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Flood Disaster in India: An Analysis of trend and Preparedness

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Flood has been considered as one of the most recurring and frequent disaster in the world. Due to recurrent prevalence, the economic loss and life damage caused by the flood has put more burdens on economy than any other natural disaster. India also has continuously suffered by many flood events which claimed huge loss of life and economy. It has been found that the incidences of the flood are increasing very rapidly. Causes can be climate change, cloud bursting, tsunami or poor river management, silting etc. but devastation is increasing both in terms of lives and economies. Disaster management in India has very organised and structures programmes and policies but administration and implementation of these programs demand more efficiency. In last decade, flood damages more lives and economy than any other disasters. This paper is an analysis of the trend and preparedness of flood in India. Data from CRED has been used to analyse the trend of flood and other disasters in last ten years and damaged caused by these events.
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Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, August-September, 2015 ISSN : 2393-8358
Flood Disaster in India: An Analysis of trend and Preparedness
Prakash Tripathi
Research Scholar, Ambedkar University, Delhi
Abstract
Flood has been considered as one of the most recurring and frequent disaster in the world. Due to
recurrent prevalence, the economic loss and life damage caused by the flood has put more burdens on economy than
any other natural disaster. India also has continuously suffered by many flood events which claimed huge loss of life
and economy. It has been found that the incidences of the flood are increasing very rapidly. Causes can be climate
change, cloud bursting, tsunami or poor river management, silting etc. but devastation is increasing both in terms of
lives and economies. Disaster management in India has very organised and structures programmes and policies but
administration and implementation of these programs demand more efficiency. In last decade, flood damages more
lives and economy than any other disasters. This paper is an analysis of the trend and preparedness of flood in India.
Data from CRED has been used to analyse the trend of flood and other disasters in last ten years and damaged
caused by these events.
Keywords: Disaster, Flood, India, Preparedness
Introduction
Flood is most prevalent and costliest natural disaster in the world which devastates both life and
economy at a large extent. It is defined as, “High-water stages in which water over flows its natural or
artificial banks onto normally dry land, such as a river inundating its floodplain.” This usually local and
short term event comes with little or no alarming. When the hazards, imposed by flood, exceed the
coping capabilities of the affected population it become disaster. Centre for Research on the
Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED), a research unit of the Université catholique de Louvain (UCL)
situated at the School of Public Health of the Brussels campus of the university, Belgium, defines a
disaster as “a situation or event [which] overwhelms local capacity, necessitating a request to a national
or international level for external assistance; an unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great
damage, destruction and human suffering.”
Box : 1
For a disaster to be entered into the database, at least one of the following criteria must be fulfilled:
1. Ten or more people reported killed
2. 100 people or more reported affected
3. Declaration of a state of emergency
4. Call for international assistance.
The number of people killed includes people confirmed as dead and people missing and presumed dead.
People affected are those requiring immediate assistance during a period of emergency (i.e., requiring basic survival
needs such as food, water, shelter, sanitation and immediate medical assistance). People reported injured or homeless
are aggregated with those reported affected to produce a „total number of people affected‟.
The economic impact of a disaster usually consists of direct consequences on the local economy (e.g.,
damage to infrastructure, crops, housing) and indirect consequences (e.g., loss of revenues, unemployment, market
destabilization). In EM-DAT, the registered figure corresponds to the damage value at the moment of the event and
usually only to the direct damage, expressed in US dollars (2012 prices).
It analysed the occurrence of disasters in different nations and published data based on the
analysis. Following box provides the basic conditions, suggested by CRED, to be called disaster. Due to
recurrent prevalence, the economic loss and life damage caused by the flood has put more burden on
economy than any other natural disaster. The damage caused by flood lasts several years from its advent.
In the absence of an effective method to measure post impact of the flood, the assessment of loss and
damaged is often not actual and far less than the actual cost. The compensations and aids provided by the
government and non-government organisations do not meet the cost of damages which brings higher
economic burden to the people affected by these floods. This destruction in growth is not restricted to the
local level only but also brings loss in national economy. It is very difficult to control the flood; one can
only reduce the vulnerability by adopting certain pre- and post- disaster measurements. As Phillip
William, President of International Rivers Network has said, “you can never control the flood, you can
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simply try to reduce the risk”. The impact of the flood on human lives goes beyond the immediate effect.
