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Effect of Short Term Integrated Approach of Yoga Therapy on Memory Scores in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

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... Short term yoga practice for 10 days in school children lead to significant improvement in cognitive function ). Short term integrated yoga practices can improve memory scores of diabetics and play a vital role in managing the mental health of diabetics patient (Bhanu, 2015). The effect of eight-week yoga exercise improve balance with intellectual disability (Parisa, 2015). ...
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Background: The practice of yoga includes static and dynamic postures (asanas), breathing manipulations (pranayama) and meditation (dhyana). Yoga is a tool which works in the gross body level to the shuttle mind level. Yoga is a simple and inexpensive health regimen that can be incorporated as an effective adjuvant therapy for the improvement of brain and mental activity. Aim: To review scientific literatures related to yoga practice and brain function. Science and critically analyzed the entire relevant article according to the nature of this study. Findings: Combined yogic practices improve memory which can influence the academic performance of the students. Meditation practices improve higher level of concentration and consciousness which may reduce the psychic disorder. Pranayama practice may be applied as alternative therapy for reducing stress related diseases Conclusions: Regular yogic practices may improve brain and others neuro cognitive functions.
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The state of wellbeing is determined by individual’s Physical, Mental and Emotional health. This paper introduces the concept of pranayama (an ancient yogic technique that involves controlled deep rhythmic breathing). The underlying principle of pranayama is that the relation between emotion and breathing is two way i.e. not only emotions have affect on breathing but controlled rhythmic breathing has positive effects on emotions too. We selected a group of engineering students who volunteered to practise alternate nostril breathing i.e. Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (NSP) for three months. We applied the introspection (subjective observation) method of Psychology and analyzed the various traits related to wellbeing of the group on Likert’s five point psychometric scale before and after applying this technique. We applied t-test for statistical investigation. We observed that 75% of the subjects gained in terms of Feeling Healthy, 80% in terms of memory recall, 75% in terms of mental stress relief and 90% in terms of physical relaxation. This amazingly simple and yet highly effective ancient technique of NSP may become part of their physical training routine to be followed regularly. The paper aims at spreading the awareness of this yogic technique on the wellbeing of all human beings in general and engineering students in particular. Key words: Improved Wellbeing; Alternate Nostril Breathing; Nadi Shodhan Pranayama, Students.
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OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of baseline and incident diabetes on change in cognitive function over 12 years.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA sample of 1,290 individuals aged ≥40 years at baseline, participating in the Maastricht Aging Study, were cognitively tested at baseline, after 6 years, and after 12 years. Of these, 68 participants had type 2 diabetes at baseline, and 54 and 57 had incident diabetes at the 6- and 12-year follow-up, respectively. Changes in performance on tests of information-processing speed, executive function, and verbal memory from baseline to 6- and 12-year follow-up were compared between groups using linear mixed models. Effects of diabetes on cognitive decline were adjusted for demographic variables, history of smoking, alcohol intake, and comorbid conditions, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, BMI, and depression.RESULTSParticipants with baseline diabetes showed larger decline in information-processing speed (estimate -7.64; P < 0.01), executive function (21.82; P < 0.01), and delayed word recall (-1.35; P < 0.05) over the 12-year follow-up compared with control subjects. No significant difference in decline was observed for immediate word recall. Compared with control subjects, participants with incident diabetes showed subtle early decline in information-processing speed only. Interestingly, they did not show larger decline in any other cognitive domain.CONCLUSIONS Individuals with baseline type 2 diabetes show accelerated cognitive decline, particularly in information-processing speed and executive function, compared with individuals without diabetes. In incident diabetes, decline in speed becomes detectable first, and cognitive decline seems to increase with increasing exposure time.
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Electrophysiological evidence of delayed cognition as measured by P300, an evoked potential is observed in Diabetes mellitus. P300 (or P3) is a component of endogenous cerebral evoked response that assesses higher functions of the brain. Our study aims to see the role of pranayama and yoga-asana on P300 latency and amplitude in type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty patients of type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetic clinic and divided into two groups - control group on only conventional medical therapy and yoga-group on conventional medical therapy along with pranayama and yoga-asana. Basal recordings of P300 and blood glucose were taken at the time of recruitment and second recordings repeated after forty five days for both the groups. P300 was recorded on Nihon Kohden Neuropack mu MEB 9100 using auditory "odd-ball paradigm". The data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test at 5 per cent level of significance. Statistically significant improvement in the latency and the amplitude of N200, P300 was observed in the yoga group as compared to the control group. Our data suggest that yoga has a beneficial effect on P300 and thus can be incorporated along with the conventional medical therapy for improving cognitive brain functions in diabetes.
