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Influence of fertigation treatments on growth and yield of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) during off season

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Influence of fertigation treatments on growth and yield of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) during off season

Crop Res. 44 (3) : 461-465 (2012)
Printed in India
Influence of fertigation treatments on growth and yield of curry leaf
(Murraya koenigii Spreng.) during off season
SHARON ARAVIND, G. BALAKRISHNAMURTHY AND P. JANSIRANI
Department of Spices & Plantation Crops
Horticulture College & Research Institute
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu), India
(Received : November 2011)
ABSTRACT
Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) plays an important role as a condiment in
the culinary preparation of South Indian dishes and its demand is ever growing throughout
the year especially during winter season when its availability is low and the price is
high. Hence, a field experiment was conducted to study the influence of fertigation on
growth, yield and quality parameters of curry leaf during off season. The study was laid
out in randomised block design with different doses of straight and water soluble fertilizers
given through soil and drip, respectively. In addition, biofertilizers viz., Azopirillum and
Phosphobacteria and foliar spray of 3% Panchagavya were given. Among the treatments,
T8–Panchagavya 3%+50% RDF (water soluble fertilizers) produced tallest plants (68.12
cm), while the treatment T7–Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (straight fertilizers) produced
the maximum number of secondary branches (27.86) and leaves (19.66). The treatment
T6 (Application of Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+Panchagavya
3%+75% RDF (water soluble fertilizers) recorded the maximum fresh leaf weight with
petiole per rachis (2.12 g), fresh leaf weight without petiole per rachis (1.78 g), fresh leaf
yield per plant (665 g), highest net income of Rs. 1,80,062/ha and benefit : cost ratio of
1 : 3.09.
Key words : Azospirillum, curry leaf, fertigation, Panchagavya, Phosphobacteria
INTRODUCTION
Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)
plays an important role as a condiment in the
culinary preparation of South Indian dishes.
It is a perennial nutritious herbal spice crop
grown for its aromatic leaves. Being a rich
source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A and
vitamin C, these are said to be used in many
Ayurvedic and Unani medicines. Curry leaf has
a huge demand in India and abroad which has
made the commodity of immense trade value.
The fresh leaves are exported to Gulf, European
and African countries, etc. The annual growth
pattern of curry leaf showed that it had peaks
in monsoon and summer and its growth was
very limited during winter season. However,
the demand for fresh curry leaf is ever growing
throughout the year. The market price
analysis indicated high returns with poor crop
during winter i. e. during the months of
November, December and January.
Irrigation and fertilizers are the most
important inputs which directly affect the plant
growth, development, yield and quality of
produce. Of late, fertigation i. e. application of
fertilizer through drip irrigation has been found
to dramatically improve the yield and quality
of many horticultural crops (Salo et al., 2000).
Normally, curry leaf is irrigated once in five to
seven days upto three years and once in 15
days afterwards. The information regarding
nutrient management and irrigation
requirement particularly during winter season
is lacking in the case of curry leaf which may
be a suitable remedy to improve growth and
yield during off season. With this background
in consideration, the present study was taken
up to assess the influence of fertigation on
growth and yield of curry leaf.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was conducted on
three years old curry leaf local ecotype
Senkombu grown under 1 x 1 m spacing in
farmers’ field during 2010-11 at Karamadai,
Coimbatore district. The experiment was laid
out in randomised block design with nine
treatmental combinations of fertilizer levels
(50 and 75% recommended dose of fertilizers)
