ArticlePDF Available

Effect of Different Level of Irrigation and Potassium Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Potato Cv. Granola

Authors:
.1. Environ. Sci. & llqtursl Resources,4(1): 105 - 109 ,2011 rssN 1999-7361
Effect of Different Level of Irrigation and Potassium Fertilizers on the
Growth and Yield of Potato Cv. Granola
M. T. Islaml, M.A.A. Mamun2, M. A. Khanl, S.M. Sayem2and M. H. Rahmanl
lDepartment of Horticulture
2 Department of Soil Science
Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur
Abstract: lt was observed that the combined eft'ect of irligation and potassium treatment at the level of ljK3 (Three irigation
applicd after 20DAP, 40 DAP and 60 DAP and 375 Kg MOP hal) gave the significantly highest yield (23.82 Kg / plot) out of 3
iirigation and 4 porassiurn levels. In case of tl.re single effect, the treannent of l.l (Three irigation applied after 20DAP, 40 DAP
"njOO Oep) ond K., (325 Kg MOP ha'l) produce significantly highest yield of tuber. Regarding the yield of seed size tuber per
planr i 176.70 g / plant) of the-gradc size oi 35-45 mm diameter was found significantly maximum at combined treatment level of
i.K. T1.,. growth attriburing rmits such as plant height (55.67 cm), number of leaves per hill (282.30) and number of main stem
per hill (4.233 mm) welc significantly highest at the combined tleatment level of lrKr.
Keywords: lrrigation, Potassium, Growth, Yield, Potato
Introduction
Potato (SolartLutt tuberosurl L.) is one of the most
important fbod crops glown in more than 100
countries in the world (Anonymous, 2010). Potato
ranks fbulth in the world (325.30 million tons) and
third in Bangladesh (8.0 million tons) with respect to
food production and it is the first most important
vegetable crop of oLn' country (,\nonymous,2001).
Norv a day, potato has emerged as a major fbod crop
in Bangladesh and is being cultivated throughout the
country. The total production of potato is 6648
thousand tons from the area of 401 thousands
hectares (Anonymous, 2008). Considering its
nutritive value, it is a crop per excellence, having
carbohydlate in abundance, protein in superior
quality, mineral and fibre in abundance, vitamin C in
sutllcient qlrantity and some B vitamins (Ahmad,
I981). The fat content of potato is almost negligible,
i.e. 0.4 7o compared to 0.1 Io in rice and 2.3 Vo in
rvheat flour (Kaldy, 1912). In short, the potato is lt
wholesome food and it provides essential body
building substances. Agriculturally, potato enJoys a
wide range of seasonal adaptability. Its short duration
especiaily in the tropical countries is a definite
advantage. The potato cultivation in Bangladesh has
increased considerably fiom average yield of 5 t hrt
in 1960" to 10 to 12 t ha-r to till 2003. The
consumption of potato is 13.3 kg per person per year
rn Bangladesh and used mainly as vegetabie. Besides
its consumption in 2002, potato has been exported
tlrrrn Bangladesh in the tune of 692 Mt and earned
US S I-l:1000 fbreign currency (Statistical Bulletin
SARRC. 2004). Therefore it has a great scope of
more consumption as an alternative food crop of rice
in Bangladesh as well as exportable crop. Per hectare
prtrductivity of potato is still very 1ow in Bangladesh'
.\mong the key constraints restricting the yield per ha
rs the quality seed and the involvement of balanced
tertilizel management and irrigation. Soil moisture is
one of the main limiting factors for successful
cultivation of potato. Water deficiency below a
certain limit results in poor emergence and
considerable reduction in yield (Shirazi et al. 1998).
The farmer has to invest initially a considerable
amount of money to buy quality potato seed tuber and
fertilizer (Miah and Rob, 1997). Among the major
nutrient potassium improves yield and various aspect
of tuber quality, such as tuber size, percentage of dry
matter etc. Recent studies have shown that the tuber
yieid and yield component as well as economic
parameters were significantly affected by increasing
potassium application rates at uniform dose of
nitrogen and phosphorus (Patricia et al., 1999). lthas
also observed the.yield and tuber quality of potato
treated under different potassium levels in absence of
water and nitrogen limitations has significantly
increases the tuber yield (Karam et. al., , 2001). In
Bangladesh, response of potato to optimum
application under uniform nitrogen and optimum
irrigation is very less on the popular cultivated variety
of potato Granola. In the above context, the present
study will be undertaken to optimize the potassium
dose of fertilizer and irrigation in relation to yield and
tuber quality of high yielding potato variety cv.