In the report of working group on Management of flood accepted that, The devastating floods not only
result in loss of precious human lives, cattle and damage to public and private property but create a
sense of insecurity and fear in the minds of people living in the flood plains. The after effects of flood like
the agony of survivors, spread of epidemic, non-availability of essential commodities and medicines, loss
of the dwellings make floods most feared among the natural disasters being faced by human kind
(Nandy, 2005)
Flood, an excess of water, can be caused by heavy rain fall followed by inadequate capacity of
rivers to hold the water within their banks (NIDM, 2015). India receives major rainfall in only four
months i.e. June to September. Distribution of rain in India is not similar at every place, some areas
receive higher rainfall and some receives lower. The variation also varies time to time, the areas which
are not traditionally prone to floods also experience severe inundation due to downpour and cloud-
bursting. Urban flood has become one of the major problem now a days, the recent floods in Delhi,
Mumbai, Kolkata and other metropolises around the country definitely points towards the poor
management of drainage system. NIDM has enlisted following causes for floods India:
The primary causes for
Floods are:
Intense rainfall when the river is
flowing full.
Excessive rainfall in river
catchments or concentration of runoff
from the tributaries and river carrying
flows in excess of their capacities.
Cyclone and very intense rainfall
when the EL Nino effect is on a
decline.
Synchronization of flood peaks in
the main rivers or their tributaries.
Landslides leading to obstruction
of flow and change in the river
course.
Poor natural drainage system.
Backing water in tributaries at
their confluence with the main river.
Along with these primary
factors there are various factor which
intensify the occurrence and impact
of flood on the affected people.
Parker et al, 2007 found that floods
(in all their forms) were growing
more frequent and in some cases
reaching unprecedented size and impact, such as the Thai floods of 2011 (Komori et al., 2012).
Parker et al, 2007 suggested that, the number of flood disasters is growing, which is driven by:
• Changes to catchments (such as deforestation or urbanisation) that lead to increased run-off
• Population growth in areas at risk of flooding
• Climate change, which increases the variability and severity of weather, such as record-breaking
rainfall and possibly more severe tropical cyclones.
Flood Prone Areas in India: Indian subcontinent has specific geographical structure which makes
various part of the nation prone to the flood. The snow-clad Himalaya in the North encompasses one of
the largest glaciers of the world which are source of various perennial rivers. These rivers constitute a
large plain which is habituated by millions of the Indians. These gigantic plains are very prone to the
flood brings by the rivers which swell due to heavy rainfall in Monsoon. According to NIDM, the
average rainfall in India is 1150 mm with significant variation across the country. The annual rainfall
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Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, August-September, 2015 ISSN : 2393-8358
along the western coast and Western Ghats, Khasi hills and over most of the Brahmaputra valley amounts
to more than 2500 mm. Most of the river floods occur during the monsoon period and are usually
associated with tropical storms or depressions, active monsoon conditions and break monsoon situations.
Besides the river flood, heavy rainfall, cloud bursting, out-burst of glacial lakes and tsunami is other
causes of the flood. If we look at the Vulnerability atlas of flood zone in India, issued by Central Water
Commission we finds that the flood prone areas in India are mainly the Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain
and the coastal areas in the Eastern and Western coastal regions. River flood is result of gathering of
water from various tributaries of the river which brings huge silts and sands with them and deposits it on
the bed of the river. The deposited slits reduce the pace of the flow of river and it starts expanding
horizontally and submerging the nearby habitats. In most flood prone states, land depression, low-
pressure areas are the two most important synoptic systems responsible for floods. NIDM mentioned in
its document that in Bihar 100% and in U.P. 82% flood is caused due to land depression and well-marked
low pressure. In W. Bengal main reason for flood is cyclonic circulation. Whereas in Punjab, Gujarat,
Rajasthan & Jammu & Kashmir the main reason of frequent flooding is low pressure areas. Flood in
Orissa and Andhra Pradesh is due to monsoon depression. Now days metropolitan cities are facing
repeating episodes of the flood. This flood is caused by mismanaged drainage and sewer system which
get chocked due to careless dumping of the wastes in the drains and poor maintenance by the responsible
agencies. The coastal flood is mainly because of the cyclones and tsunami.
