadmium chloride; group D were injected intraperitoneally with single dose 2 mg/kg b.w cadmium chloride and treated with 800 mg/kg aqueous extract of A. digitata ; group E received 300 mg/kg vitamin E only; group F were injected intraperitoneally with single dose 2 mg/kg b.w cadmium chloride and treated with 300 mg/kg vitamin E. After 21 days, the animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, the testes were excised fixed in Bouins fluids for histological analysis and the other homogenized in 5% sucrose solution for determination of tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme activity, biochemical assay. Results The group treated with cadmium chloride plus A. digitata caused significant decrease in MDA levels with significant increase (p<0.05) in antioxidant activities and biochemical enzymes when compared to cadmium chloride only group. Conclusions Aqueous extract of A. digitata appears to have ameliorative effect against cadmium chloride-induced testicular damage. This could be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compound.
... Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant and extremely important in human nutrition. Vitamin C has been shown to be related to lower the blood pressure, enhanced immunity against many tropical diseases, lower incidence of cataract development and lower incidence of coronary disease (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30). The high Vitamin C and antioxidant content of the baobab fruit pulp may have a role to play in the extension of shelf-life for foods and beverages, as well as cosmetics (1-49, 74, 77). ...
... In addition to this, the fruit pulp of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) has a similar antiinflammatory properties to phenylbutazone used as a standard in rats. This activity may be attributed to the presence of sterols, saponins and triterpenes in the aqueous extract of baobab fruit pulp (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28). Baobab fruit pulp and seeds were also widely used for antipyretic properties. ...
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This review paper highlights the medicinal properties particularly the immunogenic potentiality of iconic baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) (Kalphavraksha or Wish) tree species belongs to Malvaceae family. During the recent outbreak of second wave of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mutants, Delta variant (B. 1. 617.2) strain and Delta Plus (AY.1) in India has created a major health issue resulted in more hospitalizations and death. Another problem is fully vaccinated people with "breakthrough" infections is rare but reported. This has created a situation and therefore, promoted herbal medicine, fruit pulp of baobab as an immunity booster for controlling the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The baobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp is very rich in vitamin C (280-350 mg/g of the fruit), zinc, and the source of protein and used as a herbal medicine long time ago by local traditional healers in India, Africa, Madagascar and other Asian countries. In addition to this, the baobab fruit pulp is acidic in nature and also known for protease inhibitors which limits the consumption of fruits. Plant protease inhibitors are directly involved in blocking the viral replication and inhibited the viral synthesis. Therefore, two dose vaccination with additional dietary and medicinal therapy will help to prevent the human body against invading viral antigen and improved the overall health condition of the Covid-19 patients. In India, the oral consumption of baobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp with milk as an immunity booster has improved the Covid-19 patients health condition. However, there are no clinical evidences to support the scientific validation. Therefore, clinical experimental studies should be conducted particularly for the scientific validation of immunogenic potentiality of baobab fruit pulp. This will help in developing a novel drug for controlling the coronavirus infections in future pandemic.
... Numerous ethnomedicinal values are attributed to the various plant parts of Adansonia digitata [18]. For example, stem bark is used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorder [20], depression [21], malaria [19], wound healing [22], among other indications in Africa traditional medicine and have been evaluated as a substitute for imported western drugs [23,24]. ...
... The different parts of Adansonia digitata have numerous biological properties including antimicrobial, antiviral [25], antioxidant [26], hepatoprotective [27], anti-inflammatory, 6 Neurobehavioural Mechanism of Antidepressant Effect of Methanol Stem Bark Extract of Adansonia digitata (Linn) in Tail Suspension Test in Mice analgesic and antipyretic activities [24]. According to the World Health Organisation, depression will be the second leading cause of disability in the developed countries in 2020 [28], and the continuous use of the currently available synthetic antidepressant drugs acting via multiple neurotransmitters system [29], have been associated with some severe side effects [30]. ...
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Aim: An earlier study has demonstrated the in-vivo antidepressant effect of methanol stem bark extract of Adansonia digitata, using soxhlet extraction protocol, but there is a lack of scientific data on its neurobehavioural mechanism of action. This study, therefore, investigated its antidepressant potentials, using cold maceration method, and determined the probable neurobehavioural mechanism of its antidepressant-like effect. Methodology: The antidepressant-like effect of the extract was evaluated in tail suspension test, at graded doses in mice. Subsequently, the probable neurobehavioural mechanism of the antidepressant-like effect of the extract was investigated by intraperitoneal pretreatment with adrenergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic, and muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonists; GABA agonist; nitric oxide precursor and inhibitors; and using a putative neuromodulator at NMDA receptors prior to the extract administration. Results and discussion: The extract at all the doses used, significantly (p<0.05) and dose-dependently decreased the immobility time in tail suspension test without significant (p>0.05) alteration on locomotor behaviour in mice. However, the anti-immobility potential of the extract was significantly (p<0.05) reversed by prazosin, yohimbine, sulpiride, methylene blue, L-arginine and baclofen, suggesting the involvement of adrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAerargic and nitergic pathways. Conclusion: This study, therefore, concluded that the extract may possess antidepressant effect and its mechanism may involve multiple pathways.
... In many countries, various parts of the tree have been traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. Besides, different parts of the tree have been reported to have analgesic, immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory, insect repellent, and pesticidal properties [11,12]. Intriguingly, the leaf extract has ten times more potent antioxidative capacity than vitamin C. Also, the leaf extract inhibits antiinflammatory iNOS expression, which might be related to the elimination of peroxyl radicals as well as inhibition of signal transduction mediated by NF-B. ...