Granola.
Materials and Methods
The resealch work was conducted in Horticulture
Farm at HSTU, Dinajpur, Bangladesh during rabi
season (November - February) at the growing period
of 2009 - 2010. The soil of the farm area is sandy
ioam of medium fertility belonging to the AEZ of Old
Himalayan Piedmont Plain. having PH value ranging
f}om 6.0 to 6.5. The land selected for the experiment
was medium high. The area where the experiment
was carried out has a sub-tropical climate
characterized by a distinct winter season from
November to early March. Granola is a high yielding
and medium maturing variety of potato which is well
adapted to diverse climates with round tubers with
J. Environ. Sci. & Nstural Resources,4(l): 105 - 109 ,2011
yellow flesh and yellow netted skin. It stores well
with a long dormancy. It performs well under short
day conditions of the tropics. It has resistances to
Rhizoctonia, blackleg, early blight, common scab,
bruising, hollow heart and secondary growth. The
seed potato was removed flom cold store. Those were
immediately spread under shade to get them alr dried.
The tubers are sorted and damaged tubers are sorted
out. The seed tubels were allowed to sprout in
diffused light for obtaining healthy and sturdy tubers,
prior to planting. Well sprouted rvhole seed tubers of
the size range of 35-45 mm diameter were used for
planting. The land was prepared with one tractor
plough followed by three harrows and laddering to
attain a good tilth. The corners of the experimental
plots were dressed with spade and almost all the
visible clods were broken in to pieces. To protect the
potato tubers from the attack of insects, such as cut
worms, red ants Furadan was applied at the
recommended dose. These operations are carried out
one month prior to planting. The experiment was laid
out in split-plot design in a factorial combinatton.
The treatment combination includes 3 levels of
irrigation (Ir= One Irrigation applied after 20 DAP. 12
= Two irrigation applied after 20 DAP and 40DAP,
and Iq = Three irrigation applied after 20DAP, 40
DAP AND 60 DAP) and 4 levels of potassium
fertilizer (Ko = No Potassium fertilizer control. K, =
25 Kg MOP ha-l, K2 = 250 Kg MOp ha-l, ond K3 =
375 Kg MOP ha '). The tirst factol of irrigation levels
(I1, 12, and Ij) were assigned to main plots and the
second factor potassium fertilizers of 4 levels (Ko, Kr.
K2, and Kj) were assigned to sub-subplots by splitting
of main-plots. The treatments were replicated 3 times.
The main plots were measured 19.2 m2. The sub-
subplots were measured 4.118 m2. There were 12
treatment combinations and 36 plots. Haulms were
cut on full maturity as pel' treatments. Harvesting is
done after seven days of haulm cutting as per
treatment. To asses the effect of different levels of
irrigation and potassium data of quantitarive
agronomical characters were collected on individual
plant basis. Five plants per row have been randomly
selected among the three separate rows. A11 the
measurements were recorded and analyzed
statistically.
Results and Discussion
Plant height
The plant height was recorded after 75 days of
planting, which was maximum growth stage of the
plant. The variety showed the significant variation in
plant height during growing period. During the period
of plant growth the maximum plant height of 50.58
cm and 53.22 cm was recorded at the main effect of
irrigation level I.r and with the application of 250 kg
K2O ha-r (K2), respectively. There \\as no signiticant
difference regalding plant heirht betuggn I1 12 and 13.
It was also found that the pl.int height was
signiticantly lowest (39.89 cmr rihen nrr potassium
f'ertilizer was applied (K,,) (Table I, Thr> rc\ulr \\,as
in agreement with the findings tti \l, it;.tl e r a1.
(1992), Rajanna et al. (19S-r :rnd Bhu...: 1999t.