Rashtriya Barh Aayog (1980), mentioned that India‟s 12 % land comes under the flooded areas
which were comprised nearly 40 million hectare of land. This has exceeded upto 49.815 mha as per the
database maintained by CWC based on the flood damage data reported by States for the period from
1953-2010 (Report of Working Group on Flood Management and Region Specific Issues for XII
Plan (2011).Annual average area and population affected due to flood: 7.2 M ha and 3.19 million
respectively.
Occurrence of Flood in India
India has faced 649 disasters from 1915 to 2015. Out of these 649 events 302 disaster were
caused by flood with on an average of 3 flood per year. This accounted approximately 47% of total
disasters took place in India in the last 100 years. These floods can be further divided into Riverine
Flood, Flash flood, coastal flood and other type of flood. The summary of the affected people, death and
economic damage to the India is given in the following table.
Table 1: Flood and related damaged in India during 1915-2015
Subtype of Flood Disaster
Events count
Total deaths
Total affected
Total damage ('000 US$)
Others
132
33611
462703212
11898059
Riverine flood
143
29810
333442962
41404929
Flash flood
23
7436
23443526
416200
Coastal flood
4
569
11500000
275000
302
71426
831089700
53994188
Decadal change of flood in India distinguishes an alarming picture. If we look at the flood trend
based on CRED data we find that in the last five decades India has witness continuous rise in flood
disasters. The occurrence of flood disasters reached approximately 100 in the last decade. (It should be
noted that the number mentioned here is talked about those incidences which turns as disaster as per the
CRED conditions). The lives claimed by these floods have gone from an average of 1000 per year in the
1965-75 decade to 1700 per year in 2005-15 decade. The cumulative economic loss in the last decade i.e.
2005-2015 was nearly 2% of current GDP of India. Compare to previous decadal loss last decade shows
a steep rise on economic burden caused by flood. The decadal economic burden burgeoned from USD
11.6 billion in 1995-2005 to USD 34.5 billion in 2005-2015. This because the most affected five floods
took place in last five years only. Uttarakhand flood (2013), Leh-Laddakh flood (2010), Assam flood
(2012), Jammu Kashmere flood (2014) and recently Manipur Flood (2015) are some example of the
biggest floods in India. Following graph shows a decadal trend of flood in India.
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Fig: Decadal change of flood and its impact on the live and economy. (Data opted from CRED)
In the report of Working Group on Flood Management and Region Specific Issues for XII Plan,
2011, government of India also mentioned the total damaged done by the flood since 1953. The
highlights of damage in India are shown in following table.
Table: Highlights of flood damages in India during the Period of (1953-2010)
S.No.
Item
Unit
Average Annual Damage
1
Area affected
mha.
7.21
2
Population affected
million
3.19
3
Human lives lost
Nos
1612.00
4
Cattle lost
Nos
89345.00
5
Cropped area affected
mha
3.70
6
Damage to the crops
Rs in crore
693.87
7
House damaged
nos (million)
1194637
8
Damage to houses
Rs in crore
275.48
9
Damage to public utilities
Rs in crore
814.60
10
Total damage
Rs in crore
1804.42
Source: Report of working group on Flood Management and Region specific Issues for XII plan (2011).
Situation getting worse:
The last ten (2004-14) years has brought more disasters caused by flood in India. The data
provided in the above table does not represent the financial burden in the current value but the actual. If
the value is estimated at the price level of 2010 then the estimated cost would be Rs. 812,500 million
(WG report, 2011).
Table 1: Top 10 Disasters in last ten years (2005-14), sorted by no. of people killed
Disaster
Date
Damage (000 US$)
Flood
12
-06-2013
6054
Earthquake (seismic activity)
08
-10-2005
1309
Flood
24
-07-2005
1200
Flood
03
-07-2007
1103
Flood
11
-06-2008
1063
Flood
Jul-09
992
Extreme temperature
Apr-13
557
Flood
25
-09-2009
355
Flood
28
-07-2006
350
Extreme temperature
Jun-05
329
Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, August-September, 2015
ISSN : 2393-8358
Table 2: Top 10 Disasters in last ten years (2005-14), sorted by no. of people affected
Disaster
Date
Damage (000 US$)
Flood
24-07-2005
20000055
Flood
03-07-2007
18700000
Storm
12-10-2013
13230000
Flood
12-07-2007
11100000
Flood
11-06-2008
7900000
Flood
22-09-2007
7200000
Flood
15-08-2011
5549080
Storm
25-05-2009
5100000
Flood
25-09-2009
4100000
Flood
28-07-2006
4000065
If we look at top ten disasters in the last ten years we find that Flood alone had killed nearly
84% of the total person killed by the top ten disasters. Seven out of ten events are of flood which claimed
11117 lives. Flood also affected more people than any other disaster. Data shows that eight out of top ten
events affected highest number of people are of the flood and it affected more than 78 million Indians. In
terms of economic damages in the last ten years, Eight out of ten disastrous events, are of the flood which
damaged nearly 14 b $ of Indian economy (The figures are given in the above tables). The damage is
higher to the poor and marginal group of the society. It has found that in the developing nations, poor,
female, children and elderly are disproportionately at the risk (Sommer and Mosley, 1972; Bern et al.,
1993; Chowdhury et al., 1993; Jonkman and Kelman, 2005; Telford et al.,2006; Pradhan et al., 2007;
Jonkman et al., 2009). The losses faced by the affected people are considered to be direct or indirect.