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Traditionally, in many countries, various parts of the Adansonia digitata ( A. digitata ) tree have been used in the treatment of many clinical ailments including diarrhea and dysentery. The phytochemical screening has indicated that the leaf extract of A. digitata contains flavonoids, saponins, mucilage, steroids, and alkaloids. Thus, this paper aims to evaluate the hyperglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of methanolic extract of A. digitata leaves (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) in diabetic rats. The extract was administered orally for six weeks in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The treatment with the extract caused a significant reduction in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α ), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 46.7%, 46.15%, 48.91%, 43%, 60%, 66%, 45.45%, and 30.4%, respectively, as compared to the diabetic group after the sixth week of treatment. The leaf extract also mitigated the decline of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, RBCs count, hemoglobin level, packed cell volume (PCV %), and erythropoietin concentration in diabetic rats by 31%, 33.25%, 24.72%, 51.42%, and 220.68% with respect to the diabetic group. Also, the extract maintained the level of antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the diabetic rats. It also reduced the elevation in the white blood corpuscles (WBC) count in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. Our study, therefore, indicates that methanolic extract of A. digitata leaf exerts strong antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic properties in a dose-dependent manner by improving the hematological properties and redox parameters in the experimental diabetic rats.
... Various plant parts (e.g. leaves, bark, and fruit pulp), have traditionally been used for immune-stimulant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, insect repellent and pesticidal properties, in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery in many African countries, and have been evaluated as a substitute for imported western drugs [17,18]. ...
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Aim: The current study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Adansonia digitata fruit pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in rats. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Science, between November 2017 and January 2018. Methodology: A. digitata fruit pulp was extracted by maceration using water; and a concentration of 100 mg/ml was used. Two doses of the aqueous extract (200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and Livoline (25 mg/kg) were used to investigate their hepatoprotective effects on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results: The two doses of the plant extract showed dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity, as evident by the significant reduction (P<0.05) in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin along with the improved histopathological liver sections compared to CCl4-treated animals. Conclusion: Due to its hepatoprotective potentials, A. digitata extract may be used to develop standard treatment drugs against some liver disorders when it is further evaluated through extensive researches.
... e two doses of A. digitata showed dose-dependant hepatoprotective effects on CCl 4induced hepatotoxicity in rats. is was clearly seen by a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the serum of AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin as well as less pathological changes in liver sections compared with the CCl 4 -treated group. e protection of A. digitata L. fruit pulp against CCl 4induced liver damage and restoration of biochemical values could result from the fruit content of triterpenoids [65], β-sitosterol, β-amyrin palmitate or/and α-amyrin, and ursolic acid along with the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunostimulant, and antimicrobial activities of A. digitata L. fruit pulp [66]. ...
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Background: Liver disorders are common in Sudan and elsewhere. These are traditionally treated by medicinal plants especially in rural areas where they are widely available. Methods: This review was based on scientific research in hepatoprotective plants performed in Sudan for the period between 2001 and 2016 AD. Data collection was done through scientific evidence of local and international published data, theses, and publications from some libraries in Sudanese universities. Internet was also used to collect published data in different international scientific journals. Results: In this study, 21 plants from different families were reviewed for the hepatoprotective activity in Sudan. These plants are widely used in traditional medicine for their availability and cheap prices. All of these plants have been scientifically investigated through experimental animal models which confirmed their hepatoprotective activities. This was evaluated by measuring several parameters including liver markers (AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin, and bilirubin) and histopathological investigation. Nineteen (90.5%) of the herbal plants were found to possess significant hepatoprotective activity in animal models. Two (9.5%) of the plants were devoid of this activity. The action of these plants is largely attributed to their phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusion: Sudanese herbs may offer novel alternatives to treat liver disorders. Yet determination of the active principle responsible for hepatoprotection needs to be investigated. Further studies on these plants are necessary to establish the efficacy, safety, and exact mechanism of action as a moral alternative in the treatment of liver disorders.
... Studies by Ajaiyeoba [15], Musila et al. [16] and Adeoye and Bewaji [17], reported that A. digitata has significant antimalarial properties. Its medicinal applications include treatment of intestinal and skin disorders and various uses as anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic agents [18,19]. ...
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Background: The investigation and knowledge of calcium handling mechanisms in the plasmodium has been considered as a potential biological target against malaria. Objective: This study deals with the evaluation of inhibitory activity of secondary metabolites of ethylacetate partitioned-fraction of Adansonia digitata stem bark extract on malaria-associated protein using in silico docking studies. Materials and methods: Molecular docking and virtual screening was performed to understand the mechanism of ligand binding and to identify potent calcium transporter inhibitors. The stem bark extracts of A. digitata contains rich sources of phytochemicals. The secondary metabolites were determined by HPLC-DAD and HRGC-MS analysis. The major chemical constituent present in the ethylacetate partitioned-fraction of A. digitata stem bark extract were examined for their antiplasmodial activity and were also involved in docking study. Results: The secondary metabolites, quercetin and apigenin inhibited the formation of β-hematin. The results showed that all the selected compounds in the A. digitata showed binding energy ranging between -6.5 kcal/mol and -7.1 kcal/mol. Among the two chemical constituents, apigenin has the highest docking score along with the highest number of hydrogen bonds formed when compared to quercetin. Analysis of the results suggests that apigenin and quercetin could act as an anti-malaria agent. Conclusion: Molecular docking analysis could lead to further development of potent calcium transporter inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of malaria and related conditions.
