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This manuscript focuses on the effect of integrated nitrogen management on growth, yield and economics of paddy in SRI technique. Results revealed that application of castor cake @ 1 t/hawith 100% RDN significantly influenced plant height, total and productive tillers/hill, number of panicles/hill, panicle length, dry matter accumulation and test weight. A linear response with increase in the levels of nitrogen was observed in all growth and yield parameters. Application of 100% RDN gave a significant effect on plant height at harvest, total number and total productive tillers/hill, dry matter accumulation at 40 DAT, panicle length and weight, and grain and straw yield of paddy over control. Significantly higher grain (3550 kg/ha) and straw yields (9362 kg/ha) were recorded with application of 100% RDN. A significant interaction effect between organic manure and RDN was found where application of castor cake @ 1 t/ha with 100% RDN recorded significantly higher grain yield (4032 kg/ha) with maximum net realization (Rs. 30320/ha) with 2.25 BCR.
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Annals of Agri-Bio Research 18 (2) : 141-145, 2013
Effects of Organic Manures and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of
Paddy Grown in System of Rice Intensification Technique under Middle Gujarat
Conditions
MAMTA MEENA*, M. V. PATEL, T. C. POONIA, M. D. MEENA1 AND TANIA DAS
Department of Agronomy, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110 (Gujarat), India
*(e-mail : mmeena187@gmail.com)
ABSTRACT
This manuscript focuses on the effect of integrated nitrogen management on growth, yield and economics of paddy in
SRI technique. Results revealed that application of castor cake @ 1 t/ha with 100% RDN significantly influenced plant
height, total and productive tillers/hill, number of panicles/hill, panicle length, dry matter accumulation and test weight. A
linear response with increase in the levels of nitrogen was observed in all growth and yield parameters. Application of
100% RDN gave a significant effect on plant height at harvest, total number and total productive tillers/hill, dry matter
accumulation at 40 DAT, panicle length and weight, and grain and straw yield of paddy over control. Significantly higher
grain (3550 kg/ha) and straw yields (9362 kg/ha) were recorded with application of 100% RDN. A significant interaction
effect between organic manure and RDN was found where application of castor cake @ 1 t/ha with 100% RDN recorded
significantly higher grain yield (4032 kg/ha) with maximum net realization (Rs. 30320/ha) with 2.25 BCR.
Key words : Integrated nutrient management, SRI, nitrogen, kharif paddy, growth, yield, economics
1Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal-132 001 (Haryana), India.
INTRODUCTION
Rice is the most important crop after wheat in India
and major source of food for more than 2.7 billion
people. In Gujarat, about 4667 thousand hectare of
area is occupied under kharif rice producing 11020
metric tonnes with an average productivity of 2361
kg/ha (Anonymous, 2010). In Gujarat, the crop is
mainly grown during kharif as well as in summer
season in Navsari, Valsad, Surat, Kheda and Anand
districts where irrigation facilities are available. The
average productivity of rice is declining or stagnating
over the years (Kumar et al., 2000) mainly due to
inefficient nutrient management and availability of
irrigation water at its critical stages. About 52% of
area is concentrated in medium low, low and very
low productivity groups which account for 41% of
total rice production.
Its seeds contain 7.5% protein, 77.2% carbohydrate
and considerable amount of amylase (20-32%) and
fat (2.0-2.5%). The hulled rice grain contains as much
B group vitamins as wheat.