Direct losses are difficult to quantify and it is even more difficult to evaluate indirect losses. Direct
measures count the number of business and homes destroyed, for example. Indirect costs may include
migration from the area as a result ofthe flood, tax losses as consumers shop outside the damaged area
and the costs of outbreaks of waterborne diseases and health loss.
Structure of Indian Disaster management System:
In India the occurrence of flood and damage caused by it has increased over the time. To
mitigate this disaster Indian “National Institute of Disaster Management” has opted various approaches
time to time. India has not set up any separate institution for flood, but it comes under the Disaster
management cell of Indian Government. Even in the colonial period an institutional framework was
developed to mitigate disasters. After Independence, India followed the same system where managing
disaster was rest with the Relief Commissioner at every state who functioned under the Central Relief
Commissioner, with their role limited to delegation of relief material and money in the affected area
which was termed as „Financial Reliefs‟ (Patwardhan & Ajit, 2007). The emergence of permanent and
institutionalised set up for disaster management came into existence in 1990s when Disaster Management
cell was set up in the Ministry of Agriculture. India was facing disasters continuously and financial
reliefs were not a appropriate mitigation. India was eyeing on the a holistic approach which not only
provide the post-disaster reliefs but also work on pre-disasters prevention and adaptation with the help of
local to central stakeholders. Consequently, the disaster management division was shifted under the
Ministry of Home Affairs in 2003 and a hierarchical structure for disaster management evolved in India.
To analyse the various weather related hazards and for better monitoring different department and
agencies viz. Indian Meteorological Department (For cyclone and weather related Hazards) and Central
Water Commission (for flood) were created. Indian Parliament brought a Disaster Management Bill in
2004 which was implemented in August, 2005. Following flow chart shows the Disaster Management
structure in India after the National Disaster Act, 2005.
After the implementation of the disaster Management Bill two agencies are co-existing and
working together. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Headed by Prime Minister, works
at central, state and district level and it is responsible for "laying down the policies, plans and guidelines
for disaster management" and to ensure "timely and effective response to disaster". In addition to this, the
National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC), part of the earlier setup, also functions at the Centre.
The nodal ministries, as identified for different disaster types function under the overall guidance of the
Ministry of Home Affairs (nodal ministry for disaster management).
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Preparedness and Mitigation:
Preparedness for disaster is critical to the affected household, community and government. This
is cumulative endeavour to all sections of society. After a disaster a community goes through four phases
that overlap: the emergency period, the restoration period, the replacement reconstruction period, and the
commemorative betterment period (Haas, Kates and Bowden, 1977). Time taken by each phase is ten
times longer than the previous one. The rate of recovery is directly related to the extent of damage, the
available recovery resources, the prevailing pre-disaster trends, and community leadership and planning
(Haas, Kates and Bowden, 1977). These phases can be used as general planning guidelines for
community officials.
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There is a need for individual responsibility, local coordination and governmental plans to
ensure the ability to respond to and recover from major events. Preparedness consists of the pre- and
post- events activities which enables coping abilities of the affected community to respond effectively
and recover more quickly. Pre-disasters preparedness includes the development of warning systems,
evacuation plans, disaster communications, and public education, which some sources (USACE; Waugh,
2000) view as mitigation because such practices must be implemented long before a hazardous events.
Post disaster mitigation can be noted from a recent World Bank review of lessons learned which
suggested that „the most immediate needs following a flood are for a safe water supply, food, shelter, and
medical care‟ (IEG, 2010: 3).