... [5][6][7] The fruit pulp has been found to have similar anti-inflammatory properties to phenylbutazone used as standard in rats. 8 The leaves, fruit-pulp and seeds have shown antiviral activity against influenza virus, herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus 9 and polio. 10 The plant has been reported to be used in folk medicine as an antipyretic or febrifuge to overcome fevers. ...
... The different parts of the plant (leaves, bark, root, pulp, seeds) are used as a panacea (Kamatou et al., 2011). A. digitata has been subjected to various studies for its pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial (Yusha'u et al., 2010;Abiona et al., 2015), antidepressant (Shehu et al., 2018) of its bark, hepatoprotective (Al-Qarawi et al., 2003), antipyretic and analgesic (Ramadan et al., 1994), anti-inflammatory (Ayele et al., 2013), and antiviral (Hudson et al., 2000), antioxidant, and antidiabetic (Braca et al., 2018) properties of its pulp. Its trunk bark particularly has been cited in various ethnopharmacological surveys for its wound healing properties (Inngjerdingen et al., 2004;Kébenzikato et al., 2015). ...
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Adansonia digitata is a tree plant used in west African local pharmacopoeia. This work aimed to evaluate the wound healing properties of its trunk bark's hydroethanolic extract in wistar rats. The model of excision wound was used. Wistar rats were treated post-excision topically with neutral carbopol gel (Control), carbopol gels containing 2.5 and 5% of A. digitata hydroethanolic trunk bark extract (ADHE) and L-Mesitran. Pictures were taken post excision for analysis. Biopsies were realized for histological examination of the skin excised and for hydroxyproline determination. In vitro membrane stabilization anti-inflammatory test, DPPH and FRAP antioxidant tests, and phytochemical tests were performed. The results show a better rate of contraction in ADHE 2.5 and 5% animals (+56 ± 0.52% and +68 ± 0.24% respectively) as earlier as on day three post-excision. The hydroxyproline assay confirmed a better collagen production in ADHE 2.5% and 5% animals (+102.5 ± 2.9%, and +107 ± 3.0% respectively). Histological analysis showed a rapid re-epithelialization in ADHE animals. The anti-inflammatory test indicated an IC50 of 16.521 ± 0.525 µg/mL, very close to Aspirin (16.826 ± 0.341 µg/mL), showing a possible anti-inflammatory activity of ADHE. The extract reduced DPPH radical (IC50 of 344.985 ± 17.139 µg/mL) and ferric ions (EC50 = 178.689 ± 0.250 µg/mL). Phytochemical investigations revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, and polyphenolic compounds. Flavonoids in particular, with an amount of 51.694 ± 0.174 mgER/g, should explain the wound healing activity observed, making the hydroethanolic extract of A. digitata a potential remedy for excision wounds.
... Previously, the plant Adansonia digitata was reported to possess marked anti-inflammation in formalin-induced pedal swelling in rodents further ascertaining the involvement of inflammatory pathways as mechanism of action of the plant. 25 The beneficial effects of AD on BCG-induced depression may also be due to inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, which suppresses expression of the pro-inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene, resulting in decreased nitric oxide (NO) production as reported to be the mechanism of anti-inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. 16 Thus, this further ascertained the involvement of inflammatory mechanism in the antidepressant activity of AD. ...
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The plant Adansonia digitata has been reported to possess antidepressant activity mediated via monoaminergic, neuroendocrine and neurotrophic pathways. This study investigated the involvement of anti-inflammatory mechanism in the antidepressant activity of methanol stem bark extract of A. digitata. Acute oral median lethal dose (LD50) was estimated using Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD 425) method. Depression was induced using Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG, 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice and readings taken at 0, 4, 24 and 48 hours post BCG administration. Subsequently the antidepressant activity of the extract (250-1000 mg/kg) was assessed using tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT). The extract significantly (p ˂ 0.05) decreased the rectal temperature of mice following BCG-induced sickness 4 and 48 hours post induction. The extract also significantly (p ˂ 0.05) decreased the duration of immobility in the TST at 4 and 48 hours post BCG administration. The extract significantly (p ˂ 0.05) increased the total number of line crossedby mice at 4, 24 and 48 hours post BCG administration. The ability of the extract to ameliorate BCG-induced depression suggests the possible involvement of anti-inflammatory mechanismin its antidepressant activity.
... The leaf and stem bark of A. digitata have significant free radical scavenging, cytotoxic, membrane stabilizing, thrombolytic, analgesic, immunostimulant and antidiarrheal properties. The bark of A. digitata has been reported to be used for inflammation, diarrhea, pain, and other health disorders [7][8][9] . In traditional medicine bark is used as a substitute for quinine in case of fever or as a prophylactic. ...