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A yoga practice involving cycles of yoga postures and supine rest (called cyclic meditation) was previously shown to improve performance in attention tasks more than relaxation in the corpse posture (shavasana). This was ascribed to reduced anxiety, though this was not assessed. In fifty-seven male volunteers (group average age +/- S.D., 26.6 +/- 4.5 years) the immediate effect of two yoga relaxation techniques was studied on memory and state anxiety. All participants were assessed before and after (i) Cyclic meditation (CM) practiced for 22:30 minutes on one day and (ii) an equal duration of Supine rest (SR) or the corpse posture (shavasana), on another day. Sections of the Wechsler memory scale (WMS) were used to assess; (i) attention and concentration (digit span forward and backward), and (ii) associate learning. State anxiety was assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). There was a significant improvement in the scores of all sections of the WMS studied after both CM and SR, but, the magnitude of change was more after CM compared to after SR. The state anxiety scores decreased after both CM and SR, with a greater magnitude of decrease after CM. There was no correlation between percentage change in memory scores and state anxiety for either session. A cyclical combination of yoga postures and supine rest in CM improved memory scores immediately after the practice and decreased state anxiety more than rest in a classical yoga relaxation posture (shavasana).
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Background: Good health and freedom from disease is the best achievement of life. Tremendous progress has been made in the field of medicine in recent years. Modern medicine as well as yoga has scientific basis and a universal outlook. It is gratifying that science has started acknowledging the effects of yogic techniques, whereas yoga has started using modern technology and scientific methods. Prana is energy; when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension, expansion, and control, it is called pranayama. Suryanamaskar is the combination of asana and pranayama. They affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolocapillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. They have been integrated into physical education in many public and private medical schools across the world. The goal of this study was to identify the effect of pranayama and suryanamaskar on dynamic spirometric functions. Aims & Objective: To investigate the effect of pranayama and suryanamaskar on various dynamic spirometric values (i.e., FVC (L), FEV1 (L), FEV3 (L), FEF25–75% (L), VC (L), FEV1/FVC (%), and PEFR (L/s) after 6 months of a training program. Materials and Methods: The duration of the study was 6 months. The participants were divided into four groups namely control, pranayama, suryanamaskar, and combined group of pranayama and suryanamaskar. On the first day of the study, the subjects came to a training room and the following tests were conducted. The parameters for lung functions were forced vital capacity (FVC), vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume in 3 seconds (FEV3), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). The exercise regimen for pranayama and suryanamaskar included the following yogic procedures: bhastrika pranayama, kapalbhati pranayama, bhramari pranayama, nadi suddi/anulom vilom pranayama, pranava pranayama, and Suryanamaskar. Results: The VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV3, FEV1/FVC, PEFR, and FEF25–75% values were highly significant in the pranayama group (group II) than the suryanamaskara group (group III). All the above values were highly significant (p < 0.05) in the combined group (group IV) when compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Pranayama and suryanamaskara practice exerts more beneficial effects than physical exercise that mostly affects dimensions of the thoracic cavity. Yoga is a technique of controlling and modulating breath and meditation, a process through which one attains a state of deep rest yet active state of mind. Recent studies on long-term yogic practices have shown improvement in respiratory functions. This aspect of relaxation and detachment has not been mentioned in our education process and it is this new dimension of yoga training that needs to be added to the curriculum. It can make students physically fit and enhance the learning process.
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Diabetes is a complex condition with a multitude of metabolic imbalances involving the regulation and utilization of insulin and glucose (sugar) in the body. Diabetes is currently considered an epidemic disease that is largely preventable and treatable through yoga. Yoga's effectiveness at preventing and treating diabetes is due to its emphasis of a healthy diet and lifestyle as well as its ability to balance the endocrine system, massage and tone the abdominal organs, stimulate the nervous and circulatory systems, and reduce stress.
