Article

Novel Design of Collaborative Automation Platform Using Real-Time Data Distribution Service Middleware for An Optimum Process Control Environment

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Refining and petrochemical processing facilities utilize various process control applications to raise productivity and enhance plant operation. Client–server communication model is used for integrating these highly interacting applications across multiple network layers utilized in distributed control systems. This paper presents an optimum process control environment by merging sequential and regulatory control, advanced regulatory control, multivariable control, unit-based process control, and plant-wide advanced process control into a single collaborative automation platform to ensure optimum operation of processing equipment for achieving maximum yield of all manufacturing facilities. The main control module is replaced by a standard real-time server. The input/output racks are physically and logically decoupled from the controller by converting them into distributed autonomous process interface systems. Real-time data distribution service middleware is used for providing seamless cross-vendor interoperable communication among all process control applications and distributed autonomous process interface systems. Detailed performance analysis was conducted to evaluate the average communication latency and aggregate messaging capacity among process control applications and distributed autonomous process interface systems. The overall performance results confirm the viability of the new proposal as the basis for designing an optimal collaborative automation platform to handle all process control applications. It also does not impose any inherent limit on the aggregate data messaging capacity, making it suitable for scalable automation platforms.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In contrast, in object-centric communications the fundamental concept is the interface between the applications. [14,15,25]. ...
Article
Oil and gas processing facilities utilize various process automation systems with proprietary controllers. As the systems age; older technologies become obsolete resulting in frequent premature capital investments to sustain their operation. This paper presents a new design of automation controller to provide inherent mechanisms for upgrades and/or partial replacement of any obsolete components without obligation for a complete system replacement throughout the expected life cycle of the processing facilities. The input/output racks are physically and logically decoupled from the controller by converting them into distributed autonomous process interface systems. The proprietary input/output communication between the conventional controller CPU and the associated input/output racks is replaced with standard real-time data distribution service middleware for providing seamless cross-vendor interoperable communication between the controller and the distributed autonomous process interface systems. The objective of this change is to allow flexibility of supply for all controller’s subcomponents from multiple vendors to safeguard against premature automation obsolescence challenges. Detailed performance analysis was conducted to evaluate the viability of using the standard real-time data distribution service middleware technology in the design of automation controller to replace the proprietary input/output communication. The key simulation measurements to demonstrate its performance sustainability while growing in controller’s size based on the number of input/output signals are communication latency, variation in packets delays, and communication throughput. The overall performance results confirm the viability of the new proposal as the basis for designing cost effective evergreen process automation solutions that would result in optimum total cost of ownership capital investment throughout the systems’ life span. The only limiting factor is the selected network infrastructure.
Article
Today’s vehicles have become increasingly complex, as consumers demand more features and better quality in their cars. Most of these new features require additional electronic control units (ECU) and software control, constantly pushing back the limits of existing architectures and design methodologies. Indeed, modern automobiles have a larger number of critical time functions distributed and running simultaneously on each ECU. Data Distribution Service (DDS) is a publish/subscribe middleware specified by the international consortium Object Management Group (OMG), which makes the information available in real time, while offering a rich range of quality of service (QoS) policies. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to integrate DDS in automotive application. We evaluate the performance of our new design by testing the fulfillment of real time QoS requirements. We also compare the performance of the vehicle application when using FlexRay and Ethernet networks. Computations prove that the use of DDS over Gigabit Ethernet (GBE) is promising in the automotive field.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, theoretical and practical research topics on networked control systems (NCSs) have gained an increasing interest from many researchers in a variety of disciplines owing to the extensive applications of NCSs in practice. In particular, an urgent need has arisen to understand the effects of communication processes on system performances. Sampling and protocol are two fundamental aspects of a communication process which have attracted a great deal of research attention. Most research focus has been on the analysis and control of dynamical behaviors under certain sampling procedures and communication protocols. In this paper, we aim to survey some recent advances on the analysis and synthesis issues of NCSs with different sampling procedures (time- and event-driven sampling) and protocols (static and dynamic protocols). First, these sampling procedures and protocols are introduced in detail according to their engineering backgrounds as well as dynamic natures. Then, the developments of the stabilization, control, and filtering problems are systematically reviewed and discussed in great detail. Finally, we conclude the paper by outlining future research challenges for analysis and synthesis problems of NCSs with different communication processes.