System of rice intensification (SRI) refers to a set of
practices initially adopted in Madagascar to overcome
the problem of soil acidity in early eighties and follows
a more comprehensive approach addressing various
management practices simultaneously with promising
results (Stoop et al., 2002). Efforts to popularize SRI
were revived in many countries including India. SRI
mainly emphasises on utilizing early growth vigour of
seedlings, facilitates less competition for light and
nutrients, enhances resource use efficiency (seeds,
water, fertilizer and pesticides) and brings down over
dependence on chemical fertilizers, breaking soil anoxia
condition and promoting healthy root growth and
increased organic matter content and microbial
activity. The SRI, therefore, seems to be a ‘win-win’
technology. However, there are some concerns and
bottlenecks in its adoption. SRI cultivation method
appeared promising as it enhances grain yield as well
as water productivity (Pathak et al., 2010). SRI
technology is gaining popularity in hilly areas having
well drained and levelled soil conditions. Many of the
small and marginal farmers of Gujarat have adopted
this technology. In this technique, seedlings of 11-12
days old are transplanted at the spacing of 25 × 25
cm. For one hectare transplanting of paddy, 1/5th of
seed rate is required compared to traditional system
of rice cultivation with only 5 kg/ha as compared to
its traditional cultivation (25 kg/ha). In this technique,
crop field should be kept moist during vegetative phase
and at later stages from panicle initiation till
physiological maturity 5 cm water height is maintained.
The use of chemical and off-farm inputs in intensive
agriculture is fast increasing, resulting in deterioration
of soil health and increased environmental pollution.
An integrated nutrient management plays a vital role
in sustaining both the soil health and crop production
on long term basis (Singh et al., 2004). Application of
organic manure viz., FYM, vermicompost, poultry
manure and castor cake may serve as source of macro
and micronutrients. Their integrated use maintains
higher crop productivity and improves soil fertility
(Arya et al., 2000).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted in clay soil at Agronomy
Farm, Anand Agricultural University, Anand during
kharif season of 2009. The soil of the experimental
site was low in organic carbon (0.32%), moderate in
total nitrogen (630 kg/ha), medium in available
phosphorus (28.15 kg/ha), and available potassium
(211.48 kg/ha) and a little alkaline in reaction (pH 7.5).
The rainfall received during the growing period was
377.6 mm. The experiment consisting of 16 treatment
combinations comprising four levels of organic
manures viz., FYM @ 10 t/ha, vermicompost @ 3 t/
ha, poultry manure @ 2 t/ha and castor cake @ 1 t/ha
and four levels of nitrogen viz., absolute control (no
application of nitrogen), 50, 75 and 100%
recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) were applied
to early semi-dwarf paddy variety GR 12 in split plot
design and replicated four times. The beds of 10 m
length and 1 m width were prepared and applied 7 kg
vermicompost, 500 g single super phosphate and 250
g ammonium sulphate mixed with soil. The seeds were
treated with cerasan @ 3 g/kg seed and sown in the
10 cm line distance covered with powdered form of
FYM. Proper care of nursery bed was taken by
applying timely irrigation.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data revealed from the present field study clearly
indicated that addition of different organic manures
and nitrogen levels showed a non-significant effect
on plant population as organic manures improved
physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil
resulting in more survival of the seedlings at 12 days
growth and gave better tolerance to transplanted
seedling (Table 1). The results are in close agreement
with those reported by Bal et al. (1993). It was
reported that plant height was (P<0.05) significantly
influenced due to the application of organic manures
at 30 and 60 DAT, whereas nitrogen levels significantly
affected plant height only at harvest. Application of
castor cake (@ 1 t/ha) recorded significantly higher
plant height at 30 and 60 DAT (58.10 and 96.13 cm,
respectively) and at harvest (99.56 cm), which
remained at par with application of poultry manure (2
t/ha) and vermicompost (3 t/ha) at 30 DAT and with
poultry manure and FYM (@ 10 t/ha) at harvest. This
might be due to good aerobic conditions provided under
SRI by virtue of organic manures with frequent
intercultural operations. The combined effect of these
resulted in enhanced nutrient absorption resulting in
rapid conversion of synthesized photosynthetic
product into protein to form more protoplasm, thereby
increasing the number and size of cell. The results are
consistent with those reported by Bal et al. (1993)
and Verma and Bhagat (1994).