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Adansonia digitata L. commonly known as "Baobab" tree, belongs to the family Bombacaceae. The stem bark and root bark of the plant are used traditionally in the treatment of malaria, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. Although it is used traditionally, scientifically the plant is yet to be evaluated for its Pharmacognostical characters. Hence, the plant was subjected to macro-microscopic, Photomicrographic, physicochemical, and preliminary phytochemical tests to fix the quality standards for this drug. The plant was collected from the Jamnagar district in Gujarat. Plant authentication, Pharmacognostical study, physicochemical and phytochemical study was performed by following standard procedures as per Ayurvedic pharmacopeia of India. Microscopic studies have shown in the root bark presence of stone cells with the narrow lumen and long striations, rosette crystals and cluster crystals while in the stem bark presence of pitted stone cells and cluster crystals. Physicochemical parameters show higher ash content in root bark (12.47±1.42% w/w) than the stem bark (6.22 ± 0.28%w/w) and water-soluble extractive value of both the samples has been found more in comparison to alcohol soluble extractive value. This study would be useful in the identification and authentication of the raw drug.
... The aqueous leaf extract has been reported to exhibit significant inhibition against cytokine IL-8 (Vimalanathan and Hudson, 2009). Ramadan et al. (1994) reported the pain-relieving effect of the aqueous fruit extract of A. digitata in mice. Khan et al. (2006) while demonstrating the analgesic potential of the petroleum ether extract containing seed oil of A. digitata using the tail-flick test. ...
Conference Paper
Despite the extensive use of antibiotics and vaccination programs, microbial infections continue to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This is exacerbated by widespread antibiotic resistance, the emergence of new pathogens in addition to the resurgence of old ones, and the lack of effective new therapeutics. Plants represent a rich source of new molecules with pharmacological properties, which may be used as lead compounds for the development of new drugs to fight against such resistance. In this light, we carried out the chemical investigation of Pseudarthria hookeri, a plant used in many African countries for the treatment of several ailments including microbial infections viz pneumonia, cough, abdominal pains, and diarrhea. Our research led us to the isolation and characterization of three new flavonoids and several known compounds which were assessed for their antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacterial strains involved in diarrhea and respiratory infections. The antibacterial activity was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) using the broth microdilution method. Five flavonoids showed significant antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains tested except Enterococcus faecalis. The flavonoids pseudarflavone A and 6-prenylpinocembrin showed the highest antibacterial effect with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 16 to 32 and 8 to 64 µg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria, respectively. The MBC/MIC ratio of pseudarflavone A against Klebsiella pneumoniae and the MBCs of 6-prenylpinocembrin against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were similar to those obtained with the reference antibiotic ciprofloxacin. These compounds emerged as promising drug candidates, highlighting their potential as lead compounds. Moreover, the tested compounds showed no toxic effect on MIN-6 and 3T3 cell lines up-to 400 µM, suggesting their safety profile. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first chemical investigation of this plant.
... Its stem-bark is regarded as a 'heart tonic' with diuretic properties (Ashorobi and Joda, 1998). Its immunostimulant (El- Rawy et al., 1997), hepatoprotective (Al- Qarawi et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory and analgesic (Ramadan et al., 1994) effects have been reported. ...
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Adansonia digitata is locally consumed as food in Nigeria. In the present study, the ameliorative effect of the aqueous leaf extract of Adansonia digitata (AeAD) was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats. To evaluate the effect of AeAD in CCl4 induced testicular toxicity, 20 adult male Wistar rats were equally divided into 4 groups (n=5). Group A animals received 1 ml olive oil per os (p.o) for two weeks, Group B animals received 2.5 ml/kg CCl4 (50% in olive oil, p.o) for two days, Group C animals received 500 ml/kg AeAD (p.o) for two weeks while Group D animals received 2.5 ml/kg CCl4 (50% in olive oil, p.o) for two days followed by 500 ml/kg AeAD (p.o) for two weeks. The ameliorative effects of AeAD were observed on reproductive hormonal parameters, activity of an antioxidant enzyme and cyto-architecture of the testis. Carbon tetrachloride treatment significantly (P<0.05) reduced levels of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and superoxide dismutase levels with distortions in the cyto-architecture of the testes in treated animals. These effects were ameliorated with AeAD treatment. The results demonstrated that the AeAD has the ability to ameliorate against carbon-tetrachloride-induced testicular toxicity suggesting it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.
... It has multi-purpose uses, as it produces food and non-food products such as medicines, fuel, timber, fodder 6 . According to a review 7 , A. digitata, the Kalpavriksha or giant baobab has numerous medicinal and non medicinal uses and is called "The small pharmacy or chemist tree" [8][9][10][11] . The tree is a resource of great economic value as all the parts like leaves, bark, fruits and seeds have numerous health benefits related to possession of bioactive compounds 12 . ...
Article
The tree species of Adansonia digitata L. possesses wide range of medicinal properties effective against various infectious diseases. The present work has been under taken to study the antibacterial activity of different extracts of A. digitata against pathogenic bacteria. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of leaf, flower and fruit wall extracts of A. digitata has been studied to find out their activity against pathogenic bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter aerogenus. The activity of these extracts of different plant parts against both positive as well as negative pathogenic bacterial strains was screened through well diffusion technique by using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. According to our observations, all the extracts of A. digitata exhibited antibacterial activity against all the pathogenic bacteria under study except the fruit wall extracts which didn’t show any inhibition against K. pneumonia. Thus, results provided evidence that the species A. digitata can be used as a potential source of antibacterial agent in the treatment of various infectious diseases.
... Oral administration of 10 ml/kg of normal saline were given to control group; 5 mg/kg of indomethacin to reference group; and 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg of aqueous extracts of Adansonia digitata to the test group. Doses were carefully selected based on previous study on Adansonia digitata [10,11]. Animals were fasted for 12 h prior to the commencement of the pain test and were administered either with the vehicle, reference drug or extract 30 min before the test. ...