Article
Full-text available
In Section 2 data freshness and timing properties are defined. Section 3 presents research that has been done in the area of transaction processing for RTDBs. As mentioned above, this is where much of the Real-Time DataBase (RTDB) focus has been in the past. Quality of service and also quality of data issues are addressed in Section 4. In Section 5, we discuss some new applications for which RTDB research has been useful. Finally, Section 6 concludes by discussing challenges that still exist for this research area. It also proposes a research agenda for those interested in doing continuing work in this field.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The OMG data-distribution service (DDS) is an emerging specification for publish-subscribe data-distribution systems. The purpose of the specification is to provide a common application-level interface that clearly defines the data-distribution service. The specification describes the service using UML, thus providing a platform-independent model that can then be mapped into a variety of concrete platforms and programming languages. The OMG DDS attempts to unify the common practice of several existing implementations [(M. Boasson et al., July 1993), (Pardo-Castellote et al., 1999] enumerating and providing formal definitions for the QoS (quality of service) settings used to configure the service. This paper introduces the OMG DDS specification, and describes the main aspects of the model.
Book
In recent years, control systems have become more sophisticated in order to meet increased performance and safety requirements for modern technological systems. Engineers are becoming more aware that conventional feedback control design for a complex system may result in unsatisfactory performance, or even instability, in the event of malfunctions in actuators, sensors or other system components. In order to circumvent such weaknesses, new approaches to control system design have emerged which can tolerate component malfunctions while maintaining acceptable stability and performance. These types of control systems are often known as fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS). More precisely, FTCS are control systems which possess the ability to accommodate component failure automatically. Analysis and Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Control Systems comprehensively covers the analysis and synthesis methods of fault tolerant control systems. It unifies the methods for developing controllers and filters for a wide class of dynamical systems and reports on the recent technical advances in design methodologies. MATLAB® is used throughout the book, to demonstrate methods of analysis and design. Key features: Provides advanced theoretical methods and typical practical applications. Provides access to a spectrum of control design methods applied to industrial systems. Includes case studies and illustrative. examples Contains end-of-chapter problems. Analysis and Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Control Systems is a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners working in this area, and is also a valuable source of information for graduates and senior undergraduates in control, mechanical, aerospace, electrical and mechatronics engineering departments.
Chapter
In this chapter, a design framework of the observer-based robust fault estimation for continuous-time/discrete-time systems is presented. A multi-constrained fault estimation observer under the H∞ performance specification with the regional pole constraint is proposed to achieve robust fault estimation. Next, the existence conditions for both continuous-time/discrete-time systems are derived explicitly. By introducing slack variables, improved results on the multi-constrained fault estimation observer design are established such that different Lyapunov functions can be separately designed for each constraint. Simulation results of a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft are presented. A fault estimation problem for a class of nonlinear systems subject to multiplicative faults and unknown disturbances is investigated. Under the nonlinear Lipschitz condition, a robust adaptive fault estimation approach is proposed. Not only it estimates the multiplicative faults and system states simultaneously but also extracts the real effect of the faults. Meanwhile, the effect of disturbances is restricted to an L2 gain performance criteria which can be formulated into the basic feasibility problem of a linear matrix inequality (LMI). In order to reduce the conservatism of the proposed method, a relaxing Lipschitz matrix is introduced.
Conference Paper
Software architectures promote development focused on modular functional building blocks (components), their interconnections (configurations), and their interactions (connectors). Since architecture-level components often contain complex functionality, it is reasonable to expect that their interactions will be complex as well. Middleware technologies such as CORBA, COM, and RMI, provide a set of predefined services for enabling component composition and interaction. However, the potential role of such services in the implementations of software architectures is not well understood. Furthermore, components adhering to one middleware standard cannot readily interact with those adhering to another. In order to understand the role and tradeoffs among middleware technologies in implementing architectures and enable component interoperability across middleware platforms, we have investigated a set of techniques and conducted preliminary case studies involving a particular architectural style, C2, and its implementation infrastructure. In particular, by encapsulating middleware functionality within C2's explicit software connectors, we have been able to couple C2's existing benefits such as component interchangeability, substrate independence, and structural guidance with new capabilities of multi-lingual, multi-process, and distributed application development in a manner that is transparent to architects. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the utility of our connector-based approach in enabling components implemented on top of different middleware platforms to interoperate. Though several details of our approach derive from the characteristics of the C2 style, we believe that a number of lessons learned are more generally applicable. We argue that these lessons can help form a broader research agenda for coupling the modeling power of software architectures with the implementation support provided by middleware.
Article
Software architectures promote development focused on modular functional building blocks (components), their interconnections (configurations), and their interactions (connectors). Since architecture-level components often contain complex functionality, it is reasonable to expect that their interactions will be complex as well. Middleware technologies such as CORBA, COM, and RMI provide a set of predefined services for enabling component composition and interaction. However, the potential role of such services in the implementations of software architectures is not well understood. In practice, middleware can resolve various types of component heterogeneity — across platform and language boundaries, for instance — but also can induce unwanted architectural constraints on application development. We present an approach in which components communicate through architecture-level software connectors that are implemented using middleware. This approach preserves the properties of the architecture-level connectors while leveraging the beneficial capabilities of the underlying middleware. We have implemented this approach in the context of a component- and message-based architectural style called C2 and demonstrated its utility in the context of several diverse applications. We argue that our approach provides a systematic and reasonable way to bridge the gap between architecture-level connectors and implementation-level middleware packages.
