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Transfer zone and its relative reservoir distribution in northern zone of Dongying Sag

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... According to previous researches on transfer zone, the transfer fault belts generally acted as the inlets of drainage systems (Gawthorpe et al., 1993). For example, the large fan delta sandbodies in the sub-member Es 4 s -Es 3 x are controlled by a transfer zone in the northern Dongying sag (Sun and Ren, 2004). The fault trenches were generated by oblique faults to be favorable conduits of intrabasinal dispersion. ...
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Recently, the researches on structure controls on sandbodies have provided a new method for predicting petroleum reservoirs. The Yitong (伊通) graben is situated in the northern section of the Tan-Lu (郯-庐) fault system in eastern China. It was characterized by dual properties of strike-slip and extension in Cenozoic. Two types of intrabasinal structures were identified as oblique fault and transverse uplift in the graben. The oblique faults arranged en echelon in plain and locally presented negative rosette structures on seismic profile, so they were closely derived from strike-slip movement of the northwestern boundary faults. Moreover, these oblique faults were divided to five zones. The three transverse uplifts, located corresponding to flattened southeast boundary faults, were mainly originated by displacement-gradient folding due to segmental extensional activities of southeast boundary faults. The large-scale sandbodies of subaqueous fan facies and fan delta facies had developed at the two types of intrabasinal structure zone. Based on analyzing the seismic facies, logging facies and seismic attribute extractions, and on discovering many incised valleys at the oblique fault zones, the two types of intrabasinal structures were revealed to have conducted drainage entering basin and further dispersing, and to have consequently controlled the development and distribution of sandbodies.
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The study finds that the faults activities are severe and complicated during Dongying Formation in A Oilfield. The sedimentary face is expressed in delta lobes migration in the plane and superimposed sand body in the longitudinal stage, and the thickness of formation and the degree of sand body are of strong heterogeneity. The dextral movement of main strikeslip generated a large amount of associated faults with characteristics of transtension. The faults of different size and attitude distributed in space form a various types of fault accommodation structure-type slope break belts, and they obviously control the import of source and multistage dispersion to the centre of sag. Especially the formation of gap and faulted trough play an important role in the convergence and guidance of the drainage system. Under the effects of fault accommodation structure-slope break zone, there are two sources within the study area, and the sedimentary face of interval is deltaic environment and the delta could be further separated into three subfacies including delta plain, delta front, former delta and many kinds of microfacies such as distributary channel, mouth bar, sheet sand, turbidite sand and so on.
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On the basis of the previous classification research, the features of transfer structure in Bohai Bay Basin were analyzed. The transfer structures in Bohai Bay Basin can be divided into two styles of transfer zone and transfer fault according to the connection or non-connection status. The transfer structure in Bohai Bay Basin is mainly exhibited in the style of transfer zone, especially in basin or depression, while the transfer fault only militates in the sag-control level. With the occasional development of transfer fault, most of high-level transfer zones are horizontally connected with different relay ramps. These strike transfer structures in NWW-NW direction are the most important structure styles to control the ″north-south segmentation″ tectonic framework in Bohai Bay Basin. The difference of oil and gas reserves in Bohai Bay Basin is related to the distribution of prolific hydrocarbon depressions and sags controlled by transfer structure. The paleotopography and rich-sand drainage channels controlled by transfer structure are favorable to the formation of lithologic reservoirs. The adjacent zones of the transfer structure are the important regions for finding the buried-hill structure reservoirs.
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This paper analyzes the structural features of Meso-Cenozoic typical transfer zones in Jiuquan Basin and discusses transfer zone's oil-controlling based on seismic and outcrop data. Extensional transfer zones in early Cretaceous are divided into four types including synthetic overlapping, synthetic collateral, conjugated divergent overlapping and transverse fault type. Compressional transfer zones in Cenozoic are divided into two types: transverse-slip fault and tear fault. They are mainly distributed in the south marginal piedmont fold-thrust belt, and perpendicularly developed to this belt, which play the role of compressional deformation and displacement. The transfer zones control on formation of hydrocarbon accumulations. The extensional transfer zones not only play an important part in structures and traps developing in the rift basin, but also control the distribution of provenance and sedimentary system, and thus control the hydrocarbon gathering and distribution. As hydrocarbon migration paths, the compressional transfer zones improve reservoir physical properties and they are also rich oil-gas belts in Qingxi Oilfield.
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According to interpreted cautiously with 2D and 3D seismic profiles, the typical transfer zone was identified in No.Ⅱ fault zone of TaZhong area, near the TaZhong 46 well of central uplift belt in Tarim basin. Discussed the transfer zone characteristic on the basis of seismic interpretation, it’s clearly triangle transfer zone and caused by strike-slip affection. Using structural analysis method, it is indicated that the transfer zone composed by thrusting-detachment faults. According to structural evolution analysis, the transfer zone had been affecting constantly by transpression during the caledonian-late hercynian, Analyzing geologic setting and regional geology characteristic, TaZhong No.Ⅱ fault zone are sinistral transpression strike-slip fault. Analysis the control action of transfer zone’s for trap, reservoir, hydrocarbon migration and sedimentary, the Transfer zone have the advantage target for oil and gas exploration.
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The relationship between deposition and tectonics of sedimentary basins has been a significant subject in recent years. Using typical rift basins such as the Nanpu Sag as an example, combined with the analysis of the tectonics-palaeogeomorphology of basins, we undertook a detailed study of the differences of the third-order sequences in different basins, the combination of depositional systems within the sequence framework and the distribution of depocenters and subsidence centers. Our results revealed a significant relationship between the tectonics-palaeogeomorphology of rift basins and the filling styles of sedimentary sequences. The basin structure plays a primary role in controlling the development of the third-order sequences and the boundary of these sequences is easily formed in basins with gentle slopes, shallow water and a small area. The characteristics of the tectonics-palaeogeomorphology of rift basins are dominated by half-grabens of extensional faults, which affect the temporal and spatial combination of sedimentary systems within the sequences as well as the distribution of depocenters and subsidence centers. Based on the development rules of the faults dominating the half-grabens of extensional faults, rift basins are classified into two types: the single fault segmented-linkage type and the multi-fault combination type. The main controlling factors of the temporal and spatial combination of sedimentary systems and the distribution of depocenters and subsidence centers in different basins are different. The characteristics of early segmentation and later linkage of the faults play a critical role in controlling the sedimentary system combination within the sequence framework and the temporal and spatial differences of depocenters and subsidence centers of the single fault segmented-linkage rift basins, while the differences in fault activities are the dominating factors of the multi-fault combination rift basins.
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Based on discussions about the tectonic background and the relationship between faulting and petroleum accumulation in Chinese continental basins, this paper introduces the basic concepts, principles, scientific foundation, an exploration of fault controlling hydrocarbon theory as well as the differences between fault controlling hydrocarbon theory and other viewpoints about fault controlling petroleum. The geologic tectonic backgrounds of compression from three directions, continental facies basin, extension in east and compression in west, developed faults and frequent tectonic movement suggests that faulting is the main reason for various geological processes that influence petroleum generation, migration, accumulation and distribution in Chinese oil-bearing basins. The exploration concept based on fault controlling hydrocarbon theory is: take faults as the main control factor, find hydrocarbon controlling faults such as source-controlling faults and trap-controlling faults as well as seal faults, analyze their petroleum migration and accumulation potential, evaluate trap properties and determine the exploration targets.摘 要在论述中国陆相盆地大地构造背景、断裂活动基本特征及其与成盆成烃成藏关系基础上,系统介绍了断裂控烃理论提出的背景及断裂控烃理论的基本概念、原理、主要内容、科学依据和基于断裂控烃理论的勘探思路,并指出断裂控烃理论与其他断裂控油观点认识的不同之处,最后指出了断裂控烃理论的意义。研究表明,三面受挤、陆相为主、东张西压、断裂发育、运动频繁的地质构造背景决定了断裂是控制中国含油气盆地各种地质作用和油气生、运、聚、散、分布的根本因素。基于断裂控烃理论的勘探思路是以断裂(尤其是深大断裂)为主要控制因素和基本线索,寻找控源断裂、控圈断裂、油源断裂及遮挡断裂等控烃断裂,分析断控圈闭和与断裂相关圈闭的油气运聚成藏条件,进行含油气性评价,以确定有利的勘探目标。
Article
Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk factors/correlates of cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations. Methods Sets of terms relevant to sexual minority populations and cigarette smoking were used in a simultaneous search of 10 databases through EBSCOhost. The search was limited to the peer-reviewed literature up to January 2011, using no geographic or language limits. For inclusion, the paper was required to: (1) have been written in English, (2) have sexual minorities (defined by either attraction, behaviour, or identity) included in the study population and (3) have examined some form of magnitude of association for risk factors/correlates of any definition of cigarette smoking. A total of 386 abstracts were reviewed independently, with 26 papers meeting all inclusion criteria. Abstracts were reviewed and coded independently by authors JB and JGLL using nine codes derived from the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Studies used various measures of sexual orientation and of smoking. Risk factors that could be considered unique to sexual minorities included internalised homophobia and reactions to disclosure of sexual orientation. Some studies also indicated common smoking risk factors experienced at higher rates among sexual minorities, including stress, depression, alcohol use and victimisation. Conclusions This review identified risks that were associated with sexual minority status and common to the general population but experienced at potentially higher rates by sexual minorities. Government and foundation funds should be directed towards research on the origins of this disparity.
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