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The paragraphs that compose the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were examined and alternate paragraphs that were equivalent in structure, affective tone, and number of scorable units were developed. Objective scoring criteria for this alternate form, the Morris Revision, yielded significant interscorer reliability. Concurrent validity for the Moms Revision paragraphs was established using multiple criteria. The correlation between the summed scores for the original paragraphs and the Morris Revision paragraphs was significant, as were the correlations between individual scores for analogous paragraphs across the two forms. The Morris Revision was determined to be a psychometrically equivalent alternate form of the original Logical Memory subtest. Clinical use of the Morris Revision is recommended to eliminate serial testing artifacts when reevaluating verbal memory in neuropsychological patients.
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The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Third Edition (WISC-III), for ages 6–16 yrs, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R), for ages 3–7 yrs, are widely used, globally well-known child intelligence tests. In order to use them properly, professionals need an authoritative source of advice and guidance on how to administer, score, and interpret these tests. This book is designed to help busy mental health practitioners quickly acquire the knowledge and skills they need to make optimal use of a major psychological assessment instrument. Each chapter features numerous callout boxes highlighting key concepts, bulleted points, and extensive illustrative material. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Amnesic subjects are unable to learn unrelated verbal paired-associates but when words were combined according to their semantic or phonetic properties, original learning was the same in amnesic and control subjects. Amnesic subjects showed good retention of this learning after 30 min but were unable to learn a second, similar paired-associate task partly because of a large number of intrusion errors from List 1. Their performance on List 2 improved significantly when the differentiating characteristics were increased. The amnesic subjects' susceptibility to interfering influences was reaffirmed and conditions under which interference can be constrained were demonstrated. The relevance of the findings to current theoretical issues is also briefly discussed.
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Diabetes mellitus is a complex disease with many potential complications. Whilst there have been inconsistent results in regard to an association between cognition and type 2 diabetes, there is evidence that verbal memory and processing speed are the cognitive domains usually impaired. In elderly diabetic subjects, other cognitive domains may also be involved, due to ageing. Glycemic control is implicated in the development of cognitive dysfunction, although more research is needed in this area. Insulin dysregulation and hyperglycemia play an important role in neurodegeneration. Using structural neuroimaging, it has been shown that brain atrophy is an important feature in those with type 2 diabetes. Integrative research is needed using behavioral, cognitive, imaging, and genetic platforms. This is an invited article.
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To examine the relationship of type 2 diabetes to cognitive function in community-dwelling women. From 1995 to 1999, we administered four tests of cognitive function (Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status [TICS], immediate and delayed recall of the East Boston Memory Test, and verbal fluency) by telephone to 2,374 participants (70-78 years of age) of the Nurses' Health Study. Information on diabetes was collected biennially beginning in 1976; 82 women reported type 2 diabetes before their cognitive testing. We used linear and logistic regression models to calculate multivariate-adjusted mean differences in scores and relative risks of a low score (bottom 10% of the distribution) for diabetic women compared with nondiabetic women. After multivariate adjustment, women with type 2 diabetes scored lower on all our cognitive tests than women without diabetes. On the general test of cognition (TICS), the mean difference in score between women with and without diabetes was -0.60 (95% CI -1.18 to -0.03, P = 0.04) and the relative risk of a low TICS score was 1.98 (95% CI 1.06 to 3.69). On a global score combining results of the four tests, the mean for diabetic women was lower than that among women without diabetes (adjusted difference in score -0.73, 95% CI -1.42 to -0.04, P = 0.04), and the relative risk of a low global score was 2.16 (95% CI 1.10 to 4.21). Relative to women without diabetes, longer duration of diabetes was associated with lower scores. Few diabetic women were pharmacologically treated (n = 31), but those taking medication had scores similar to those of women without diabetes. In these women, diabetes was related to lower scores on several aspects of cognitive function. Longer duration of diabetes may be associated with poorer scores, but hypoglycemic therapy may ameliorate scores.
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The deleterious effects of diabetes mellitus on the retinal, renal, cardiovascular, and peripheral nervous systems are widely acknowledged. Less attention has been given to the effect of diabetes on cognitive function. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been associated with reduced performance on numerous domains of cognitive function. The exact pathophysiology of cognitive dysfunction in diabetes is not completely understood, but it is likely that hyperglycemia, vascular disease, hypoglycemia, and insulin resistance play significant roles. Modalities to study the effect of diabetes on the brain have evolved over the years, including neurocognitive testing, evoked response potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although much insightful research has examined cognitive dysfunction in patients with diabetes, more needs to be understood about the mechanisms and natural history of this complication in order to develop strategies for prevention and treatment.
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