Article
Real-time and embedded systems have historically been small scale. However, advances in microelectronics and software now allow embedded systems to be composed of a large set of processing elements, and the trend is towards significant enhanced functionality, complexity, and scalability, since those systems are increasingly being connected by wired and wireless networks to create large-scale distributed real-time embedded systems (DRES). Such embedded computing and information technologies have become at the same time an enabler for future manufacturing enterprises as well as a transformer of organizations and markets. This paper discusses opportunities for using recent advances in the DRES area in the deployment of intelligent, adaptive, and reconfigurable manufacturing plant control architectures.
Article
At present, distributed real-time applications flourish, including the military systems, telecommunications, factory automation, traffic control, financial trading, medical imaging, and so on, these applications will need to make real-time reliable data transmission. Publish/Subscribe interaction scheme is very suitable for distributed communications system applications. In this paper, based on the OMG DDS (Data Distributed Service) middleware, we study and design applied to the field of distributed real-time applications, to support real-time data integration of the Publish/Subscribe system RMOS (Real-time Message Oriented System).
Article
Software architectures promote development focused on modular functional building blocks (components), their interconnections (configurations), and their interactions (connectors). Since architecture-level components often contain complex functionality, it is reasonable to expect that their interactions will be complex as well. Middleware technologies such as CORBA, COM, and RMI, provide a set of predefined services for enabling component composition and interaction. However, the potential role of such services in the implementations of software architectures is not well understood. Furthermore, components adhering to one middleware standard cannot readily interact with those adhering to another. In order to understand the role and tradeoffs among middleware technologies in implementing architectures and enable component interoperability across middleware platforms, we have investigated a set of techniques and conducted preliminary case studies involving a particular architectural style, C2, and its implementation infrastructure. In particular, by encapsulating middleware functionality within C2's explicit software connectors, we have been able to couple C2's existing benefits such as component interchangeability, substrate independence, and structural guidance with new capabilities of multi-lingual, multi-process, and distributed application development in a manner that is transparent to architects. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the utility of our connector-based approach in enabling components implemented on top of different middleware platforms to interoperate. Though several details of our approach derive from the characteristics of the C2 style, we believe that a number of lessons learned are more generally applicable. We argue that these lessons can help form a broader research agenda for coupling the modeling power of software architectures with the implementation support provided by middleware.
Conference Paper
In this paper we study the problem of multimedia streaming and transcoding in P2P systems. We propose a multimedia streaming architecture in which transcoding services coordinate to transform the streaming data into different formats and adapt to both the QoS requirements of the applications and to the availability of the system resources. Our techniques are entirely distributed, use only local knowledge and scale well with the size of the system. Extensive simulation results validate the performance of our approach.
Article
Current trends in computing include increases in both distribution and wireless connectivity, leading to highly dynamic, complex environments on top of which applications must be built. The task of designing and ensuring the correctness of applications in these environments is similarly becoming more complex. The unified goal of much of the research in distributed wireless systems is to provide higher-level abstractions of complex low-level concepts to application programmers, easing the design and implementation of applications. A new and growing class of applications for wireless sensor networks require similar complexity encapsulation. However, sensor networks have some unique characteristics, including dynamic availability of data sources and application quality of service requirements, that are not common to other types of applications. These unique features, combined with the inherent distribution of sensors, and limited energy and bandwidth resources, dictate the need for network functionality and the individual sensors to be controlled to best serve the application requirements. In this article, we describe different types of sensor network applications and discuss existing techniques for managing these types of networks. We also overview a variety of related middleware and argue that no existing approach provides all the management tools required by sensor network applications. To meet this need, we have developed a new middleware called MiLAN. MiLAN allows applications to specify a policy for managing the network and sensors, but the actual implementation of this policy is effected within MiLAN. We describe MiLAN and show its effectiveness through the design of a sensor-based personal health monitor.