The total and productive tillers/hill and number of
panicles/hill were influenced significantly by integrated
nutrient management in rice. Application of castor cake
(1 t/ha) recorded significantly higher total number of
tillers/hill (37.49) over rest of the treatments except
FYM application. The same treatment recorded
significantly the higher total number of productive
tillers/hill (34.13) and number of panicles/hill (30.81)
over other organic manures application. This was due
to early availability of nitrogen by castor cake during
vegetative growth of the plant under aerobic conditions
of SRI technique. In addition, the increased nutrient
availability from the castor cake application might have
increased the various endogenous hormonal levels in
plant tissues, which resulted in better tillers of the
crop. The results are in tune with those reported by
Rajagopal and Rao (1974). Increased application of
nitrogen influenced significantly the total and
productive tillers/hill (Table 1). Application of 100%
RDN recorded significantly higher total number of
tillers/hill (36.349) and remained at par with 75% RDN.
In case of productive tillers/hill, the same treatment
was found significant over no nitrogen application but
remained at par with 75 and 50% RDN. An increase
in total and productive tillers/hill under 75% RDN was
higher to the tune of 9 and 14%, respectively, over
absolute control.
Among different organic manures, application of castor
cake had a significant influence on dry matter
accumulation of rice. Application of castor cake (1 t/
ha) resulted in significant increase in dry matter
accumulation (1.40 g/plant) at 40 DAT, which remained
at par with FYM (10 t/ha) application due to better
initial vigorous growth and better nourishment of the
crop by organic manures. These findings are in close
conformity with those reported by Ananda et al. (2006).
Significantly the highest dry matter accumulation (1.38
g/plant) was recorded with application of 100% RDN
which was 6% higher over control. The increased dry
matter accumulation was due to increased crop growth
parameters which promoted vegetative growth under
application of higher dose of nitrogen and tended to
produce bulk of stover from efficient utilization of plant
nutrients, water, radiation and increased metabolic
activities of paddy under SRI.
Significant increase in rice panicle length and weight
was due to integrated use of organic manure along
with nitrogen fertilizer (Table 2). The maximum panicle
142 Meena, Patel, Poonia, Meena and Das
Table 1. Plant stand and growth parameters of rice as influenced by integrated management of organic manures and nitrogen
Treatment Plant stand Plant height Tillers/ Panicles/ Dry
(lac plants/ha) (cm) hill hill matter
production
20 DAT At harvest 30 DAT 60 DAT At harvest Total Productive at 40 DAT
(g)
Organic manure levels (M)
M1–FYM @ 10 t/ha 4.82 4.53 54.40 84.25 97.56 33.80 31.86 27.81 1.36
M2–Vermicompost @ 3 t/ha 4.69 4.32 55.89 83.75 89.50 33.51 29.16 27.31 1.26
M3–Poultry manure @ 2 t/ha 4.72 4.57 56.83 85.75 97.94 34.06 30.34 28.81 1.30
M4–Castor cake @ 1 t/ha 4.93 4.61 58.10 96.13 99.56 37.49 34.13 30.81 1.40
S. Em± 5.76 7.14 0.72 1.77 2.20 0.84 1.00 0.59 0.01
C. D. (P=0.05) NS NS 2.33 5.66 7.06 2.69 3.22 1.89 0.06
C. V. (%) 12.84 17.09 5.18 8.10 9.19 9.71 12.85 8.26 5.78
Nitrogen levels (N)
N1–Absolute control 4.67 4.32 55.53 86.88 92.38 32.96 28.75 28.19 1.30
N2 –50% RDN 4.74 4.42 55.83 87.00 95.81 33.54 31.56 28.69 1.32
N3 –75% RDN 4.82 4.42 56.63 87.44 97.44 35.98 31.64 28.75 1.33
N4–100% RDN 4.88 4.64 57.24 88.56 98.94 36.39 33.54 29.13 1.38
S. Em± 3.81 4.96 0.67 1.11 1.38 0.61 0.87 0.45 0.01
C. D. (P=0.05) NS NS NS NS 3.96 1.74 2.51 NS 0.04
C. V. (%) 8.49 11.86 4.77 5.08 5.74 7.03 11.19 6.28 4.62
Interaction (M × N)
C. D. (P=0.05) NS NS Sig NS Sig Sig NS NS Sig.
Sig.–Significant, NS–Not Significant.