Government of India has opted both structural and non-structural measures to reduce the flood
losses and protect the damage caused by flood. Structural measurement includes the artificial reservoir
and dams, natural depression, by diversion of a part of the river to the area where water stagnation and
water logging is not a problem, embankment of the river to restrict it to overflow the banks, channel
improvements to increase the area of flow or velocity of flow or both, catchment area treatment through
afforestation, construction of sea wall and other such works (WG report, 2011). Non-structural
measurements includes flood plain zoning and restriction construction in the flood prone area to reduce
the impact, flood forecasting and warning system, flood proofing etc. In the Twelfth Five Year Plan
(2012-17) government of India passed ` 57575.00 crore in different programs and schemes for flood and
its management.
Conclusion
Flood in India has become one of the biggest disaster which has killed thousands of the people
in last few years. The recurrence and intensity has amplified over the time which damaged life and
economy at a great extent. Government of India has taken up many measures to lessen the damage
caused by flood and other disasters, but there is a long way to go. Use of science and technology,
telecommunication and media for alarming and pre-disaster measures can be effective to reduce the
devastations. To set up alarming system at the bank of rivers which can alert neighbouring dwellers about
rising water level can also be an affective measure to minimise the damage. Along with it, awareness
programmes and preparedness campaign at the flood affected areas can help in limiting losses.
Rehabilitation of the neighbouring community to a safe and higher place before flood arrives can reduce
the danger to life. Quick action in supply of goods and services like medicine, food and water supply
helps in quick recovery and limited loss after the disaster. Analysis of flood trend and damage caused by
it suggest that there is a need for effective pre-and post-disaster mechanism as the nature cannot be
checked but disaster can be reduced.
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Tropical inland capture fisheries are susceptible to a series of vulnerabilities such as habitat destruction, biodiversity loss, pollution, overfishing, invasive species and anthropogenic climate change. A comprehensive review of the impact of climatic uncertainties on Indian inland fisheries has not been adequately attempted yet. Recent approaches emphasizing ecosystem-based management in a regional context, specific to inland fisheries for combating climatic changes, have not been reported to date. The paper presents a critical bibliometric review of the climatic vulnerabilities faced by Indian inland fishery resources and various adaptive and mitigation strategies put forward by the country for the sustainability of the resources. In this communication , a systematic review of the impact of climate change and other stressors on various inland ecosystems of the subcontinent and the ecosystem-based management strategies adopted in India is presented and discussed.
Conference Paper
Inflatable life rafts, at present times are equipped on almost all passengers, fishing and commercially operated vessels. Universally, life rafts are the first mode of evacuation system, be it a fishing boat with relatively small crew to an outsized passenger vessel with more passengers and crew. In an event of a natural disaster such as floods happening in any kind of region be it sparsely or densely populated areas where rescue and evacuation operations can be hard to reach, people will be often left to look after basic survival exigency. We have developed an emergency portable life raft which is seamless and compactly integrated to a backpack which weighs merely 2.5 kg. During the flood, victim can instantly respond by packing up with survival necessities. The portable emergency life raft aims to provide a versatile, user- friendly and an all-round solution for the survival endurance during floods.
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Globally, the number of people living in flood-prone areas is increasing. The poorest and most vulnerable people are at the greatest risk. This article analyses the dominant social factors that motivates people to occupy flood-prone areas, from the perspective of residents across the social spectrum in the largest Himalayan urban center, Srinagar City. The field experience suggests that the residents of flood-prone areas moved to safer part of city and outside of city, but returned to their original place as soon as floodwaters were gone, when the region was hit by a historic flood disaster in the beginning of September 2014. Both male and female, socially and educationally disadvantageous people were included in the study to ensure diversity of opinion. The qualitative data from personal interviews, conducted with the residents having previous flood experience was analysed by using data-driven thematic approach-an iterative and reflective process-to develop five "key" themes reflecting lived experience. The themes include: (1) place attachment, (2) good living conditions, (3) adaptation to flooding, (4) sense of community, and (5) social harmony. The thick description produced on each theme and supported with direct quotations from participants themselves helped to uncover the underlying realities to inform decision-making. It is important for disaster managers and risk communicators to consider the social aspects of flooding and understand the psyche of exposed vulnerable populations to address planning and communication gaps, design and implement community programs, especially to help the helpless and vulnerable people better manage flood risk and achieve resilience.