Emerson's Built for Purpose Approach to Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Technology
  • Arc Advisory
  • Group
ARC Advisory Group, Emerson's Built for Purpose Approach to Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Technology, White Paper, (2010)
DCS Upgrades for Nuclear Power Plants: Saving Money and Reducing Risk through Virtual-Simulation Control System Checkout
  • G Mckim
  • M Yeager
  • C Weirich
G. McKim, M. Yeager, and C. Weirich, DCS Upgrades for Nuclear Power Plants: Saving Money and Reducing Risk through Virtual-Simulation Control System Checkout, Foxbro SimSci-Esscor, White Paper, (2011)
Achieving an Innovative Unified Operation Environment Using the Unified Gateway Station (UGS)
  • K Sawada
K. Sawada, Achieving an Innovative Unified Operation Environment Using the Unified Gateway Station (UGS), Yokogawa Technical Report, 54/2 (2011)
Application of Distributed Control System in Automation of Process Industries
  • M Anand
  • S Sarkar
  • S Rajendra
M. Anand, S. Sarkar and S. Rajendra, Application of Distributed Control System in Automation of Process Industries," International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2/6 (2012), pp. 377-383
Justification for DCS Migration, Rockwell Automation White Paper
  • M Vernak
  • T Shope
M. Vernak and T. Shope, Justification for DCS Migration, Rockwell Automation White Paper, (2014)
  • W Heinzelman
  • A Murphy
  • H Carvalho
  • M Perillo
W. Heinzelman, A. Murphy, H. Carvalho and M. Perillo, Middleware to Support Sensor Network Applications, IEEE Network Magazine, 18 (2004)
IndustrialIT System 800xA System Architecture
ABB, IndustrialIT System 800xA System Architecture, White Paper, (2005)
Survey of Middleware for Networked Embedded Systems, Sixth Framework Program Priority 2, Information Society technologies
  • C Mascolo
  • S Haile
  • L Lymberopoulos
  • G Picco
  • P Costa
  • G Blair
  • P Okanda
  • T Sivaharan
  • W Fritsche
  • M Karl
  • M Ronai
  • K Fodor
  • A Boulis
C. Mascolo, S. Haile, L. Lymberopoulos, G. Picco, P. Costa, G. Blair, P. Okanda, T. Sivaharan, W. Fritsche, M. Karl, M. Ronai, K. Fodor, and A. Boulis, Survey of Middleware for Networked Embedded Systems, Sixth Framework Program Priority 2, Information Society technologies, IST-004536-RUNES -D5.1 1.0, pp. 1-83, (2005)
Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems: Recent Advances, Future Trends and Their Impact on Manufacturing Automation
  • C Pereira
  • L Arro
C. Pereira and L. Arro, Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems: Recent Advances, Future Trends and Their Impact on Manufacturing Automation, Annual Reviews in Control, 31 (2007), pp. 81-92
  • G Pardo-Castellote
G. Pardo-Castellote, Data-Centric Programming Best Practices: Using DDS to Integrate Real-World Systems, Real-Time Innovations, Inc., (2010), pp. 1-18
  • G Pardo-Castellote
G. Pardo-Castellote, OMG Data-Distribution Service: Architectural Overview, Real-Time Innovations, Inc., (2005), pp. 1-7
Sait received the best Electronic Engineer award from the Indian Institute of Electrical Engineers, Bangalore (where he was born)
  • M Sadiq
Sadiq M. Sait obtained a Bachelor's degree in Electronics from Bangalore University in 1981, and Master's and PhD degrees in Electrical Engineering from King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in 1983 & 1987 respectively. Since 1987 he has been working at the Department of Computer Engineering where he is now a Professor. In 1981 Sait received the best Electronic Engineer award from the Indian Institute of Electrical Engineers, Bangalore (where he was born). In 1990, 1994 & 1999 he was awarded the 'Distinguished Researcher Award' by KFUPM. In 1988, 1989, 1990, 1995 & 2000 he was nominated by the Computer Engineering Department for the 'Best Teacher Award' which he received in 1995, and 2000. Sait has authored over 200research papers, contributed chapters to technical books, and lectured in over 25 countries. Sadiq M. Sait is the principle author of the books (1) VLSI PHYSICAL DESIGN AUTOMATION: Theory & Practice, published by McGraw-Hill Book Co., Europe, (and also co-published by IEEE Press), January 1995, and (2) ITERATIVE COMPUTER ALGORITHMS with APPLICATIONS in ENGINEERING (Solving Combinatorial Optimization Problems): published by IEEE Computer Society Press, California, USA, 1999. He was the Head of Computer Engineering Department, KFUPM from January 2001 -December 2004, Director of Information Technology and CIO of KFUPM between 2005 and 2011, and now is the Director of the Center for Communications and IT Research at the Research Institute of KFUPM.
Survey of Middleware for Networked Embedded Systems Sixth Framework Program Priority 2
  • C Mascolo
  • S Haile
  • L Lymberopoulos
  • G Picco
  • P Costa
  • G Blair
  • P Okanda
  • T Sivaharan
  • W Fritsche
  • M Karl
  • M Ronai
  • K Fodor
  • A Boulis