length (21.18 cm) was recorded with treatment
receiving castor cake (1 t/ha). Application of 100%
RDN produced maximum panicle length (21.23 cm)
and remained at par with 75% RDN. Better nitrogen
status of plant at panicle growth period consequent to
an increasing availability of nitrogen to rice crop
maintained complimentary source-sink relationship.
Though panicle weight was not affected significantly
due to various organic manures, numerically maximum
panicle weight was obtained under castor cake (1 t/
ha) application but showed significant variation with
different levels of nitrogen. Significantly the highest
panicle weight (2.51 g) was recorded with100% RDN
application. Because increasing nitrogen fertilization
improved growth, photosynthesis and other plant
growth and yield components. The results are in
accordance with the findings of Rajendran and
Veeraputhiran (1999).
A few significant and synergistic interaction effects
were observed between organic manure and nitrogen
fertilization on plant height, total number of tillers and
dry matter accumulation of paddy (Table 3). Combined
application of castor cake with 100% RDN (M4N4)
registered significantly maximum plant height (61.50
cm) of paddy at 30 DAT and remained at par with
combination M2N1 (vermicompost @ 3 t/ha+50%
RDN) and M4N2 (castor cake @ 1 t/ha +75% RDN).
At harvest, a significant increase in plant height (110.25
cm) under combination of poultry manure+50% RDN
(M3N1) remained at par with M4N3, M3N3, M1N2 and
M1N1 combinations. A perusal of interaction data
presented in Table 2 revealed that significantly the
highest number of tillers/hill (39.00) was recorded
when 1 t/ha castor cake was applied with 100% RDN
(M4N3). Dry matter accumulation also showed a
significant interaction effect between organic manure
and nitrogen application. Significantly the highest dry
matter accumulation (1.49 g) was obtained under
treatment combination M4N3 (castor cake @ 1 t/
ha+100% RDN), which was at par with treatment
combinations M4N2, M1N1 and M1N3. The
improvement in growth characters due to synergistic
interactions coupled with favourable aerobic conditions
under SRI endorsed the microbial activities which in
turn enhanced the nutrient availability and thereby
uptake of nitrogen. The findings are in close
conformity with the results reported by Ghosh and
Sharma (1999).
A perusal of data (Table 4) revealed that interaction
effect between organic manure and nitrogen was
observed significant on panicle length and weight and
test weight of seeds. Significantly higher panicle length
(22 cm) was recorded under treatment combination
M4N3 (castor cake @ 1 t/ha+100% RDN) and stayed
at par with treatment combinations M4N2, M3N3 and
M3N2. The same treatment combination also recorded
INM for paddy yield 143
Table 2. Yield and yield attributes of rice as influenced by integrated nutrient management through organic manures and nitrogen
Treatment Panicle Panicle Test Yield (kg/ha) Total Gross Net BCR
length weight weight cost realization realization
(cm) (g) (g) Grain Straw (Rs./ha) (Rs./ha) (Rs./ha)
Organic manure levels (M)
M1–FYM @ 10 t/ha 20.04 2.28 15.79 3247 7956 27068 43734 16667 1.62
M2–Vermicompost @ 3 t/ha 19.43 2.32 15.02 2837 8269 31248 39005 7758 1.25
M3–Poultry manure @ 2 t/ha 20.66 2.24 16.60 3245 9343 30368 44546 14178 1.47
M4–Castor cake @ 1 t/ha 21.18 2.54 17.82 3615 9388 23713 49013 25300 2.07
S. Em± 0.38 0.08 0.45 148 268 - - - -
C. D. (P=0.05) 1.22 NS 1.44 472 857 - - - -
C. V. (%) 7.54 14.77 11.06 18.2 12.3 - - - -
Nitrogen levels (N)
N1–Absolute control 19.26 2.26 15.48 2872 8011 27278 39273 15195 1.47
N2–50% RDN 19.86 2.28 15.69 3174 8575 28044 43239 17196 1.57
N3–75% RDN 20.96 2.34 16.85 3347 9008 28372 45569 19516 1.65
N4–100% RDN 21.23 2.51 17.21 3550 9362 28701 48217 15195 1.71
S. Em± 0.29 0.06 0.42 128.3 206.4 - - - -
C. D. (P=0.05) 0.84 0.17 1.20 368.1 592.1 - - - -
C. V. (%) 5.79 10.24 10.34 15.9 9.45 - - - -
Interaction (M × N)
C. D. (P=0.05) Sig Sig Sig Sig Sig - - - -
Sig.–Significant.