replicated thrice. The fertilizers were applied
as straight fertilizers in the form of urea,
superphosphate and muriate of potash @150 :
25 : 50 g of NPK/plant/year (Kumar et al., 2006)
and it was compared with that of water soluble
fertilizers (19-19-19, superphosphate and multi
K) given through drip irrigation. The following
are the treatment details :
T1Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+ Phosphobacteria
(2.5 kg/ha)+50% RDF (straight
fertilizers)
T2Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria
(2.5 kg/ha)+75% RDF (straight fertilizers)
T3Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria
(2.5 kg/ha)+Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF
(straight fertilizers)
T4Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria
(2.5 kg/ha)+50% RDF (water soluble
fertilizers)
T5Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria
(2.5 kg/ha)+75% RDF (water soluble
fertilizers)
T6Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria
(2.5 kg/ha)+Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF
(water soluble fertilizers)
T7–Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (straight
fertilizers)
T8–Panchagavya 3%+50% RDF (water
soluble fertilizers)
T9–Control (application of straight fertilizers
and flood irrigation)
The biofertilizers were applied as basal,
straight fertilizers were given as soil
application and water soluble fertilizers were
given through drip at weekly intervals. Foliar
spray of 3% Panchagavya was given at monthly
intervals. All the plots were given drip
irrigation and recommended package of
practices were followed. Observations were
recorded on morphological parameters like
plant height, number of secondary branches
per plant, number of leaves per rachis,
estimated yield, physiological parameters viz.,
fresh leaf weight with petiole per rachis, fresh
leaf weight without petiole per rachis, dry leaf
weight with petiole per rachis and dry leaf
weight without petiole per rachis at 15 days
interval. The data recorded were subjected to
statistical scrutiny by adopting the standard
procedures (Panse and Sukhatme, 1985).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The result revealed that fertigation
levels had a significant effect on physiological
parameters viz., fresh leaf weight with petiole
per rachis, fresh leaf weight without petiole
per rachis, dry leaf weight with petiole per
rachis, dry leaf weight without petiole per
rachis and fresh yield per plant (Table 1). A
progressive increase in plant height was
observed at all stages of crop growth. Among
the treatments, T8–Panchagavya 3%+50% RDF
(water soluble fertilizers) produced tallest
plants (68.12 cm), while the treatment T7
Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (straight fertilizers)
produced the maximum number of secondary
branches (27.86) and leaves (19.66). The
possible reason for the acceleration of growth
by the application of Panchagavya might be due
to the presence of nitrogen, the chief
constituent of protein, essential for the
formation of protoplasm which leads to cell
division and cell enlargement (Balkly, 1974).
Fresh leaf weight with petiole per
rachis exhibited significant differences among
different treatments (Table 1). It ranged from
1.62 g in control (T9) to 2.12 g in plants treated
with Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria
(2.5 kg/ha)+Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (water
soluble fertilizers) (T6) which was on par with
2.08 g in T7 (3% Panchagavya as foliar
spray+75% RDF as straight fertilizers) and 2.06
g in T8 (3% Panchagavya as foliar spray+50%
RDF as straight fertilizers). Significant
difference among the various treatments on
fresh leaf weight without petiole per rachis was
also observed. Interestingly, the treatment T6
(Application of Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+
Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+Panchagavya
3%+75% RDF (water soluble fertilizers) and the
treatment T5 [application of Azospirillum (2.5
kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+50% RDF
(water soluble fertilizers)] recorded the
maximum fresh leaf weight without petiole per
rachis (1.78 g). The plants under absolute
control (T9) recorded the lowest value of 1.28 g
as fresh leaf weight without petiole per rachis.