Article
The study investigated the analgesic effect of the aqueous extract of the bark of Adansonia digitata using Wistar rats. Thirty Wistar rats weighing between 150 and 170g of either sex were used for the study. Animal were picked randomly and grouped into six with each group made up of five animals (3 females and 2 males). Oral administration of 10ml/kg of normal saline were given to control group; 5mg/kg of indomethacin to reference group; and 25mg/kg, 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg or 200mg/kg of aqueous extracts of Adansonia digitata to each of the test groups respectively.Hotplate and formalin paw-licking tests were used for nociceptive assessment. Animals treated with aqueous bark extract of Adansonia digitata showed significantly (p<0.05) prolonged response time to thermal stimuli (4.42±0.11s) compared with control group (3.29±0.29s) in a dose dependent manner. Results formalin paw-licking test showed that at early phase, animals administered with aqueous bark extract of Adansonia digitata significantly (p<0.05) have reduced paw-licking time (47.88±3.48-40.80±3.85s) compared with the control group (91.51±7.32s). In the late phase, aqueous bark extract of Adansoni adigitata significantly (p<0.05) reduced the paw-licking time (43.57±2.6-25.49±3.46s) compared with the control group (66.31±5.04s). It is hereby concluded that aqueous bark extract of A. digitata possesses a strong analgesic effect.
... The parts of Adansonia digitata are used as immune-stimulant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, insect repellent and pesticides. It is also used for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery (Ramadan, 1994;El-Rawy,1997). The leaves and bark are reported to possess free radical scavenging, cytotoxic, thrombolytic, anti-diarrheal, membrane stabilizing properties. ...
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The study assessed the effect of three pre-treatment techniques and three different growth media for breaking seed dormancy and in vitro germination in Adansonia digitata L., a multipurpose and globally endangered forest tree. The seeds were pretreated with three different techniques (mechanical, thermal and chemical treatments). After pre-treatment, the seeds were allowed to germinate on three different types of growth media (Potting soil-PS, Murashige and Skoog's-MS medium and Paper-boat-PB). It was observed that hot water (100 o C) treatment showed 88.33% of germination in potting soil. Whereas, the seeds treated with 98% H 2 SO 4 for 24 hours showed 94.33% of germination with a reduced period of emergence on Paper-Boat method. The species, A. digitata seeds showed the least percentage of germination with mechanical nicking in two (PS, MS) types used. Seed germination was absent on PB method similar to control. Data analysis revealed the correlation between germination percentage, number of days for germination and seedling length were significant and positive. Thus, as a cost efficient method,treatment of seeds with conc. H 2 SO 4 (98%) for 24hrs pre-treatment and germinating on paper-boat technique was recorded the best, followed by thermal treatment with 5min on PS medium.
... Baobab fruit pulp is traditionally used against diarrhea, scurvy, cough, dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Several scientific studies have been performed such as on its antidiarrheic properties (8); demonstrating its anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain killing), and antipyretic (temperature reducing) properties (9); and its effect against sickle cell anemia (10). Studies on the prebiotic effect of the fruit pulp were performed by the University of Piacenza (11). ...
Article
The baobab fruit (Adansonia digitata) was analyzed for proximate composition, amino acids, and minerals. The fruit pulp was found to be a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, and substantial quantities of K, Ca, and Mg. Amino acid analyses revealed high glutamic and aspartic acid, but the sulfur amino acids were the most limited. The present study was designed to investigate the role of Adansonia digitata (Baobab fruit pulp) against isoproterenol induced myocardial oxidative stress in experimental rats by demonstrating the changes in tissue cardiac markers, some antioxidant enzymes, interlukin-1 β (IL-1 β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), Collagen-1, galectin-3, and serum corticosterone. The activities of enzymatic antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) in the heart tissue; additionally, histopathological examination of the heart was estimated. Male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each. Group I served as normal control animal. Group II animals received isoproterenol (ISP) (85 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy (i.p.) to develop myocardial injury. Group III were myocardial oxidative animals treated with Baobab fruit pulp (200 µg/rats/day) for 4 weeks. Group IV received Baobab fruit pulp only. The data suggested an isoproterenol increase in levels of cardiac marker enzymes [creatine kinase MB (CK- MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], IL-1ß, MCP-1, MPO, Collagen, and galectin-3, with concomitant decrease in the activities GPX and GSH in heart tissue as well as corticosterone in serum. Baobab fruit pulp brings all the parameters to near normal level in ISP-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Histopathological examination of heart tissue of ISP-administered model rat showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and congestion in the blood vessels. However, treatment with Baobab fruit pulp (200 µg/rats/day) showed predominantly normal myocardial structure and no inflammatory cell infiltration. It has been concluded that Baobab fruit pulp has cardio protective effect against ISP-induced oxidative stress in rats.
... The significant difference (P<0.05) in kid weight at weaning and daily weight gain was also attributed to the sex ratio of kids at birth and quality of experimental diets. Baobab fruit was reported to contain high nutritional values required for good health [6] and [7]. ...