The variation in plant heisht due rlr ..,i:::::rii .Iteci
of different levels of irrisirtlrrn -,iri '--'t.::-r..::-, tbr-rnd
to be statistically significanr. T:.i:r..:.: -:,::r r,i5.67
cm) was significantlv highe:t r: .:
the lorvest plant height (3- C.- .:
K2 and lowest number oi .e. .:> :;:
observed at the level of K . -:: :::
level I1K9 There was na\ :.,i:t::.,-:.: trrllerence
between the combined lerels . ^ r - {- l;K1 and
IzKr. The level I1K6 shoueJ ii.: r -r.r --,::lr lorver
plant height in comparison r,, -,\. . ..: : l
Number of main stenr/hill
Diffbrent levels of irnsati.r-. -.r.i I -:.- ,.::: :ito\\,ed
significant variation on the :.*:-.rj: : :-.-.: :tCm per
hill. It was observed that :t*r..:..'--. :-: :-: ,. i main
stem per hill 3.983 and -1.,,.. :-: r::: .J.l rr the
level of irrigation I: i1flc i: :-: :::-.::.r,:.i nf K2,
respectively where as the >.,-' : -. -., -'-: number
of leaves per hill 3.551 a:: -::r . -: . -:tJ at the
tl'eatment level of 11 and K . :::.-:- .: . This may
be due to little role plare. :. . . --.. .-nt ;rt early
stage of its growth. But Pl:..:_ -.: , ' . , ::;- ' reported
that potassium rate slighri.. ::-::-.;:::J:r numbers
per seed piece. The crrnti::..: .. ':,: : i.K1 gave
highest number of rnain sre:. :: : -
similar I2K2 .The signilrc::: :
slem pel hill i3.-i.l-l r rr.'.
combination of I1K6 (TaL,le l
Number of leaves/hill
Dillerent Ievels ot irlir.:. :'. -:- .-
significant variation on rhe :..-:::=:
It was observed that rnil\ri-.*r- : . 1
lerves per hill t2-lq.lQ, '.i'.. :.-- r
irrigation lr and ltrrre:t i:.-rt-:- :
(209.50) was found ar rhe ::...:: .- : .
l). It was also recordeJ rr.r: :. -::.: :
per hill \266.201 rrrs Ii'u:t- -i r = r :..l.rm level of
197.1) was
:lItjIlt Ievel K1
-- - , {; 'r here as
.,.r: . -:J at the
-r- ..n showed
;* .:s per hill.
,r:: number Of
*. :he level of
.:,, . es per hill
.:. .,i Ir (Table
.-:'.ler of leaves
has statistically similar eiie .': ..,.:: : :j::tum level of
Kj (Table l). The combineJ :::::: : criferent levels
of irrigation and potassiunt :r. .,:l . ::riiiJnt lesult.
The significant hiehesr numbe: : .r...:' per hill
(282.3) was fbund at Ihe treirr:.e:i - :rrin,rrion of
I1K2 and lowest (180.7) tt'eJtnte::. :.1':trrron level
of I1K6 (Table 2).
106
tr--
>.
o
,.)
o
o.
o
-o
.o
c
o.
a
o
o
lr)
'o
L
.o
a
o
o
o
o
b.=
50 .B
E-
e3a
9ts
c6)
tso
=tl
U.l
(.):-,
ca
-o-o a-o-o.-c -o-o-o i
NN-----N-
9qq-jcl.1qo"1q,co
N\O\rr*ca@O-\NcaNOC\
O\t.-\O-cotOO\+@oOi*
-o -o -o - -o -o -o -o -o -o -c i
c1 c1 .:.--cl F--\.:c:nc\x
ca -+ \D o\ r- t- o \o o oo ci \o
al+*Oa]*\tr)ol$nt'-
,.o
a.r
c!
co
\o
t--
r--
C\
oo
n
N
c.l
o\
c
co
a
co
r '-
t--
-o
cl
oo
\o
O
c
C\
co
=q
-o
a--
|--
ca
CO
n
co
o
.o
e
co
N
o.:l
ca
ca
q
ca)
O
q
CO
-o
O
q
\o
t'-
O
c.i
aa
q
q
O
O
O
co
cl
cl
@
ol
ao
q
$
c*Nac-Nr,o*.1
VVMVV}4VVVSIM
*NNaiNOe.t
c]
oc
C!
t?
t--
ca
c'i
U
F-
9
-o -o
t-- cri
g:-j
v) r-
9q
!-
vld
oo
13 -o
cd \o
oo v1
N crl
(.) o
o (-)
-o
ca tr-
cri \o
ss
-o-o
q\
:+*
NN
NN
O
-o -o
cn ao
09q
ci ca
o-o
5-l
c.l C?l
cl c?