Chapter
Flood is one the most common natural disasters on the planet, due to natural factors and as well as human factors. Climate change, tsunami, cloud bursting, poor river management, silting of the river, etc. are the causes of flooding and it impacts heavily on the lives and economies of the affected region. South Asian region during the three decades period of 1976–2005, 943 natural disasters were reported out of which one-third were caused by floods, primarily in the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basins. People are killed annually by floods in this region. Experience shows that there are problems such as lack of information, proper dissemination system, etc. In this paper, my case study is at Gandak, which is the most devastating river in the Indo-Nepal region. Most of the master drain river originates from the Himalayas and Gandak also flows from Nepal. Gandak is a transboundary river which has to face issues like political tensions, economic development, and power of decision making have stressed the transboundary issues between India and Nepal. Over the period of time flood risk reduction concentrated on the construction of embankments and retention by reservoirs. But attempt to decrease the vulnerability has given minor importance. The early Warning System should be people-centric as mentioned in the Hyogo framework. Flood Early Warning System has evolved significantly but the warnings still fail to disseminate or fail to reach the communities. Being a transboundary river, it has to deal with various transboundary conflicts, such as the lack of coordination seen between India and Nepal while disseminating the information. In this paper, it gives information about how information is shared between Indo-Nepal and further how this information reaches to the ground level on which there is an exploration of the interface between formal and informal early warning systems and identified various strategies for improving the systems which are existed by reviewing the policy document signed between India and Nepal.
Chapter
Assam, a state in northeastern India, experiences intensive and frequent floods every year owing to Brahmaputra River as well as dynamic and extreme atmospheric circulation. In May 2020, cyclone Amphan hit northeast India including Assam and caused a severe emergency. Therefore, continuous and precise monitoring of floods through remote sensing techniques has received attention for monitoring and analyzing such frequent events. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has proved to be the best source for monitoring and analyzing floods because it functions day and night and is independent of weather extremes. This study used Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 Multispectral Instrument (MSI) data and the Modified and Normalized Difference Water Indices (MNDWI and NDWI) to study floods in the Kopili River basin in Assam. SAR data (VV polarization) and false color composites of Sentinel MSI data were classified using a support vector machine algorithm to find the proportion and extent of flood water in the area. The classified map was postprocessed and validated with 98% and 94% overall accuracy and 0.97 and 0.89 kappa coefficients, respectively. The results show that SAR-based flood maps give more accurate results than do optical data. SAR data show that almost 15% of the area had a flooding emergency in the study area. Moreover, MNDWI values provide better representation of water compared with NDWI.
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Every year, extreme climatic events cause significant losses in South Asian countries, including India. The damages due to floods have gone up, affecting the overall development of the Indian economy. The current study uses zero-inflated negative binomial and negative binomial regression approaches to evaluate whether economic growth lowers damage risk due to repeating flood occurrences for major flood-affected Indian states from 1981 to 2019. This study produces three significant findings. First, loss and damage indicators are on the rise across the country. Second, high-income states are more flood-resistant than poor states. Third, the real economic growth rate and the disaster risk follow a ‘U' shape pattern. This study concludes that real per capita gross state domestic product and urbanization rate reduce the loss and damages due to disasters, while a rise in population density, more flooded areas, and heavy rainfall enhance the damage risk. Further, our study supports the economic growth theory of J. S. Mill that there is a negative association between disasters and economic growth. From a policy perspective, this study suggests increasing expenditures under the Disaster Risk Reduction program to lower damage risk. This study also urges the integration of the developmental planning and state action plan for climate change to encounter such climatic events thoroughly.
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Full-text available
A massive flood, the maximum ever recorded in Thailand, struck the Chao Phraya River in 2011. The total rainfall during the 2011 rainy season was 1,439 mm, which was 143% of the average rainy season rainfall during the period 1982–2002. Although the gigantic Bhumipol and Sirikit dams stored approximately 10 billion m³ by early October, the total flood volume was estimated to be 15 billion m³. This flood caused tremendous damage, including 813 dead nationwide, seven industrial estates, and 804 companies with inundation damage, and total losses estimated at 1.36 trillion baht (approximately 3.5 trillion yen). The Chao Phraya River watershed has experienced many floods in the past, and floods on the same scale as the 2011 flood are expected to occur in the future. Therefore, to prepare of the next flood disaster, it is essential to understand the characteristics of the 2011 Chao Phraya River Flood. This paper proposes countermeasures for preventing major flood damage in the future.