... In addition, several authors have identified the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides in plants that showed trypanocidal activities (Nok, 2002;Nok, 2005;Atawodi et al., 2011, Nwodo et al., 2015 which could also be responsible for the anti trypanosomal activity observed in this study. The result of the acute toxicity test revealed that extract of the fruit pulp of A. digitata is safe even at 9000 mg/kg and this is in line with (Ramadan et al., 1993) which says the pulp is safe at more than 8000 mg/kg. As such, the fruit pulp of A. digitata could therefore be a suitable candidate as anti trypanosoma agent if eventually confirms to be efficacious, since most of the current anti trypanosoma agents have problems of toxicity especially at high dose. ...
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This study investigated the effects of aqueous extract of fruit pulp of Adansonia digitata on albino rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Acute toxicity test was conducted on the extract and then analysed for some phytoconstituents. Thirty-five adult rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group A were the non-infected control group while groups B, C, D, E, F and G were inoculated with 1x 106 trypanosomes per 100 g body weight (BW). At day 6 post infection (6 PI), groups C and D were treated with diminazene aceturate and vitamin C at dose rates of 3.5 mg/kg BW intra peritonealy once and 200 mg/kg BW orally for 3 days respectively, while groups E, F, G were orally treated for 3 days with 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg BW of the extract respectively. The rats were monitored for parasitaemia, PCV and body weight. The LD50 of the extract was greater than 9000 mg/kg. The phytochemical analysis revealed 3.51% flavonoid, 0.07% alkaloid, 0.10% saponin and 0.03.0% oxalate in the extract. While there was progressive increase in parasitaemia from day 6 PI in groups E and F throughout the study, parasitaemia decreases and was completely cleared by day 8 and 11 PI in groups C and G respectively. PCV of group A was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that of F and G. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the PCV of Group A and that of groups B and C and highly significantly different (p<0.01) with that of D and E. Significant (p<0.05) body weight increase of rats in groups D, E, F and G at day 10 PI was observed. Thus, fruit pulp of A. digitata at a dose of 9000 mg/kg was not toxic to rats, and contains active compounds with potential In vivo anti-trypanosoma activity. Keywords: Adansonia digitata, Albino rats, Animal trypanosomosis, Phytochemicals, Trypanosoma brucei brucei
... The obtained values corroborate the non-toxicity of A. digitata to humans and affirm the reason why the plant parts are generally consumed. The nontoxicity of A. digitata plant parts was corroborated by Ramadan et al. (1994), they reported a LD 50 >8000µg/mL for A. digitata fruit pulp aqueous extract. In spite of the non-toxic nature of A. digitata to brine shrimp larvae, the plant extracts were relatively potent on M. incognita compared to the untreated control cabbage plants. ...
... Furthermore, in a more recent development, Mainasara et al., in their published report on hepatoxicity in Albino rats exposed to MILE, concluded that MILE was relatively safe and is not likely to produce a toxic effect when albino rats were infused with 500 mg/kg/b.w.t [21]. Our result is in agreement with the report by Ramadan et al., [22]. Bashir et al., also reported similar findings on Allium sativum [23]. ...
Article
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Background: Breast cancer is an uncontrolled growth of breast tissue, which develops in cells lining the milk ducts and lobules, it’s the most common neoplasm in the female. Breast cancer has been declared a universal disaster as it is expected to nearly triple between 2020 and 2030, as most available drugs have not shown any desirable outcome. Aims/Objective: This research aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity and effects of M. indica on serum IL-6, and IFN-γ in cancer-induced albino rats. Materials/Methods: Mangifera indica was subjected to plant identification/authentication and extractions, the acute toxicity was determined using Lorke's method. They are 6 groups of 4 rats each. The groups are normal, positive controls, Ascorbic acids, 500mg, 1000mg and 1500mg M. indica groups. All the groups were induced with 65 mg/kg-1 b.w. of 7,12 Dimethylbenzene-(α) anthracene (DMBA), except Group I and observed for 14 days, before treatment with 100mg of AA (Group III), and 500mg, 1000mg, and 1500mg of extracts (Groups IV- VI) respectively. The rats were sacrificed, 24 hours. after the last treatment. Results: The results of acute toxicity study of the extracts in both phase 1 and 2, has shown no signs of behavioural changes and mortality in all the experimental animals. This has proven that methanolic extracts of M. indica is safe. There was a significant down-regulation of serum IL-6, and INF-γ expressions (P>0.005). Conclusion: This research indicated that M. indica extract is safe and possesses anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory effects, it may be used for breast cancer management.
... Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) is an indigenous plant to most countries in Africa, and it is of significant interest among other plants as it was claimed to be rich in ascorbic acid and minerals [11]. Its fruit pulp is used in several parts of Sub-Saharan Africa for medicinal reasons against some body disorders: fever, diarrhoea, constipation, and many other ailments [12]. The fruit pulp is known to be consumed in Europe because of its various health benefit and its novel food ingredient, as its consumption was authorized by the European parliament and council [13]. ...
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Background: Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide, and it poses numerous health risks to the environment and living organisms. This study aimed at assessing the protective role of Adansonia digitata (A. digitata) on glyphosate-induced hepatorenal toxicity in a Wistar rat model. Methods: Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five groups of five animals each. The first group did not receive glyphosate and served as the control group. The second group received a single daily dose of only glyphosate (375 mg/kg). The treatment groups 3 and 4 were given a single daily dose of glyphosate (375 mg/kg) together with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of A. digitata extract, respectively. Group 5 was administered glyphosate (375 mg/kg) with Ascorbic Acid (200 mg/kg) as a comparison. At the conclusion of the study, blood serum samples from the rats were used for biochemical analysis. Then, the liver and kidneys were removed for histological examinations. Results: In comparison to the control rats in group I, those in group 2 that were given glyphosate had increased liver enzymes biomarkers, urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde levels, but their superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased (P
... Fruit pulp and powdered seeds are used in cases of dysentery and to promote perspiration (Sidibe and Williams, 2002). Baobab fruit pulp has traditionally been used as an immune-stimulant (AlQarawiet al., 2003), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, febrifuge and astringent in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery (Ramadan et al., 1993). The aqueous extract of baobab fruit pulp exhibited significant hepato-protective activity and, as a consequence, the consumption of the pulp may play an important part in human resistance to liver damage in areas where baobab is consumed (Al-Qarawiet al., 2003). ...