+ (\l
$v)
r-
9
-o
O
N
o
o
.o
O
-i
ca
cA
(.)
-o
ca
cl
F-
o
,o
\
\D
a.l
.o
O
O
o9
ci
O
-o
O
q
O
^-o-o-o -o-o
-66.itd-
F- O r- O F- c.) .rl
9q9q91"1
OoOOO!.+ce
vi r) F- F- oo t-- .\o
-o .o a.o -c _o -o
5 -- d - - a3
NM---NN
icaOOO\Dal
\.-YOOOO
cO t.- tr-
" " (, U u X,.o
--
OF-OOOOco
It- (..l Cr O\ - vt -i
\o I-- t-- F- co Cl\ +
O O.r1: O,.'u
u.=
N----N-
-i.;A,--i.;-i
a-t-Or-$Oc.)
c.l C.l C\ c7) N co cq
U!VUUU -o -o
--N-
\?c?lc.rOO\Oca
nnn"1.lq(.'l
v) \9 r- F- r- F- \O
UVYVU9A
o! ) o=
\omor:oQ
d6=.rEd6XS
*Na.lN+N -
!^! ---
..t--OcoOt--O
.a\oocoo\oo
.1 vl 9c9vli.-t
a?j c-) ca c-) crj r/ $
!!!u!
-N-N
9c!clCl9q9
t--o\ot--oo..)
ca<La<j'$\nv)
P:,r,
5 0o r'^
e'i cO tr
q- Y6l L
9a-E
x i0n
aha
:-^
::c
x:y
(AE
.9Xo
>=E
l-
*o0q
4 'vt
E}T
^!-
o:on
NJ-
3:,n
= 00'i ^
e'i rn E
L YT, L
9a-:
x a0n
(n
>E (0
aea-
,9_
-o >'=
F CE-
zz a
r.g=
E.i o
-CE6
ZI
tr
L
OJ
a
a
6.3:
-ov
-
tr
.9
(.)
6t
F
o
O
o
a-
.h
a)
!
-o
-o
L
o-
c
o
o
N
()
.0)
E
'o
o
o
o
o
'ad
d2
9F
F-Y
=tl
u-'
-i,
O lt- O \i t-- cn c\l
u.1 I q n g c.l r_
\ONoO \DV1O+
cOO\O oOt.-Ot+
CC
o - - - -o
TV
n9n.icooosfl--.-t
ca V) O\ r, \D \D r-
c\lca$ Ncrtca+
F- r-
l-- - - - -F-
-.F-coIi -,.a6'I
f,-O -, oOOcO
c.i c.i co + 'c o od
\O t-- \D \D \? t-- \O
@oo
c.l a.i
-, LQ oJ CI -, O \].t a..l
-\C$ OO,r,cl
Ca,.--hf
mi- -O\Or-
(J ^ ^-O
- -O- - - 60
OO
at -, ] _ c .tC: * _
Yc9=t_o.)co+.-
nad -q909
t.-O,+ cocoO\O\
!! _co3 _ _ _&
C\r-\r-€--,O--
rci .doi *\ocdoico-
oOOr) \C+cacn
cl .a ca c\ .a rr a,)
-. ) ^
naJ^!
c., co oo r .- r- rr o\ o\ f:
oov)tr)F-\?LaOOoor-
9q9 !cg.] 9
\D \D I-- \O \O f- t.-
^_o
- 6 - CI - - 6 - C..i
ca oo
- j ol : :'- N
OlcaO\-l.-F\Dv)-
-^t-
al (..l at * c.l cl N
------66- tar ta
x--&r-,7,,7,.-Lir-
909q niq09
.a ca ca ca ca <- co
(a co
ft-cac,o-O\\ON*-
-r,r.^,'&ta,Ci<- .r\
\2cOC-:>=-,C-
<-$v) c,tr)V)ra
>\.r'v-Jw_>
UO
L
-CXE
r.;
J >i!l
o:00
NJ.g
A*
r- i:^
e* .9I n
x:9
ul-o*
rn
a.)
00
a\I
00
at
OI
OI
ha
.- 5n
N
a.a
ha
-o-
.Bn
N.
(tE
Zq,
a=
Eq
).=
O0/
ZE
L?
zz
xo
z.