The treatment comprising biofertilizers
showed improvement in fresh weight over
untreated one which might be possible due to
more nutrient uptake, physiological and
biological activities as a result of microbial
462 Aravind, Balakrishnamurthy and Jansirani
Table 1. Effect of fertigation treatments on morphological and physiological characters of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)
Treatment Plant No. of No. of Fresh leaf Fresh leaf Dry leaf Dry leaf
height secondary leaves/ weight weight weight weight
(cm) branches rachis with without with without
petiole/ petiole/ petiole/ petiole/
rachis (g) rachis (g) rachis (g) rachis (g)
T1Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria 59.29 25.26 19.93 1.65 1.28 1.06 0.96
(2.5 kg/ha)+50% RDF (straight fertilizers)
T2Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria 60.12 25.16 18.86 1.68 1.30 1.06 0.96
(2.5 kg/ha)+75% RDF(straight fertilizers)
T3Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+ 60.44 23.33 19.10 1.70 1.32 1.14 1.03
Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (straight fertilizers)
T4Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+ 58.05 22.56 19.16 1.82 1.34 1.09 0.94
50% RDF (water soluble fertilizers)
T5Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+ 63.14 25.70 20.06 1.92 1.78 1.22 1.06
75% RDF (water soluble fertilizers)
T6Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+ 64.03 26.53 18.40 2.12 1.78 1.22 1.12
Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (water soluble fertilizers)
T7–Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (straight fertilizers) 62.35 27.86 19.66 2.08 1.64 1.30 1.16
T8–Panchagavya 3%+50% RDF (water soluble fertilizers) 68.12 21.13 19.56 2.06 1.53 1.26 1.15
T9–Control 57.49 22.68 16.90 1.62 1.28 1.06 0.96
Mean 61.41 24.61 19.22 1.85 1.42 1.15 1.03
S. Ed 3.24 1.68 1.52 0.11 0.06 0.03 0.04
C. D. (P=0.05) 6.88 3.57 3.23 0.25 0.13 0.08 0.10
Yield of curry leaf during off season 463
activities in rhizosphere and this also resulted
in reduced application of fertilizers.
Among the various treatments,
significant difference was recorded in dry leaf
weight with petiole per rachis of curry leaf
plants (Table 1). It ranged from 1.06 g in
absolute control plants (T9) to 1.30 g in plants
sprayed with 3% Panchagavya+75% RDF as
straight fertilizers (T7) which was on par with
the treatment consisting of spraying 3%
Panchagavya+50% RDF as water soluble
fertilizers (T8). The treatment 3% Panchagavya+
75% RDF as straight fertilizers (T7) registered
the highest value of 1.16 g as dry leaf weight
without petiole per rachis which was on par
with T8 (spraying 3% Panchagavya+50% RDF
as water soluble fertilizers). Hence, it could be
opined that the treatmental influence as spray
of Panchagavya would have influenced much
dry leaf weight without petiole per rachis.
Kanimozhi (2003) also confirmed these results
of influence of Panchagavya on dry leaf weight
in coleus and anthurium, respectively.
Fresh leaf yield per plant of curry leaf
with various treatments exhibited significant
difference among them (Table 2). The increase
in the fresh leaf yield per plant was observed
from 510.36 g in control (T9) plants to 665.00 g
per plant in plants treated with Azospirillum
(2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/
ha)+Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (water soluble
fertilizers) (T6). It also recorded the highest
estimated yield (6.65 t/ha). The increased
synthesis of cytokinin and auxin in the root
tissue by their enhanced activity due to the
application of biofertilizers and Panchagavya
and their simultaneous transport to the
auxillary buds would have resulted in better
vegetative growth. Similar results were also
reported by Benitha (2006) in chrysanthemum.
The high yield may also be due to stable
moisture and nutrient content maintained in
the root zone of the crop by way of frequent
nutrient application and irrigation at shorter
intervals via fertigation, while minimizing
leaching of nutrients from the root zone. This
is in agreement with the findings of Gardenas
et al. (2005).
Economics of cultivation, net profit and
benefit cost : ratio (BCR) were computed taking
the price of the fresh curry leaf as Rs. 40.00
per kg for assessing the net profit in winter
season (Table 2). Among the various
treatments, the plants treated with
Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5
kg/ha)+Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (water
soluble fertilizers) (T6) registered the highest
net income of Rs. 1,80,062/ha and benefit :
cost ratio of 1 : 3.09 followed by the plants
treated with spraying 3% Panchagavya+50%
RDF as water soluble fertilizers (T7) with a net
income of Rs. 1,65,999/ha and benefit : cost
ratio of 1 : 2.92. The least net income of
Rs. 1,17,698/ha and benefit : cost ratio of 1 :
2.36 were observed in the treatment T9 i. e.
control. Hence, it is recommended that
application of Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+
Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+Panchagavya
Table 2. Effect of fertigation treatments on yield and economics of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii Spreng.)
