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SQUID sensors penetrate new markets

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Abstract

Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a device developed in 1964 to convert minute changes in current or magnetic field into a measurable room-temperature voltage. Over the past decades, the SQUID technology has undergone several major innovations. At present, commercial companies are extending the application of these devices to a variety of emerging markets such as magnetocardiology, nondestructive evaluation, explosives detection, and geophysics.

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... The Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) is the most sensitive detector of magnetic flux (Tesla m 2 ) known today [12]. The first commercially available SQUID microscope made for the Semiconductor industry IC testing was developed using High T c (%90 K) superconductors using YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7Àx (YBCO) thin film [13]. The SQUID used for microscopy consists of two Josephson junctions connected in parallel in a superconducting loop with an effective pickup area of 1.2Á10 À9 m 2 and a sensitivity of 20 Pico (10 À12 ) Tesla [14,15]. ...
Article
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The challenges that 3D integration present to Failure Analysis require the development of new Fault Isolation techniques that allows for non-destructive, true 3D failure localization. By injecting a current in the device under test (DUT), the current generates a magnetic field around it and this magnetic field is detected by a sensor above the device. Magnetic field imaging (MFI) is a natural candidate for 3D Fault Isolation of complex 3D interconnected devices. This is because the magnetic field generated by the currents in the DUT passes unaffected through all materials used in device fabrication; the presence of multiple metal layers, dies or other opaque layers do not have any impact on the magnetic field signal. The limitations of the technique are not affected by the number of layers in the stacked devise in samples such as wirebonded stacked memory, Through Silicon Via (TSV) stacked die or even package on package (PoP). The sample is raster scanned and magnetic field is acquired at determined steps providing a magnetic image of the field distribution. This magnetic field data is typically processed using a standard inversion technique to obtain a current density map of the device. The resulting current map can then be compared to a circuit diagram, an optical or infrared image, or a non-failing part to determine the fault location. Today, giant-magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors have been added to the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) sensor to allow higher resolution and Fault Isolation (FI) I at die level. Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI), using SQUID as the high sensitive magnetic sensor in combination with a high resolution GMR sensor. A solver algorithm capable of successfully reconstructing a 3D current path based on an acquired magnetic field image from both sensors has been developed. The generic 3D inverse problem has no unique solution. Given a particular 3D magnetic field distribution, there are an infinite number of current path distributions that will result in such magnetic field. This ill-posed problem has restricted, so far, the use of magnetic imaging to 2D. A different kind of 3D solver can be constructed, nevertheless capable of obtaining a single solution. The 3D solver algorithm is not only capable of extracting the 3D current path, but it also provides valuable geometrical information about the device. Accurately being able to position each current segment in a layer allows the FA engineer to follow the current as it vertically moves from one die (or layer) to another. [1,2,3]
... The Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) is the most sensitive detector of magnetic flux (Tesla m 2 ) known today [12]. The first commercially available SQUID microscope made for the Semiconductor industry IC testing was developed using High T c (%90 K) superconductors using YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7Àx (YBCO) thin film [13]. The SQUID used for microscopy consists of two Josephson junctions connected in parallel in a superconducting loop with an effective pickup area of 1.2Á10 À9 m 2 and a sensitivity of 20 Pico (10 À12 ) Tesla [14,15]. ...
Article
While microelectronic packages are becoming more and more advanced, the need for non-destructive Electrical Fault Isolation (EFI) becomes ever more critical for the entire product life-cycle ranging from the chip development yield enhancements to failures on product returns. In the beginning of product development, short failures are often the main issue while opens and cracks become the reliability problems after the product reaches the marketplace. In this paper we present Magnetic Field Imaging (MFI) as the one technique that can find all static defects: shorts, leakages and opens in a true non-destructive way. Copyright © 2014 IMAPS - International Microelectronics Assembly and Packaging Society All Rights Reserved.
... The Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) is the most sensitive detector of magnetic flux (Tesla m 2 ) known today [12]. The first commercially available SQUID microscope made for the Semiconductor industry IC testing was developed using High T c (%90 K) superconductors using YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7Àx (YBCO) thin film [13]. The SQUID used for microscopy consists of two Josephson junctions connected in parallel in a superconducting loop with an effective pickup area of 1.2Á10 À9 m 2 and a sensitivity of 20 Pico (10 À12 ) Tesla [14,15]. ...
Article
Due to magnetic fields ability to penetrate through all materials used by the semiconductor industry, a unique ability not found in any other techniques, it has become an important technique for detecting shorts, leakages and opens in multi stacked Through Silicon Via samples. We show in this paper how Magnetic Field Imaging is being used to image the current in a TSV stacked silicon device with a new 3D analysis algorithm of the distance from the top of the stacked device to the current path.
Article
Recent developments of electronic devices containing Josephson junctions (JJ) with high-Tc superconductors (HTS) are reported. In particular, the fabrication process and the properties of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) with a multilayer structure and ramp-edge-type JJs are described. The JJs were fabricated by re-crystallization of an artificially deposited Cu-poor precursory layer. The formation mechanism of the junction barrier is discussed. We have fabricated various types of gradiometers and magnetometers. They have been actually utilized for several application systems, such as a non-destructive evaluation (NDE) system for deep-lying defects in a metallic plate and a reel-to-reel testing system for striated HTS-coated conductors.
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