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Abstract

Euphorbia gokakensis, a new succulent species of Euphorbiaceae, is described from the Belgaum district of Karnataka, India. The new species belongs to Euphorbia subgen. Euphorbia, and closely resembles Euphorbia caducifolia Haines. However, it is distinguished by its characteristic dwarf habit forming a compact cushion that hardly exceeds 50 cm in height.

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... Gokak hills receives 820 mm of average annual rainfall. The habitat is xeric and is dominated by thorny and dwarf succulent species (Malpure et al. 2016). The recently described Euphorbia gokakensis Yadav, Malpure, Chandore, 2016 is endemic to this plateau which is found alongside other succulents such as E. antiquorum L., E. caducifolia Haines and Opuntia elatior Mill. ...
... A.Chev. (Malpure et al. 2016). Ophisops sp and Hemidactylus murrayi Gleadow, 1887 are the two sympatric lizards found in this plateau. ...
... This further reinforces the fact that the two species are local endemics. Eventhough we did not investigate why these species are endemic to these regions, both the study areas are previously known for their unique and endemic flora and fauna (Sharma, 1969;Malpure et al. 2016). In the case of Sitana gokakensis sp. ...
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Two new cryptic species of the agamid genus Sitana Cuvier, 1829 from Peninsular India are described herein. Sitana gokakensis sp. nov. from Gokak, Karnataka closely resembles Sitana thondalu sp. nov. from Nagarjuna Sagar, Andhra Pradesh. The two species can be distinguished based on their subtle morphological differences, genetic difference and geographic distribution. Sitana gokakensis sp. nov. have a relatively depressed head compared to Sitana thondalu sp. nov. Additionally, the vertebral scale counts differ in females of the two new species (Sitana gokakensis sp. nov. 45–47 vs Sitana thondalu sp. nov. 49–53). Genetic divergence between them is comparable to those between previously described Sitana species. Furthermore, the two new species are distributed ca. 500 km apart and are endemic to their respective landscapes that lie in similar latitudes of peninsular India. We urge the use of large sample size in new species descriptions especially those dealing with cryptic species like Sitana. The discovery of the two new cryptic species from these rocky terrains in peninsular India highlights need for more herpetological exploration in this region.
... Based on molecular phylogenetic studies (Bruyns et al., 2006;Steinmann and Porter, 2002;Zimmermann et al., 2010;Horn et al., 2012), the genus Euphorbia has classified into 4 subgenera namely, Athymalus (as Rhizanthium) , Chamaesyce (Yang et al., 2012), Esula and Euphorbia (Dorsey et al., 2013). In India, the genus is represented by 91 species of which 38 are endemic Balakrishnan, 2010, 2012;Sarojinidevi, 2017;Sarojinidevi and Raju, 2014;Sarojinidevi and Swamy, 2018;Prasad and Prasanna, 2016;Malpure et al., 2016;Malpure et al., 2021a,b). ...
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Euphorbia ravii is described as a new species from Nigidi hills, Ananthapuramu district of Andhra Pradesh, India. It belongs to the subgenus Euphorbia section Euphorbia, it is closely allied to E. caducifolia but differs in many attributes which are discussed here. An updated key for Indian E. caducifolia group is also provided for easy identification.
... Based on molecular phylogenetic studies (Bruyns et al., 2006;Steinmann and Porter, 2002;Zimmermann et al., 2010;Horn et al., 2012), the genus Euphorbia has classified into 4 subgenera namely, Athymalus (as Rhizanthium) , Chamaesyce (Yang et al., 2012), Esula and Euphorbia (Dorsey et al., 2013). In India, the genus is represented by 91 species of which 38 are endemic Balakrishnan, 2010, 2012;Sarojinidevi, 2017;Sarojinidevi and Raju, 2014;Sarojinidevi and Swamy, 2018;Prasad and Prasanna, 2016;Malpure et al., 2016;Malpure et al., 2021a,b). ...
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Isodon neorensis, a new species from Eastern Himalaya of India has been described and illustrated here based on its morphology. A weak, short lived herbaceous species was collected from Neora Valley National Park, Darjeeling, India. Inflorescence, dark red colour flower, calyx without septate-villose hairs at base, stamens glabrous at base, and not exserted filaments are some important diagnostic features besides substantial morphological differences with allied species. The identification key to Indian Eastern Himalayan species of Isodon, distribution map, photo plate, illustration is also provided.
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Euphorbia venkatarajui Sarojin., is reported from the rocky area of Wazirabad village, Damaracherla Mandal, Nalgonda District of Telangana State and forms a new distributional record for the state of Telangana. It is being described along with field photographs to make an easy identification.
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Euphorbia lakshminarasimhanii (Euphorbiaceae), a new pygmy species belonging to the genus Euphorbia subg. Euphorbia sect. Euphorbia is described and illustrated from the Konkan region of Maharashtra, India. It is easily distinguished from all known Indian species by its unique sparsely‐branched pygmy habit, closely spaced and horizontally flattened tubercles, trapezoidal spine shields which are very close and overlapping at the apical region, giving a pouch like appearance, bifurcated spines completely separated by the leaf scar, leaves forming a crown, long bracts extending past the gland edge, coral red colored glands with indented margins, male florets 10 per fascicle, and capsule having globose cocci with thin keels.
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Euphorbia venkatarajui, a new succulent species of Euphorbiaceae, is described from Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. The new species belongs to the subgenus Euphorbia, and it closely resembles Euphorbia gokakensis S.R. Yadav, Malpure and Chandore and E. caducifolia Haines., but differs in certain distinct characters.
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Euphorbia kadapensis, a new species of Euphorbiaceae is described from Kadapa district in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, southern India. It belongs to Euphorbia subgen. Chamaesyce. Within the group, it resembles E. concanensis, E. longistyla and E. senguptae of sect. Anisophyllum subsect. Hypericifoliae though the affinities are more so with the allopatric E. concanensis from the west coast of India.
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During preparation of the Euphorbieae for the Flora of Tropical East Africa, most of the 250 plus species in Euphorbia subg. Euphorbia were examined, resulting in a new approach to their classification. Comments are offered on the principal systems to date, all of which have been based on vegetative characters. In the newly proposed system, certain character changes linked with increasing succulence and a reduction in size are used to indicate development from trees, to shrubs, and then herbs, as an advancement in adaptation toward survival in arid conditions. Features of the inflorescence, capsules, and seeds are considered to be the most important in deciding relationships between groups, while vegetative features are used as indicators of development within the groups. A system of two sections based on seed characters is proposed, and the relationships between eight proposed subsections are discussed.
The CITES checklist of succulent Euphorbia taxa (Euphorbiaceae), 2nd ed. -Federal Agency for Nature Conservation
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The genus Euphorbia L
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