The term "contraception" refers to the set of contraceptive techniques, i.e., the means aimed to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a pregnancy. Some contraceptive methods are commonly used as a tool for family planning (FP). The requirements of a contraceptive are: security, ease of use, low incidence of undesirable side effects, harmless for the product of conception if the technique fails, acceptable cost, minimal interference with the dynamics of sexual intercourse, reversibility (i.e., fertility restoration in the event of suspension of the use). We consider traditional contraceptive methods all those practices that do not require help (contraceptive devices), and that reduce the chance that fertilization takes place: abstinence or sexual practices alternative to vaginal penetration, breast-feeding, or amenorrhea accompanying the phase of breast-feeding after delivery. Since ancient times, women had to find and invent methods of birth control, by the practices of the ancient Egyptian to the anti-fertility recipes of the Chinese. The first birth control methods date back to ancient Egypt. Four thousand years ago, doctors advised as a method of contraception mixtures of crocodile dung and honey or swabs of acacia honey to be left in the vagina for long periods. After the intercourse, it was also recommended a wine-, garlic-, or fennel-based lavender. In the Greek-Roman world, during the classical age, people frequently resorted to abortion, but the physician Hippocrates, in the 5th century, suggested as a contraceptive a mixture of iron sulphate and copper, while his colleague Dioscorides proposed pepper buffers and a cedar and alum rubber to be applied before intercourse. In Roman times, Plinius (100 B.C.), expressing on birth control, spoke in terms of prevention of conception. At that times, sacred amulets and condoms made from animal bladders were employed more than anything else. Subsequently, during the Middle Ages, with Christianity, we witness the spread in Western countries of a doctrine rigidly hostile to any contraceptive practice, so that contraceptive methods were banned. This will endure until the end of the Middle Ages. Their development was officially resumed only from the 18th century on. Nevertheless, contraceptive practices of all kinds continued to spread in Europe, to see the constitution, at the end of the 19th century, of the movement for the legalization of contraception by Margaret Sanger. Also in the 19th century, the first rubber condom and the diaphragm (invented by the Dutch physician Wilhelm Mesinga in 1883) were introduced. Then, the era in which even scientific research will deal with this topic came, starting in 1897 with Beard and in 1898 with Prenant, who observed as during pregnancy ovulation was suppressed and so, after Hermann and Stein showed in rats that ovarian extracts could inhibit ovulation, Haberlandt in 1924 suggested the use of the ovarian hormones for the control of fertility. For the discovery of the birth control pill used to date we had to wait a little longer, to arrive to about 50 years ago with Carl Dejerassi and Gregory Pincus, which marked the first stage of the sexual liberation of women and at the same time of the splitting between reproduction and sexual pleasure. In 1956, in fact, the American physician Gregory Pincus patented the first birth control pill. In the last century and especially in recent decades, many contraceptive methods which by technical, mechanical, or chemical aids, can reduce, even drastically, the possibility that fertilization occurs, have spread. These methods are distinguished in: hormonal contraceptives, mechanical barrier- methods, intrauterine methods, natural methods or of fertility awareness, and surgical methods or of sterilization. Today we continue in this direction in research and discoveries, coming to the latest news of a new generation of scientific findings, such as Implanon® (Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, New Jersey, United States [US]), who greeted the traditional birth control pills. Research on new methods of contraception is still ongoing, such as the use of ultrasound to induce temporary male sterility, or the use of high doses of melatonin to reduce female fertility.