-
tr
ol
a
0
CJ
9
.o
CJ
a
-
a\
tn
=
tJ
!
iJ
q
P
e
J
!
v
:
J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources,,l(1): 105 - 109 ,2011
Yield of tuber (Kg) / PIot
The yield of tuber/plot rvas aff'ected significantly by
the application of ditferent levels of irrigation and
potassium. The treatment level I: gave the
significantly highest yield (10.49 Kg/plot) with
lorvest yield of (7 .142 Kg/plot) I1. Kashyap and Panda
(2003) have observed that fresh tuber yield of potato
"vas significantly higher under high frequency than
low fiequency irrigation. In regard to levels of
potassium, highest yield (9.844 Kg / plot) was fbund
at the treatment ievel of Kr and lowest yield (E.10
Kg/plot) was in contrttl treatment. Thele was no
statistically significant difference between the
treatment level of K2 and Kr It was found that the
yield of tubel increased with increasing levels of
potassium. The result is in agreement with the
observation of Westermann et al. (1994) where they
tbr"rnd that potassium increased yield up to zt48 Kg
K/ha. The significant eff-ect of combined treatment of
irrigation and potassium claimed rhat the variety
Granola produced highest yield of tuber/plot (11.43
Kg / plot) or (23.82 t/ha) at the treatment level of I3K:
where as the lolvest (6.7 Kg/plot) or (13.96 t/ha) was
fbund at the treatment combination of 11 K6 In a field
trial, Tratder et al. (1988) was found that the tuber
yield decreased with increasing water stress
regardless of K- rate.
The yield of tuber / plant in relation to different
size ( grade ) (< 28 mm , 28-35 mm , 35-45 mm and
> 45 mm diameter)
The single eff'ect of irrigation showed non-signiticant
ditlerences among the different grades of yield of
tuber per plant. In case of treatrnent level of 11, the
grades of tuber by weight of < 28 mm gave the
significantly lowest yield per plant and the glade of
tuber of the size 35-45 rnm gave the highest yield at
the treatment level of 13 Gadil et al. 2003 observed
that the total tresh tuber yield and marketable yield (>
45 mm g) increased with increasing amount of
irrigation water (Table l). Regarding the single
eff'ects of potassium, the tubel size of <28mm gave
significantly highest yield at the treatment level of Kr.
The signiticantly highest yield of the tuber size of 35-
zl5mm was observed at the treatment level of K.r and
lclwest at the treatment level of Ko. This result is in
agreement with the result of Tawfiq, 2001. The
significantly highest weight (12.10 g) was tbund in
the grade size <28 mm wtth treatment combination of
lr Kr. there was no statistically significant difference
on yield among the tteatment combination of 12 Kr,
i1K6 and l: K, tbr this character. The combined eft'ects
of irrigatron anci potassium had signilicant effect on
the yield clf dilterent gr-ades of tuber of potato. The
treatment combination of l2K6 and I:K: gave the
significantly highest yield per plant (85.67g) and
(176.7 g) of the size grade of 28-3-5 and 35-45 mm.
The tleatment combination of 12 K: and 13 Ks gave
statistically highest yield of grade size >45 mm of
tuber per plant. CONCLUSION
It was concluded that with increasing level of
irrigation and potassium fertilizer, the yield of potato
tuber/plot was increased gradually. So the combined
treatment level of highest (3 times) irngation and
highest dose of potassium can be used for highest
yield of potato tuber cv. Granola.
REFERENCES
Ahmad, K. U. 1981. Potato, Bangladesh and
Workshop: An Intloductory address. (1981)
Proc 4th Wksp Potato Res Workers, Potilto
Res. Centre. BARI, Joydebpur,
Dhaka.Bangladesh. p- 133.
Anonymous. 2007. CIP World Pkotaro Atlas;
FAOSTAT; World Potato Congress; Aus
Veg; Horticultule, Nerv Zealand.
Anonymous. 2008. Statistical Yearbook of
Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of
Statistics, Statistics Division, Minisrry of
Planning, Government of the People's
Repubiic of Bangladesh,Dhaka, Bangladesh
(28'h Edition. March 2009).
Bhuyian, M. S. H. 1999. Effect ofvdiff'erent levels of
nitrogen and potassium on growth and yield
of seed poptato. MS thesis. Department of
Hortrculture, Banglades Agricultural
University, Mymensingh.
Kaldy, M. S. 1972. Protein I ield of varrcrus crops as
related to protein value, Econotrtic Botcurr-,
26: 112-111.