Conference Paper
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Adansonia digitata Linn is a plant with hard seed coats, endangered nature and its need for sustainable livelihood is unavoidable. Therefore, there is the need to determine the best silvicultural methods that can enhance the of propagation of this species. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the pre-germination treatments as it affects the growth and development of Adansonia digitata seeds in the nursery at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State. The seeds were subjected to four (4) pre-sowing treatments namely: soaking in cold water for 48 hours (T), soaking in hot water for 30 minutes 1 (T), soaking in concentrated Tetraoxosulphate(vi) acid (H SO) for 35 minutes in 20ml (T) and the no treatment 2 2 4 3-control (T). The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with twenty seeds sown for each 4 treatment making a total of hundred seeds. The results of the pre-sowing treatments showed that there were significant differences (p≤ 0.05) across the four treatments applied on seeds. Acid treated seeds had the highest performance (95%), followed by hot water treatment (40%). The study therefore recommends soaking of Adansoniadigitata seeds for 35 minutes in 20ml of acid for mass production of seedlings. This will enhance the early growth and performance of this species.
... Adansonia digitata has been used traditionally as an immunostimulant, anti-inflammatory as well as in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhea. Similarly, it is been compared and considered as a substitute for some western drugs [14,15]. A previous study reported that baobab fruit pulp has a strong prebiotic effect on living organisms [15]. ...
Article
Aim: The current study seeks to explore the neuroprotective benefits of Adansonia digitata against lead induced memory impairment, neurotransmitter/AChE activity imbalance, oxidative stress as well as brain damage. Methodology: Thirty male adult rats weighing 160g-200g were divided randomly into six groups (I-V1) consisting of five (5) rats in each group. Group I served as control and were administered with distilled water (1 ml/kg) only while groups II -VI were treatment groups. Group II were administered 250 mg/kg of Adansonia digitata; group III were administered 30 mg/kg of lead; Group IV were administered 250 mg/kg of Adansonia digitata plus 30 mg/kg of lead; Group V were administered 500 mg/kg of Adansonia digitata plus 30 mg/kg of lead; Group VI were administered 30 mg/kg of lead plus 10 mg/kg of succimer. All administrations were carried out through oral gavage for a period of 28 days. Results: Lead administration caused memory impairment, decreased dopamine concentration and AChE activity in brain, induced oxidative stress resulting in brain damage. Adansonia digitata treatment significantly (P<.001) attenuated memory impairment, modulated dopamine concentration and AChE activity, prevented oxidative stress and ameliorated histopathological changes in the brain of Wistar rats. Conclusion: The result showed that Adansonia digitata ameliorates lead-induced memory impairment in Wistar rats by improving memory index, controlling dopamine concentration and AChE activity, preventing oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration.
... Adansonia digitata L., known as baobab, is a plant indigenous to Africa. Its edible parts have a significant and consolidated history of human consumption in this geographical area, where baobab is used both as a food and in traditional African medicine against some disorders, including malaria, tuberculosis, fever, microbial infections [7], gastrointestinal disorders (constipation and diarrhea), anaemia, and toothache among others [8]. Almost all parts of this tree (fruit pulp, seeds, leaves, flowers, roots, and bark) are used in the traditional African medicine [9,10], whereas, in Europe, only the fruit pulp is consumed as a food since its authorization as a novel food ingredient by the European parliament and council under the Regulation (EC) No. 258/97 (Commission Decision 2008/575/EC). ...
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Metabolic syndrome includes a cluster of risk factors for many pathological conditions, including hyperglycemia, abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Adansonia digitata L. (also known as baobab) is used in traditional African Medicine and recent studies showed that it improves the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of action associated with the beneficial effects of extracts from the edible parts of baobab (fruit pulp, leaves, raw and toasted seeds), evaluating their inhibitory activity against: alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, and pancreatic lipase. Baobab fruit pulp and leaf extracts resulted to be the most active ones and were then tested on the differentiation process of SW-872 human liposarcoma cells to mature adipocytes. The addition of these latter extracts did not affect triglyceride accumulation, indicating a neutral impact on this parameter. The findings here reported help to explain the growing amount of evidence on the biological properties of baobab and provide suggestions about their use in food and nutraceutical fields.
... The extract tested at a dose of 400 and 800mg/kg inhibited formalin induced edema. After 24-h administration of the aqueous extract, the mean swelling of the foot was1.81 and 1.75mm for 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg, respectively, in comparison to the negative control (6.35mm) (Ramadan, A et al, 1994) 11 . The DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) of fruit pulp extract and aqueous leaf extract showed significant inhibition against cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8). ...