Table 3. Interaction effect of organic manure and nitrogen levels
on growth parameters of paddy crop
Organic Nitrogen levels
manure
levels N1N2N3N4
Plant height 30 DAT
M157.15 48.90 54.25 57.30
M252.75 60.65 56.75 53.40
M356.55 56.50 57.50 56.75
M455.65 57.25 58.00 61.50
S. Em ± 1.34
C. D. (P=0.05) 3.86
Plant height at harvest
M1103.75 88.00 104.25 94.25
M287.75 87.00 92.50 90.75
M381.50 110.25 95.25 104.75
M496.50 98.00 97.75 106.00
S. Em ± 4.02
C. D. (P=0.05) 7.92
Total number of tillers/hill
M132.35 32.05 35.60 35.20
M233.85 31.20 35.80 33.20
M328.95 32.95 36.20 38.15
M436.70 37.95 36.30 39.00
S. Em ± 1.22
C. D. (P=0.05) 3.50
Dry matter accumulation at 40 DAT (g)
M11.33 1.41 1.29 1.40
M21.28 1.22 1.26 1.29
M31.27 1.30 1.30 1.35
M41.32 1.34 1.46 1.49
S. Em ± 0.03
C. D. (P=0.05) 0.09
maximum panicle weight (2.73 g).
Application of organic manure with recommended
dosage of nitrogen showed a significant improvement
in different yield attributes which resulted in better
yield and economics. The beneficial effect of these
attributes seemed to be due to better availability of
nutrients and their translocation from source to sink.
An improvement in soil microbial activities under SRI
might lead to sympathetic physico-chemical properties
which facilitate improved availability and uptake of
nitrogen, resulted in positive conversion of source to
sink escorted to higher panicle length, panicle weight
and test weight, which in turn produced higher grain
as well as straw yield of rice. Improvement in all these
parameters together significantly produced higher grain
yield (3615 kg/ha) and stover (9388 kg/ha) yield of
kharif paddy. However, grain yield remained at par
with all other organic manures except vermicompost
and straw yield which remained at par only with
poultry manure (9343 kg/ha). Application of castor
cake fetched the maximum net realization of Rs. 25300/
ha and B : C ratio of 2.07. This may be attributed to
significant increase in seed and stover yields under
integrated nutrient management. Fertilizing the paddy
crop with 75% RDN gave the highest net realization
of Rs. 19515/ha but application of 100% RDN fetched
higher B : C ratio of 1.71 followed by 75% RDF (BCR
1.65).