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Full-text available
The flood defence agency in England and Wales has been pursuing a programme of flood warning system enhancement, engaging householders at risk in improving their warning responses. The immediate aim of this paper is to test and revise a model of economic benefits of warnings, but the survey data also generate insights into the constraints acting upon flood warning responses. Damage saving is less than previously anticipated: warning reliability and householder availability problems limit savings. Warnings are less likely to be received by those in lower social grades, and flood warning lead time is a factor in avoiding damage. The survey data indicate the complexities involved in improving flood warning response, and provide policy pointers.
Article
Full-text available
Living with natural disasters has become a way of life in Bangladesh. On the night of 29 April 1991 a severe cyclonic storm, accompanied by tidal surges up to 30 feet high, battered the coastal areas of Bangladesh for 3-4 hours. Thousands of people were killed and property worth billions of dollars was destroyed. After the cyclone, several studies, using epidemiological and anthropological methods, looked at the impact of the cyclone. It was estimated that over 67,000 people lost their lives. Women, children and the elderly were much more at risk and so were those from the socio-economically disadvantaged section of the population. Cyclone shelters were few in relation to need but proved very helpful in saving lives. At least 20 per cent more deaths would have occurred in the absence of these shelters. The article documents impressive improvements in Bangladesh's-ability to cope and makes recommendations for the future.
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This article discusses the general state of affairs of the disaster management situation in India with reference to some specific issues and cases and the steps that should be taken to prevent the disasters with the minimum loss to the life and the property as well and the preventive machinery that is in existence at the district, state and national level has been also the point of discussion in this article. This article thus aims to provide the readers a clear picture about the general relevant aspects of the disaster management in India.
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The following values have no corresponding Zotero field: Research Notes: This is a deliverable from the EU funded FLOODsite project, and reviews the methods used to estimate flood damages. CORFU, ideally, shouldn't repeat this work A2 - Project, FLOODsite ID - 1
Article
Two medical relief assessments were carried out in the southern coastal region of East Bengal affected by the cyclone and tidal bore of November, 1970. The first, a rapid 18-site survey, documented the adequacy of existing water supplies and absence of significant post-cyclone morbidity or exceptional levels of epidemic diseases. The second, wider in scope, was done 2 months later, between Feb. 10 and March 4, 1971. Seventy-nine unions in the nine most affected thanas were visited, and 2973 families, comprising 1·4% of the area's population, were studied. Age-specific cyclone mortality ranged from highs of 29% and 20% in the 0-4-year and 70+ age-groups, respectively, to a low of 6% in 35-39-year-olds. Females fared worse than males in all but the youngest age-groups. Mean mortality was 16·5%, representing a minimum of 224,000 deaths. More than 180,000 homes were destroyed by the cyclone, and at the time of the survey 600,000 people were still without adequate shelter. Although post-cyclone morbidity, mortality, and nutritional status compared favourably with a control area, 1,000,000 people were still dependent on outside food relief for survival. At least 123,000 draft animals and 127,000 ploughs were needed before the region could begin to regain agricultural self-sufficiency. The surveys prove the value of early on-the-spot assessments in getting an accurate picture of requirements in disaster areas.
Article
In this article a preliminary analysis of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Katrina in the New Orleans metropolitan area is presented. The hurricane caused more than 1,100 fatalities in the state of Louisiana. A preliminary data set that gives information on the recovery locations and individual characteristics for 771 fatalities has been analyzed. One-third of the analyzed fatalities occurred outside the flooded areas or in hospitals and shelters in the flooded area. These fatalities were due to the adverse public health situation that developed after the floods. Two-thirds of the analyzed fatalities were most likely associated with the direct physical impacts of the flood and mostly caused by drowning. The majority of victims were elderly: nearly 60% of fatalities were over 65 years old. Similar to historical flood events, mortality rates were highest in areas near severe breaches and in areas with large water depths. An empirical relationship has been derived between the water depth and mortality and this has been compared with similar mortality functions proposed based on data for other flood events. The overall mortality among the exposed population for this event was approximately 1%, which is similar to findings for historical flood events. Despite the fact that the presented results are preliminary they give important insights into the determinants of loss of life and the relationship between mortality and flood characteristics.