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ABSTRACT Baobab (Adansonia digitata) is a multi-purpose tree with tender root, tubers, twigs, fruit, seeds, leaves and flowers which are edible. Owing to the nutritional and medicinal benefits of baobab tree parts, it has been used for various purposes for the past two centuries in Africa, and some parts of Asia. This has in recent times led to some statutory bodies approving its use in certain food products. Adansonia digitata has popular ethnomedicinal application in the treatment of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Medicinal plants have been found to contain phytoconstituents of relevance in phytomedicine. Plants have provided active ingredients of medicines for years and are still sources of lead compounds in the development of new therapeutics A. digitata (baobab tree in both English and French), are used in the treatment of malaria, fever, among other ailment. The mechanism of anti plasmodial action of this extract has not been elucidated, however, anti plasmodial effects of natural plant products have been attributed to some of their active phytochemical components. A. digitata, having reported to be a rich source of antioxidant phytochemiclas different mechanism might be involved. KEYWORDS Phytochemicals, Baobab, (Adansonia digitata L.), Ethnomedicinal, Pharmacology and
... Thus, both Ramipril and MEADF exhibited preventive potentials against inflammation via significant lowering of serum CRP and IL-1β in l-NAME induced hypertensive rats. This effect has corroborated with the earlier findings of Ramadan et al. [40] where the fruit pulp of A. digitata was reported to have antiinflammatory properties. The elevated levels of LDH and CK-MB in the l-NAME control group observed in this study indicated some levels of damage to the myocardium, which may have been mediated by oxidative and inflammatory remodelling and injury to the heart and hence their leakage into the serum. ...
Article
IntroductionMost available drugs used for management of hypertension have presented a plethora of challenges which genuinely called for development of therapies from natural sources.AimThis study investigated the effect of methanol extract of Adansonia digitata fruit (MEADF) pulp on NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) induced hypertension in rats.Methods Fourty eight (48) wistar rats divided into six (6) groups (eight rats each) were employed. The induction of hypertension was achieved using l-NAME (40mg//kg body weight) by oral gavages. The induced rats were treated with MEADF pulp (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) and Ramipril (10 mg/kg) and the remaining three groups serve as control. Serum haemodynamic and biochemical modifiable parameters were determined using standard assay proceduresResultsAdministration of MEADF to the rats exerted a dose-dependent lowering effect on the elevated systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and heart rate towards the normal physiological threshold. At 400 mg/kg of MEADF, there was significant (p < 0.05) reduction in serum lipid profile and biomarkers associated with endothelial dysfunction [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity], inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-1β), oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) and cardiac injury (creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase activities). However, serum concentrations of nitric oxide, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, total bilirubin and albumin were not significantly (p < 0.05) different from those found in normal control group.Conclusion This study therefore demonstrates that MEADF possesses an in vivo ACE inhibitory activity, hypotensive potential and the ability to avert further degeneration of biochemical and physiological upsets associated with l-NAME induced hypertension.
... It has very small amount of iron and manganese, but exceedingly high content of calcium and vitamin C (Sibibe and Williams, 2002). Moreover, the phytochemical screening of the baobab fruit pulp showed sterols, triterpenes, saponins, and tannins (Ramadan et al., 1994) which have effects on scavenging free radicals that have been embroiled in numerous sickness conditions in people including joint inflammation, haemorrhagic stun, atherosclerosis, ischemia, reperfusion damage of numerous organs, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, tumour advancement, and carcinogenesis (Bagchi et al., 2000). Numerous sorts of free radicals exist; however, the most worrying in biological system is from oxygen, and referred as reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as nitric oxide (NO), which is a free radical delivered from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). ...
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The present work aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile and biological activities of Sudanese baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp extract. Baobab fruit pulp serves as food, and has been used in traditional medicine in Africa for the treatment of several diseases, and believed to possess many biological activities. The sample of baobab fruit was collected from Blue Nile State in Sudan. The fruit pulp was obtained from baobab pods, sieved, extracted with methanol (80%), and analysed for its antioxidant activity, and alpha-glucosidase and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities. The phytochemical constituents of the pulp were determined by LC-MS and 1 H-NMR techniques. The results for antioxidant activity evaluated by DPPH and FRAP for methanolic extract were 232.70 mg Ascorbic Acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (AEAC)/g and 222.28 mmol/g of Fe 2+ , respectively. Baobab pulp extract showed greater capability in inhibiting the generation of NO from the stimulated RAW264.7 cells at 98.45% inhibition and IC 50 of 36.55 µg/mL; and α-glucosidase enzyme activity at 97.94% inhibition and IC 50 of 58.59 µg/mL. The LC-MS/MS analysis of the baobab extract showed that 52 compounds were found in the baobab pulp, including 19 flavonoids, ten phenolic acids, four lipids (glycero-3-phosphocholine derivative, 1,2-didodeca-noyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-sn-glycerol), 1-pentadecanoyl-2-(13Z,16Z-docosadi-enoyl)-glycero-3-phosphate, and glycero-3-hosphocholine derivative), sugars, organic acid, iridoids, adenosine, scopoletin, and taraxerone. The NMR detected 21 metabolites from baobab pulp extract including carbohydrates, organic acids, vitamin, amino acids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and fatty acids. The present work is the first of its kind in comprehensively analysing the Sudanese baobab fruit pulp, combined with qualitative characterisation of chemical components using NMR, LC-MS, α-glucosidase, and NO inhibitors. Baobab fruit pulp contains several beneficial phytochemicals and biological activities, and it has potential positive effect on general human's health.
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