Treatment Fresh leaf Fresh leaf Gross Cost of Net income BCR
yield/ yield income cultivation (Rs./ha)
plant (g) (t/ha) (Rs./ha) (Rs./ha)
T1Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria 547.05 5.47 218820 84251 134569 2.59
(2.5 kg/ha)+50% RDF (straight fertilizers)
T2Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria 521.11 5.21 208400 86441 121959 2.41
(2.5 kg/ha)+75% RDF (straight fertilizers)
T3Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+ 533.26 5.33 213280 86441 126839 2.46
Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (straight fertilizers)
T4Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+ 534.99 5.34 213960 92252 121708 2.31
50% RDF (water soluble fertilizers)
T5Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+ 598.47 5.98 239360 85938 153422 2.78
75% RDF (water soluble fertilizers)
T6Azospirillum (2.5 kg/ha)+Phosphobacteria (2.5 kg/ha)+ 665.00 6.65 266000 85938 180062 3.09
Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (water soluble fertilizers)
T7–Panchagavya 3%+75% RDF (straight fertilizers) 631.11 6.31 252440 86441 165999 2.92
T8–Panchagavya 3%+50% RDF (water soluble fertilizers) 575.11 5.75 230040 92252 137788 2.49
T9–Control 510.36 5.10 204120 86422 117698 2.36
Mean 550.71 5.50
S. Ed 40.23 0.40
C. D. (P=0.05) 85.29 0.85
464 Aravind, Balakrishnamurthy and Jansirani
3%+75% RDF (water soluble fertilizers) should
be done to improve the herbage yield in the off
season crop (winter crop) to fetch more returns.
REFERENCES
Balkly, S. A. (1974). Effect of fertilization treatments
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post-harvest treatments on cut
chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema
grandiflora Tzelev.) cvs. yellow regan and
ravi kiran under polyhouse conditions.
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modelling of nitrate leaching for various
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Yield of curry leaf during off season 465
... Fresh leaf weight without rachis was also found maximum in accession no. 10 (2.74g) followed by accession no. 9 (2.65g) with a mean of 2.10g (Table 2). These findings are similar to Aravind et al. (2012) [12] . ...
... Fresh leaf weight without rachis was also found maximum in accession no. 10 (2.74g) followed by accession no. 9 (2.65g) with a mean of 2.10g (Table 2). These findings are similar to Aravind et al. (2012) [12] . ...
... Dry leaf weight without rachis was also found maximum in accession no. 10 (2.04g) followed by accession no. 9 (1.99g) with a mean of 1.45g (Table 2). These results are also similar to Aravind et al. (2012) [12] . ...
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Effect of fertilization treatments on the yield of Chrysler Imperial rose plants
  • S A Balkly
Balkly, S. A. (1974). Effect of fertilization treatments on the yield of Chrysler Imperial rose plants. Agri. Res. Rev. 52 : 95-99.
Studies on pre-harvest and post-harvest treatments on cut chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzelev.) cvs. yellow regan and ravi kiran under polyhouse conditions
  • M Benitha
Benitha, M. (2006). Studies on pre-harvest and post-harvest treatments on cut chrysanthemum cultivars (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzelev.) cvs. yellow regan and ravi kiran under polyhouse conditions.
Standardization of organic production packages for Coleus forskohlii
  • C Kanimozhi
Kanimozhi, C. (2003). Standardization of organic production packages for Coleus forskohlii Briq. M. Sc. (Hort.) thesis, submitted to the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.
The effect of fertigation on yield and nutrient uptake of cabbage, carrot and onions
  • T Salo
  • T Seojala
  • Kallelam
Salo, T., Seojala, T. and Kallelam (2000). The effect of fertigation on yield and nutrient uptake of cabbage, carrot and onions. Acta Hort. 571 : 235-41.