Karam, F.; Lahoud. R.; Massad. R. ; Stephan, C.;
Rouphael. Y. and G.Colla. 2001. Yield and
Tuber qualitl' of potassiunt treated potato
under optintum irrigated conditions. Acta
Horticulturae.pp.l -l (http:// www.
actahort.org i).
Kashyap, P. S. and Panda. R. K. 2003. Effect of
irngation scheduling on potato crop
parameters under water stressd conditions.
AgricultrtrcLl \'iler nntrctgettteti. 59 (1): 49-
(t(t
Mondal, M. F.;Baral. S. K. ; Farooque, A. M. and
Nasiluddin. K. M. 1992. Effect of dif'terent
nutl'lent element s on growth, yield and size
grade distribution of potato. Tltoi l. Agric.
Sci..25: 263-269.
Onder, S.; Caliskan, M.E,.; Onder. D. and Caliskan,
S. 2005. Different irrigation methods and
water stl'ess etfbcts on Potato yield and yield
components. AericuLtural Wnter
Matrugenrcrfi. 73 ( 1): 73-E6
108
J. Environ. Sci. & l{atural Resources,4(l): 105 - 109,2011
Miah and Abdur Rob. 1997. Exiension of improved
technology on potato production and
success. 3''l Wksp pcltato Workers.kustia
cold stol'age.Chourhas, Jogoti, Kustia.
Bangladesh. P-65
Onder, S.; Caliskan, M.E. ; Onder, D. and Caliskan,
S. 2005. Diff'erent irrigation n.rethods and
watel' stress eft'ects on Potato yield and yield
components. Agr.icLrltural Water
Managemenr. 73 (1 1: 73-86
Panique, E., Kelling, K. A. ; Schulte , E.E. ; Hero ,
D. E. ; Stevenson. W. R. and James, R. V.
1997. Potassium 1'ate and source effects on
potato yield, quality, and disease interaction.
American Poraro J.74 (6): 379-398
Imas. P. and Bansal, S. K. 1999. potassium and
lntegrated Nutlient Management in Potato.
Presented at the Global Conf'erence on
potato, 6- I I New Delhi, lndia.
Rajanna, K. M.; Shivasankar, K. T and Krisnappa. K.
S. 1987. Efl'ect of diff'erent levels of
nitrogen. phosphorLrs and potassium on
gr'owth, yield and quality of potato. South
Indian Hort.. 35 (5): 341- 355.
Shirazi, S. M.; Talukder, M. S. U. ; Kashem, M. A.
and Hossain, S. M. A. 1998. Effect of
irrigation regimes and nitrogen levels on the
yield of potato. Banglttcleslt J. Agril. Sci.,25
(2):3t9-324.
Statistical Bulletin of SAARC Agricultural Data.
2004. Agr:icultural Infbrmation Centre
(SAIC), BARC, Campus, Farmgate, Dhaka,
Bangladesh.P-44.
Tawtlk, A. A. 2001. Potassium and calcium nurririon
improves potato production in drip- irrigated
sandy soil. Aft'ican Crop Sci. J.,9(l): 147-
t5-s
Trafder, P. K.;Banarjee, N. C. and Mukkhopadhyay,
A. K. 1988. Int-luence of potassium
fertilization on the response to soil moisture
stress in potato. Acta-Agrortottica-
Htutgarica. 37 (l-2): 37 -42
Westelmann, D. T.;Tindall, T.A. ;D.W. James, and
Hulst, R. L.1994. Nitrogen and potassium
fertilization of potatoes: yield and specific
gravity. Antericart Pcttato J.,71 (7): 417 -431
;
to
ta
$.
Lrf
op
ili.
t9-
ls
r.
nd
tnt
ize
.ic.
an.
lnd
eld
Iter
109
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
This research was conducted during the spring seasons of 2000 and 2002 in Hatay province located in the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey. The research investigated the effects of two drip irrigation methods and four different water stress levels on potato yield and yield components. The surface drip (SD) and subsurface drip (SSD) irrigation methods were used. The levels were full irrigation (I100), 66% of full irrigation (I66), 33% of full irrigation (I33) and un-irrigated (I0) treatments. Five and three irrigation were applied in 2000 and 2002 early potato growing seasons, respectively. Total irrigation amount changed from 102 to 302mm and from 88 to 268mm in 2000 and 2002, respectively. Seasonal evapotranspiration changed between 226 and 473mm and 166 and 391mm in 2000 and 2002, respectively. SD and SSD irrigation methods did not result in a significant difference on yield. However, SD method has more advantages than SSD method, which has difficulties in replacement and higher system cost. Irrigation levels resulted in significant difference in both years on yield and its components. Water stress significantly affected the yield and yield parameters of early potato production. Water deficiency more than 33% of the irrigation requirement could not be suggested.Water use efficiency (WUE) of SD irrigation methods had generally higher values than SSD irrigation methods. Treatment I33 gave maximum irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) for both years. SSD irrigation method did not provide significant advantage on yield and WUE, compared to SD irrigation in early potato production under experimental conditions. Therefore, the SD irrigation method would be recommended in early potato production under Mediterranean conditions.
Article
Field experiments were conducted in 1999 and 2001 at Tal Amara Research Station in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon to determine the response of yield and tuber quality of four potato cultivars ('Spunta', 'Derby', 'Shepody' and 'Umatilla') to added potassium rates: K0 (0 potassium), K1 (96 kg K ha -1), K2 (192 kg K ha-1) and K3 (288 kg K ha-1) in absence of water and nitrogen limitations. Data from this study showed that responsive K treatments were evident in both years. However, contrasted responses to applied K were observed among the four cultivars examined. The significant increases of tuber yield in response to K rates that were observed in 1999 for 'Spunta' and 'Derby' were associated with a lowering, for the former, and an increase, for the latter, in tuber dry matter. Similar increases in tuber yield were obtained in 2001 in the potassium treatments for 'Shepody' and 'Umatilla'. However, while for 'Shepody' tuber yield increase was associated with an increase in dry matter content, no increase in this parameter was obtained with 'Umatilla'. For all cultivars, potassium fertilization significantly increased (P<0.01) the yield of medium (25-75 g) and large size tubers (> 75 g) at the cost of small size tubers (< 25 g). Finally, results showed no significant differences between the two potassium levels K2 and K3 either for tuber yield or dry matter content.
Article
Field experiments were conducted over eleven site-years where five K rates (0, 93, 187, 280, and 373 kg K ha−1) as KC1 or K2SO4 were band-applied at planting to potato (Solanum tuberosum L. ). Significant yield increases up to 332 kg K ha−1 were observed in five of eleven site-years when soil test K ranged from 75 to 110 mg kg1. The increase in tuber yield was associated with an increase of tuber size (170 to 370 g) and above in the US#1A category. Lack of yield response at the other site-years may be due to the high soil test K (125 to 180 mg kg−1). Statistically significant differences in total tuber yield were not evident between the two sources of K fertilizer studied; however, there was a tendency for a significant rate x source interaction (p > 0.15) in five site-years where K2SO4 increased tuber yield more than KC1 at rates up to 280 kg K ha−1. Above this rate, tuber yield decreased for K2SO4 but remained stable for KC1. Based on the tuber yield data and initial soil test K from the controls of each site-year, data from this study suggest that 104 mg K kg−1 is a critical pre-plant soil test level. A reduction in specific gravity with increasing applied K was evident in most of the site-years of this study, although decreases were generally not as marked when K2SO4 was used. A significant decrease in hollow heart with increasing rate of K fertilization was observed in four of eleven site-years; however, statistically significant yield responses to added K were found at only one of these sites. The incidence ofRhizoctonia solani was generally not affected by K rate; however, there was a tendency in some site-years for a higher disease incidence when KC1 was used instead of K2SO4 Potassium rate slightly decreased stem numbers per seed piece, averaging 3.7, 3.6, 3.5, 3.4, and 3.3 across all experiments, for the 0, 93, 187, 280, and 373 kg K ha−1 rates, respectively.
Article
Potassium and N fertilization is often required for maximum potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production. Nitrogen, K, and K-sources (KCl, K2SO4 are known to affect yield and quality of potatoes but N and K interactions as affected by K-source have not been defined. This study evaluated the N*K and K-source interactions on Russet Burbank tuber yields and specific gravity (SG) in two irrigated field experiments. Nitrogen rates of 0, 112, 224 or 336 kg ha-1 were combined with selected K rates of 0,112, 224 or 448 kg ha-1 as either KC1 or K2SO4 in an incomplete factorial. A multiple linear regression model was fit to the data and used to predict yield and SG for a complete factorial for each K-source. Both N and K applications increased yields independent of K-source. Nitrogen decreased yields at the 336 kg ha-1 rate. Potassium increased yields up to 448 kg K ha-1. Both K-sources decreased SG a similar amount with N application; without N, KC1 decreased SG but K2SO4 did not. Nitrogen also decreased SG. Petiole NO3-N and K concentrations were positively related to yields and negatively to specific gravities. The petiole K concentration 100 days after planting should be above 4.5 for highest tuber yields. The N*K*K-source interaction was important for yields at low available N and for SG at adequate N availabilities. This study showed that N or K fertilizers can be applied according to their respective soil test concentration and the crop's requirement, generally without consideration of K-source.
Article
Field experiments were conducted on a local cultivar, Kufri-Jyoti, of potato crop during the four winter seasons of 1995–1996 through 1998–1999. Five irrigation treatments were maintained based on the maximum allowable depletion (MAD) of available soil water (ASW). The treatments were 10% (T1), 30% (T2), 45% (T3), 60% (T4) and 75% (T5) MAD of ASW during non-critical stages of crop growth. Measurements of fresh tuber yield, dry tuber yield, plant dry matter (including roots but not tubers), total dry matter and leaf area index were made at various stages of crop growth during all four crop experiments. Fresh tuber yield of potato was significantly higher under high frequency than low frequency irrigation. With delayed irrigation, the yield reduced significantly under T4 and T5, which resulted in minimum fresh tuber yield and total dry matter yield during all four experiments. With increase in MAD from 45 to 75%, the fresh tuber yield reduced considerably due to reduction in the availability of water. A similar trend was observed for other crop parameters. Crop production functions with respect to crop water use were developed for five measures of plant growth; they were found to be linear. Though the results of the study are applicable for sub-humid sub-tropical climatic conditions with sandy loam soils as that of the study area, the objective methodology developed has universal applicability.
Article
The response of Spunta potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants to different rates of potassium (60 and 120 kg Fed-1 ) in presence or absence of Ca nutrition was studied. The study was performed in sandy-loam soil under a drip-irrigation system during fall seasons of 1996 and 1997 years. Plants fertilised with high rate of K (120 kg K. Fed-1) showed 25-30% increase in fresh weight of tubers and lower fresh weight of foliage at 75 and 90 days after planting (DAP) as compared to those of low K (60 kg K. Fed-1). This resulted in at least 50% higher tuber/foliage ratio of high K treated plants at 75 and 90 DAP. Also, plants that received higher rate of K showed 10-20% increase in multiplication rate as compared to those plants that received low K. High K fertilised plants consistently gave 10-20% more tuber yield than those receiving lower dosage. The marketable yield exhibited the same trend as total yield. Compared with low rate of K application, high rate increased yield of medium (28-60 mm) and over-sized tubers (> 60 mm) by about 15 and 40%, respectively. Calcium showed fluctuating effect on all yield parameters during the two seasons of study. The injection of soluble form of calcium fertiliser increased calcium concentration in peel and medulla tuber tissues as compared to non-calcium treated plants even in soil which contained enough calcium for vegetative growth. It is concluded that K nutrition is a key factor for potato production in sandy soils and studies with emphasis on the relationship between soil exchangeable K and K fertilisation rate as well as variety requirement for different production purposes should be continued. Our results also suggest a potential for improving tuber Ca-content by application of soluble form of calcium fertiliser during bulking even in soil containing sufficient calcium for optimum vegetative growth.
Potato, Bangladesh and Workshop: An Intloductory address
  • K U Ahmad
Ahmad, K. U. 1981. Potato, Bangladesh and Workshop: An Intloductory address. (1981) Proc 4th Wksp Potato Res Workers, Potilto Res. Centre. BARI, Joydebpur, Dhaka.Bangladesh. p-133.
CIP World Pkotaro Atlas; FAOSTAT; World Potato Congress; Aus Veg
  • Anonymous
Anonymous. 2007. CIP World Pkotaro Atlas; FAOSTAT; World Potato Congress; Aus Veg; Horticultule, Nerv Zealand.
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Minisrry of Planning, Government of the People's Repubiic of Bangladesh
  • Anonymous
Anonymous. 2008. Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Minisrry of Planning, Government of the People's Repubiic of Bangladesh,Dhaka, Bangladesh (28'h Edition. March 2009).