A positive interaction effect between organic manure
and nitrogen fertilization reflected that treatment M4N3
144 Meena, Patel, Poonia, Meena and Das
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Table 4. Interaction effect of organic manure and nitrogen levels
on yield and yield parameters of paddy crop
Organic Nitrogen levels
manure
levels N1N2N3N4
Panicle length (cm)
M118.65 19.55 20.35 21.63
M219.35 17.48 21.13 19.75
M319.13 21.40 20.58 21.55
M419.93 21.00 21.78 22.00
S. Em ± 0.59
C. D. (P=0.05) 1.69
Panicle weight (g)
M12.08 2.13 2.24 2.69
M22.18 2.18 2.40 2.52
M32.23 2.50 2.15 2.10
M42.60 2.25 2.59 2.73
S. Em ± 0.12
C.D. (P=0.05) 0.35
Test weight (g)
M117.52 13.61 16.15 15.88
M214.78 14.37 14.39 16.52
M313.47 15.06 17.87 19.99
M416.14 19.72 18.98 16.45
S. Em ± 0.84
C. D. (P=0.05) 2.42
Grain yield (kg/ha)
M13016 3570 3208 3193
M22917 2606 2825 3000
M32339 3336 3330 3975
M43217 3186 4025 4032
S. Em ± 257
C. D. (P=0.05) 736
Straw yield (kg/ha)
M17202 8294 8150 8177
M28045 8658 7899 8472
M39129 8467 9498 10277
M47667 8880 10483 10523
S. Em ± 413
C. D. (P=0.05) 1184
(castor cake @ 1 t/ha+100% RDN) recorded
statistically higher grain yield (4032 kg/ha), being at
par with M4N2, M3N3, M1N1 and M3N2. Similarly, the
highest straw yield (10523 kg/ha) was also recorded
under the same treatment combination M4N3, which
remained at par with treatment combinations of M4N2,
M3N3 and M3N2. The results are found in agreement
with those of Ghosh and Sharma (1999).
CONCLUSIONS
Thus, from above findings, it can be concluded that
application of castor cake @ 1 t/ha along with 75%
RDN gave better production and higher profit from
rice variety GR 12 in kharif season grown under SRI
technique in middle Gujarat conditions.
INM for paddy yield 145
... Increased availability of nitrogen in different crop growth stages might have supported for increase in number of tillers m -2 . Similar results were also reported by Mamata Meena et al. (2013) [12] . ...
... Increased availability of nitrogen in different crop growth stages might have supported for increase in number of tillers m -2 . Similar results were also reported by Mamata Meena et al. (2013) [12] . ...
... Plant height was affected significantly with different levels of nitrogen application (Table-1 [5] . ...
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The “system of rice intensification” (SRI) that evolved in the 1980s and 1990s in Madagascar permits resource-limited farmers to realise yields of up to 15 t of paddy/hectare on infertile soils, with greatly reduced rates of irrigation and without external inputs. This paper reviews the plant physiological and bio-ecological factors associated with agronomic practices that could explain the extraordinary yields in terms of synergies resulting from the judicious management of the major crop production factors: time, space, water, plant nutrients and labour. The findings underscore the importance of integrated and interdisciplinary research, combining strategic and adaptive (on-farm participatory) approaches that explore and link bio-physical and socio-economic factors in crop production. Such approaches would permit to unlock currently untapped production potentials of rice and other major cereal grain crops, without extra costs to farmers or to the environment.
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A field experiment was conducted during rainy season (kharif) of 1993-94 to 1995-96 at Jhansi to study the productivity and sustainability of food-fodder alley cropping systems under dryland conditions of Bundelkhand region. Data revealed that significantly more grain, stover yield of sorghum, green fodder, dry-matter yield of fodder crops and sorghum grain equivalent yield were obtained in no tree association (control) compared with the farm boundary plantations with shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC) and alley species with subabul (Leucaena leucoccphala (Lam.) de Wit). Intercropping of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) + pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp) gave significantly highest grain and stover yield of sorghum compared with the other systems. Sorghum + cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) intercropping system gave significantly highest green fodder and dry-matter yield compared with the sorghum + grass strips. Among the different manurial schedules, half inorganic fertilizer + half organic manure doses gave significantly highest grain and stover yield of sorghum, green fodder and dry-matter yield of fodder crops and sorghum grain equivalent yield over the other manurial schedules.
Article
A field experiment was conducted during 1992-93 and 1993-94 to study the direct and residual effects of different organic and inorganic sources of fertilizers in the mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czernj. and Cosson]-rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping sequence in acid lateritic sandy clay loam soil at Kharagpur. There was an increase in mustard yield by about 165% with higher level (N60 P36K24) of fertilizer application. But there was no significant difference between inorganic or combined organic and inorganic sources. Rice registered 9-21% increase in grain yield when mustard crop residue or green manure was applied over the control. The organic materials applied alone or in combination with inorganic fertilizer had greater residual fertility in terms of increase in organic carbon content from 0.36 to as high as 0.61% and the available N, P and K nutrients in 2 years cropping cycle.
Article
Tomato plants were grown at three nitrogen levels: normal supply (control), moderate deficiency (one-eighth the normal supply – 1/8N) and acute deficiency (-N). Plant heights were reduced by 51.4 and 75.7 % respectively at 40 days under the latter two treatments compared with control plants. The biological activity of growth-promoting and growth-inhibiting substances was determined in the shoot apices of the three sets of plants at three stages: 20, 30 and 40 days after sowing. In general, the endogenous auxin was higher in control than in 1/8N and - N plants. The growth inhibitor level was higher in -N plants than in control and 118N plants. Gibberellin activity was less in nitrogen- starved plants than in controls. - N plants exhibited not only loss of gibberellins but an accumulation of inhibitors at the last stage. A negative correlation between growth promotors (auxins and gibberellins) and growth inhibitors was evident. The interaction between auxins, gibberellins and inhibitors is discussed.
Article
Field experiments were conducted during the wet seasons of 1995 and 1996 at the Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, Orissa, India using two rice cultivars, Matangini (improved) and Champaisali (local) to study the advantages of organic manuring in conjunction with inorganic fertilizer with the objective of enhancing rice productivity under semi-deep (0–65 cm) lowland conditions. In 1995, application of 10 t FYM/ha increased grain yield compared with no FYM. The yield produced with FYM alone was similar to the yield following the application of N fertilizer at 20 and 40 kg/ha. There was no significant difference in grain yield due to the application of 20 and 40 kg N/ha in plots treated with FYM. Nitrogen fertilization was effective only when FYM was not applied. In 1996, FYM application alone or in combination with N fertilizer had a beneficial effect on crop growth and grain yield. This was contrary to the results obtained in 1995 when N fertilization at 20–40 kg/ha did not prove beneficial in plots where FYM was applied. The yield due to application of FYM alone was similar to that from the application of 40 kg N/ha as urea. However, the maximum yield was produced when FYM application was supplemented with 40 kg N/ha. There was a significant interaction between N application rate and cultivar. Cultivar Matangini outyielded Champaisali in both years.
Effect of seed rate and nitrogen levels on hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Madras agric
  • K Rajendran
  • R Veeraputhiran
Rajendran, K. and Veeraputhiran, R. (1999). Effect of seed rate and nitrogen levels on hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). Madras agric. J. 86 : 459.
Effect of farm yard manure and gliricidia green manure in conjunction with fertilizer nitrogen in transplanted kharif rice
  • A S Bal
  • R A Patil
  • S A Khanvilkar
  • S N Jadhav
Bal, A. S., Patil, R. A., Khanvilkar, S. A. and Jadhav, S. N. (1993). Effect of farm yard manure and gliricidia green manure in conjunction with fertilizer nitrogen in transplanted kharif rice. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ. 18 : 235-237.
Status Paper on Rice in Gujarat
  • A R Pathak
  • A M Mehta
  • R D Vashi
Pathak, A. R., Mehta, A. M. and Vashi, R. D. (2010). Status Paper on Rice in Gujarat. Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat.