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Description of a new species of the genus Yunnanilus Nichols, 1925 (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from Yunnan, China

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Abstract

A new species of the family Nemacheilidae, Yunnanilus niulanensis, is described from the upper reach of the Niulanjiang River, a branch of the Jinsha River, in Songming County, Yunnan Province, China. It can be distinguished from all other Yunnanilus species by the combination of the following characters: dorsal fin rays iii, 9; anal fin rays iii, 5; pectoral fin rays i, 11; pelvic fin rays i, 7-8; branched caudal fin rays 14; mouth subterminal; 9-11 gillrakers on the inner side of the first gill arch, no gillrakers on the outer side; upper two-thirds of body and head covered by large brown spots; fins hyaline; body covered with scales; no lateral line; no cephalic sensory pores; caudal-peduncle length less than caudal-peduncle depth; caudal-peduncle length 9.2-11.1 % SL; body depth 21.0-25.8 % SL; eye diameter 5.4-6.0 % SL; interorbital width 9.9-12.1 % SL.
Accepted by R. Pethiyagoda: 9 Mar. 2012; published: 16 Apr. 2012
ZOOTAXA
ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)
ISSN 1175-5334 (online edition)
Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 3269: 5764 (2012)
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57
Description of a new species of the genus Yunnanilus Nichols, 1925 (Teleostei:
Nemacheilidae) from Yunnan, China
ZIMING CHEN 1, 3, †*, JIAN YANG 2, 3 & JUNXING YANG 3 *
1School of Life Science, Yunnan University, No.52 North Road Cuihu, Kunming 650091, Yunnan, P.R. China
2School of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning, 530001, P.R. China
3State key laboratory of genetic resource and evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 32 Jiaochang
Dong Lu, Kunming, 650223, Yunnan, P. R. China
*Corresponding author. E-mail: cziming@hotmail.com, yangjx@mail.kiz.ac.cn
the authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract
A new species of the family Nemacheilidae, Yunnanilus niulanensis, is described from the upper reach of the Niulanjiang
River, a branch of the Jinsha River, in Songming County, Yunnan Province, China. It can be distinguished from all other
Yunnanilus species by the combination of the following characters: dorsal fin rays iii, 9; anal fin rays iii, 5; pectoral fin
rays i, 11; pelvic fin rays i, 7–8; branched caudal fin rays 14; mouth subterminal; 9–11 gillrakers on the inner side of the
first gill arch, no gillrakers on the outer side; upper two-thirds of body and head covered by large brown spots; fins hyaline;
body covered with scales; no lateral line; no cephalic sensory pores; caudal-peduncle length less than caudal-peduncle
depth; caudal-peduncle length 9.2–11.1 % SL; body depth 21.0–25.8 % SL; eye diameter 5.4–6.0 % SL; interorbital width
9.9–12.1 % SL.
Key words: Yunnanilus niulanensis, Nemacheilidae, new species, Yunnan, China
Introduction
Loaches of the genus Yunnanilus Nichols, 1925 are small-bodied fishes that mainly occur in the Yunnan-Guizhou
Plateau of China, showing a particular affinity for karstic areas. The genus can easily be distinguished from the
other genera in Nemacheilidae by its widely separated nostrils, the anterior one being situated at the tip of a tube,
and a relatively deep body (Kottelat & Chu, 1988; Yang, 1990; Zhu, 1989; Zhu, 1995). Kottelat & Chu (1988)
revised the genus and described six new species occurring in Yunnan Province, while indicating that there were
several more undescribed species occurring in the Yunnan Plateau. This genus was at the time known only from the
Yunnan Plateau and Inlé Lake in Burma. Subsequently, a series of Yunnanilus species were described in succession
from Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province, and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Up to now, there have been
30 species of Yunnanilus described from the Yunnan Plateau and its adjacent regions in the southeast of China
(Cao, 1989; Ding, 1992; Ding, 1995; Li & Duan, 1999; Li et al., 1994; Li et al., 2000; Li, 1999; Li, 2004; Yang,
1990; Yang & Chen, 1995; Yang, 1991; Zhou & He, 1989; Yang et al., 2004; Gan et al., 2007; Zhu et al., 2009; An
et al., 2009).
In November 2006, some specimens of the genus Yunnanilus were collected from the upper reaches of the
Niulanjiang River (one of the larger tributaries of Jinsha River, which is the upper reach of Yangtze River) in
Yanglin Town, Songming County, Yunnan Province, China. Comparison shows that these specimens represent a
previously undescribed species of Yunnanilus, and we herein provide a description of the new species and compare
it to its congers.
CHEN ET AL.
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Materials and Methods
Specimens were fixed in 10 % formalin and preserved in 75 % ethanol. Fishes were cataloged and stored in the
collections of the Kunming Institute of Zoology (KIZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
Measurements were taken point to point with digital calipers and recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Counts and
measurements were made on the left side of specimens whenever possible. Methods of taking counts and
measurements follow Chu & Chen (1989). Subunits of the head are given as percentages of head length (HL). Head
length itself and measurements of body parts are expressed as proportions of the standard length (SL). Proportional
measurements of Yunnanilus altus and Yunnanilus pachycephalus are from Kottelat & Chu (1988).
Results
Yunnanilus niulanensis, sp. nov.
(Fig. 1, 2)
Holotype. KIZ20060285, 55.3 mm SL; Yanglinhe River, 25°14 34.0 N; 103°03 53.3 E (altitude: 1909 m), upper
reaches of the Niulanjiang River, in Yanglin Town, Songming County, Yunnan Province, China.
Paratypes. KIZ20060281, KIZ20060287, KIZ20060291–20060293, 20060297, six specimens, 41.7–52.5 mm
SL; collected with the holotype.
Diagnosis. The new species can be distinguished from its congers by the following combination of characters:
dorsal-fin rays iii, 9; anal-fin rays iii, 5; pectoral-fin rays i, 11; pelvic-fin rays i, 7–8; branched caudal-fin rays 14;
mouth subterminal; 9–11 gillrakers in the inner side of the first gill arch, outer row of gill rakers absent; upper two-
thirds of body and head covered by large brown spots; fins hyaline; body covered with scales; no lateral line; no
cephalic sensory pores; caudal peduncle length less than caudal peduncle depth; caudal peduncle length 9.2–11.1%
SL; body depth 21.0–25.8 % SL; eye diameter 5.4–6.0 % SL; interorbital width 9.9–12.1 % SL.
FIGURE 1. Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of Yunnanilus niulanensis, sp. nov., holotype, KIZ20060285, 55.3mm SL;
Yanglinhe River, 25°1434.0 N; 103°0353.3 E (altitude: 1909m), which belongs to one of the upper reaches of the
Niulanjiang River, in Yanglin Town, Songming County, Yunnan Province, China.
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DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS YUNNANILUS NICHOLS
Description. Proportional measurements and counts are given in Table 1. Body elongate, compressed. Body
depth at dorsal-fin origin 21.0–25.8 % SL. Dorsal profile convex, ventral profile slightly convex. Dorsal midline
with a concavity between nape and dorsal-fin origin. Pectoral fin reaching beyond halfway to pelvic-fin bases,
54.0–78.4 % of length between pectoral and pelvic-fin bases. Axillary pelvic lobe absent or vestigial. Pelvic fin
reaching mid-point of distance between pelvic-fin origin and anus. Anus separated from anal-fin origin by a
distance less than eye diameter. Anal fin not reaching caudal-fin base. Caudal-peduncle depth 107.1–142.3 %
caudal-peduncle length. Predorsal length 54.0–57.5 % SL; dorsal-fin origin anterior to vertical line from pelvic-fin
origin.
TABLE 1. Proportional measurements and counts of Yunnanilus niulanensis sp. nov.
Head compressed, its height greater than width at nape; head length greater than body depth at dorsal-fin
origin, head length 26.6–29.0 % of SL. Snout obtuse, rounded, its length far less than postorbital length of head,
32.4–36.3 % of HL. Nostrils widely separated; anterior nostril at tip of a short tube, not reaching halfway to
posterior one when adpressed. Interorbital space flat or a little convex, 36.9–41.7 % HL. Mouth subterminal,
arched. Lips thick, almost smooth; upper lip without median groove, lower one with a median notch and 2 shallow
furrows on each side. Processus dentiformes present on upper jaw; no notch or only a very shallow concavity on
lower jaw. Eye invisible in ventral view, eye diameter 19.5–21.4 % of HL. Inner rostral barbel almost reaching
vertical from anterior nostril, not reaching base of maxillary barbel; outer rostral barbel reaching beyond vertical of
anterior nostril, not reaching posterior nostril or base of maxillary barbel. Maxillary barbel extending beyond
vertical line through posterior margin of eye. Free posterior chamber of air bladder voluminous, 11.6×4.4 mm, with
an additional 3.3 mm duct connecting the anterior capsule (KIZ200627007, 48.7 mm SL), extending beyond
vertical through dorsal-fin origin, extending beyond pelvic-fin base. Gillrakers 9–11 on the inner side of first gill
Characters Holotype Paratypes (Range) Mean SD
Total length (mm) 69.2 54.4–68.1 62.1
Standard length (mm) 55.3 41.7–52.5 48.8
Percent standard length
Head length 26.8 26.6–29.0 27.6 1.0
Body depth at DO 23.3 21.0–25.8 24.0 1.6
Predorsal length 55.0 54.0–57.5 55.7 1.2
Prepelvic length 56.8 57.0–58.7 57.5 0.7
Caudal-peduncle length 9.2 9.4–11.1 10.3 0.9
Caudal-peduncle depth 13.1 11.4–13.3 12.7 0.7
Percent head length
Snout length 36.3 32.4–35.4 34.7 1.2
Eye diameter 20.3 19.5–21.4 20.6 0.8
Interorbital width 36.9 37.7–41.7 39.4 1.9
Body depth at dorsal-fin origin 86.9 78.8–92.7 86.9 5.3
Percentage of Caudal-peduncle length
Caudal-peduncle Depth 142.1 107.1–142.3 124.0 13.2
Gillrakers 0/11 0/9–10
Dorsal-fin rays iii, 9 iii, 9
Anal-fin rays iii, 5 iii, 5
Pectoral-fin rays i, 11 i, 11
Pelvic-fin rays i, 7 i, 7–8
Caudal-fin (branched) rays 14 14
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60 · Zootaxa 3269 © 2012 Magnolia Press
arch, absent on outer one. Intestine simple, with almost no coil from stomach to anus. Peritoneum gray ventrally,
black-gray dorsally.
Distal margin of dorsal-fin slightly convex. Caudal fin truncate or slightly emarginate, its tips rounded.
Body entirely covered by embedded scales except for abdomen. Lateral line absent; cephalic lateral line and pores
on head absent.
No sexual dimorphism observed.
FIGURE 2. Lateral and ventral views of head of Yunnanilus niulanensis, sp. nov., holotype, KIZ20060285, 55.3mm SL. an,
anterior nostril; irb, inner rostral barbel; ll, lower lip; mb, maxillary barbel; pn, posterior nostril; orb, outer rostral barbel; up,
upper lip.
Coloration. In alcohol, upper two-thirds of body and head covered by large brown spots, some spots more or
less interconnected to form irregular vertical bars along the flank. Fins hyaline. A vertical black line present on
caudal-fin base (Fig. 1).
Zootaxa 3269 © 2012 Magnolia Press · 61
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS YUNNANILUS NICHOLS
Habitat. The type specimens were collected from the Yanglinhe River (altitude: 1909m), one of the upper
tributaries of the Niulanjiang River in Yanglin town, Songming County, Yunnan Province. The water was slow-
flowing and clear, pH: 7.0. The stream at the type locality is about 2 m in width, and about 0.4–0.5m in depth (the
width and depth may be greater during the rainy season). The substrate was sandy or a little muddy. The landform,
which the river flows through, is plain, with wheat fields, but becomes mountainous not far away from the stream.
Distribution. This species is thus far known only from type locality (Fig. 3).
Etymology. The specific name, niulanensis alludes to the type locality, the Niulanjiang River.
FIGURE 3. Map of partial Yunnan, Guizhou and Sichuan, China. Triangle ( ) indicating the distribution of Yunnanilus
niulanensis, sp. nov. in Songming County, Yunnan Province, China.
Discussion
Because of their diminutive body size, these species are of little interest to fisheries and tend to receive less
attention than larger-sized fishes. There were only two valid species of Yunnanilus described from China, in
addition to a single species from Myanmar, prior to 1988. With more intensive ichthyfaunal exploration, 14 species
were recorded in China up to 1995 (Zhu, 1995), and the genus comprises 30 described species at present. It is now
one of the most speciose genera of Nemacheilinae occurring in China. Most species occur in the southwest of
China. Apart from Yunnanilus brevis (Boulenger), which was known from Inlé lake and the nearby He-Ho plain,
seven species occur in Jinsha River basin, 18 (including the present new species) occur in the Nanpan River basin,
two occur in Beipan River basin, two occur in the Hongshuihe basin, and a further two species occur not only in the
Nanpan basin, but also in the Jinsha basin. These rivers (especially the upper reaches of the Pearl River) flow
through an essentially karstic landform. It is evident from their distribution that members of Yunnanilus show a
close affinity for karstic areas.
Yang (1995) divided the species of Yunnanilus into two groups, the Yunnanilus pleurotaenia group and the
Yunnanilus nigromaculatus group, based on characters of scales, lateral line and cephalic sensory pores. Yunnanilus
niulanensis, together with Y. nigromaculatus Regan, Y. niger Kottelat & Chu, Y. longidorsalis Li, Tao & Lu, Y.
CHEN ET AL.
62 · Zootaxa 3269 © 2012 Magnolia Press
bajiangensis Li, Y. pachycephalus Kottelat & Chu, Y. altus Kottelat & Chu, Y. obtusirostris Yang, Y.
yangzonghaiensis Cao & Zhu, Y. caohaiensis Ding and Y. longibarbatus Gan, Chen & Yang belong to the
nigromaculatus group. These species can be distinguished from other Yunnanilus species by sharing the following
characters: body covered with scales, lateral line absent, no cephalic sensory pores.
Yunnanilus niulanensis can be differentiated from Y. nigromaculatus by the following characters: mouth
subterminal (vs. terminal), 9 branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. 8), no outer gill rakers on the first gill arch (vs. 3–5 in Y.
nigromaculatus) (Table 2). It can be differentiated from Y. niger by the color pattern, upper two thirds of body and
head being covered by large brown spots (vs. body and head brownish black in Y. niger); fins hyaline (vs. dorsal,
anal and pelvic fins black, caudal and pectoral fins grayish); mouth subterminal (vs. inferior); 9 branched dorsal-fin
rays (vs. 8); 9–11 gillrakers on the inner side of the first gill arch (vs. 13) (Table 2). The new species can also be
distinguished from Y. bajiangensis by the following characters: mouth subterminal (vs. inferior in Y. bajiangensis);
TABLE 2. Comparisons of some morphological and meritsic characters of Yunnanilus species lacking lateral-line and ce-
phalic sensory pores.
1, 2, 3, 4 from Yang, 1990; 5 from Li, 2004; 6 from Li, Tao et al., 2000; 7 fromg Yang & Chen, 1995; 8 from Cao, 1989; 9 from Ding, 1992, 10 from Gan et al.,
2007.
Species
Y. niulanensis
Y. nigromaculatus1
Y. niger2
Y. pachycephalus3
Y. altus4
Y. bajiangensis5
Y. longidorsalis6
Y. obtusirostris7
Y. yangzonghaiensis8
Y.caohaiensis9
Y. longibarbatus10
Specimen
number 7 6 1 10 14 10 11 810 13
Locality Niulanjia
ng River Dianchi
Lake Luoping,
Tatanze Xuanwei
County Zhanyi,
Luoping
County
Shilin
County Luoping
County Fuxian
Lake Yangzong-
hai Lake Caohai
Lake Du’an
County
Mouth subtermi
al terminal inferior inferior inferior Inferior terminal inferior Terminal or
subterminal subterminal subterminal
Color
pattern Upper
two
thirds of
body and
head
covered
by large
brown
spots.
Fins
hyaline.
Upper two
thirds of
body and
head
covered by
large
brown
spots. Fins
hyaline.
Body
and head
brownish
black.
Dorsal,
anal and
pelvic
fins
black.
Caudal
and
pectoral
fins
grayish.
Head
and body
finely
spotted,
the spots
tending
to form
irregular
bars or
larger
spots.
Fins
hyaline
Body and
head, above
level of
pectoral fins
covered by
minute dark
brown spots.
Two dark
spots along
upper
margin of
caudal fin.
Upper
two
thirds of
body
and head
covered
by large
brown
spots.
Fins
hyaline.
7–8
wormlik
e brown
blotch
on the
posterio
r flank,
dorsal
fin with
2 brown
bars.
No large
brown
spots on
the
flanks.
Fins
hyaline.
Upper body
and head
covered by
vertical
brown bars.
Dorsal fin
and caudal
fin with
brown
spots.
Body and
head
covered by
large brown
spots. Fins
brown or
black
brown.
Bady sides
and dorsal
head
covered
with brown
spots. A
non-
prominent
dark spot on
the lower
1/3
unbranched
dorsal-fin
rays
Gillrakers 0/9–11 3–5/11–12 0/13 0/11–13 0/12–14 0/8 0/8 ? 0/11–14 0/10–13 0/12
Dorsal fin
rays iii, 9 iii, 8 iii, 8 iii, 9–10 iii, 8–9 iii, 9 iii, 11 iii, 8 iii, 9–11 iii, 9 iii, 8
Anal fin
rays iii, 5 iii, 5 iii, 5 iii, 5 iii, 5 iii, 5 iii, 6 iii, 5 iii, 5 iii, 5 iii, 5–6
Pectoral
fin rays i, 11 i, 11–13 i, 12 i, 10–12 i, 10–11 i, 9–10 i, 10–11 i, 9–10 i, 9–10 i, 11 i, 10-12
Pelvic fin
rays i, 7–8 i, 8 i, 8 i, 7 i, 7 i, 6 i, 6 i, 6–7 i, 6–7 i, 7 i, 6
Caudal fin
(branched)
rays
14 14 14 14 14 12 14 15–16 12–14 14 16
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DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS YUNNANILUS NICHOLS
9–11 gill rakers on the inner side of the first gill arch (vs. 8); pelvic-fin rays i, 7–8 (vs. i, 6); branched caudal-fin
rays 14 (vs. 12) (Table 2). Yunnanilus niulanensis is further differentiated from Y. longidorsalis by having dorsal-
fin rays iii, 9 (vs. iii, 11 in Y. longidorsalis); anal-fin rays iii, 5 (vs. iii, 6); pelvic-fin rays i, 7–8 (vs. i, 6); mouth
subterminal (vs. terminal); 9–11 gillrakers in the inner side of the first gill arch (vs. 8); upper two thirds of body
and head covered by large brown spots (vs. 7–8 wormlike brown blotches on the posterior flank); fins hyaline (vs.
dorsal fin with 2 brown bars) (Table 2). It can be distinguished from Y. yangzonghaiensis by having dorsal-fin rays
iii, 9 (vs. iii, 9–11, mainly iii, 10 in Y. yangzonghaiensis); pectoral-fin rays i, 11 (vs. i, 9–10); body and head
covered by large brown spots (vs. upper body and head covered by vertical brown bars.); fins hyaline (vs. dorsal fin
and caudal fin with brown spots) (Table 2). It can be distinguished from Y. caohaiensis by caudal-peduncle length
less than caudal-peduncle depth (vs. caudal-peduncle length greater than or equal to caudal-peduncle depth in Y.
caohaiensis); fins hyaline (vs. fins brown or black-brown) (Table 2). It can be distinguished from Y. obtusirostris
by having the mouth subterminal (vs. inferior in Y. obtusirostris); 9 branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. 8); branched
caudal-fin rays 14 (vs. 15–16) (Table 2). It can be distinguished from Y. pachycephalus by having dorsal-fin rays
iii, 9 (vs. iii, 9–10 in Y. pachycephalus); 9–11 gill rakers on the inner side of the first gill arch (vs. 11–13); eye
diameter 5.4–6.0% SL (vs. 4.6–5.6%); interorbital width 9.9–12.1% SL (vs. 8.2–9.7%) (Table 2). It can be
distinguished from Y. altus by having 9–11 gill rakers on the inner side of the first gill arch (vs. 12–14 in Y. altus);
dorsal-fin rays iii, 9 (vs. iii, 8–9); caudal peduncle length 9.2–11.1% SL (vs. 11.4–13.7%); eye diameter 5.4–6.0%
SL (vs. 4.7–5.3%); interorbital width 9.9–12.1% SL (vs. 8.5–9.5%) (Table 2). Yunnanilus niulanensis can be
distinguished from Y. longibarbatus by possessing 9 branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. 8 in Y. longibarbatus); branched
pelvic-fin rays 7–8 (vs. 6); and branched caudal-fin rays 14 (vs. 16) (Table 2).
Comparative material
Yunnanilus. niger: KIZ 806075, holotype, 62.5 mm SL, Luoping County, Yunnan, China; Y. pachycephalus: KIZ
82100392, holotype, 58.5 mm SL, Xuanwei County, Yunnan, China; Y. altus: KIZ 774630, 70.8 mm SL, Zhanyi
County, Yunnan, China; Y. obtusirostris: KIZ 878052, holotype, 33.5, Xilongtang, Chengjiang County, Yunnan,
China; KIZ 878050, 878053–55, 8711100–8711102, seven specimens, paratypes, 28.0–41.5 mm SL, Xilongtang,
Chengjiang County, Yunnan, China; Y. longibarbatus: KIZ 2003050255, holotype, 52.6 mm SL; Gaoling, Du’an
County, Guangxi, China; KIZ 2003050248–2003050254, KIZ 2003050256–2003050260, twelve specimens,
paratypes, 37.4–58.2 mm SL; Gaoling, Du’an County, Guangxi, China.
Acknowledgments
We thank Mr. Yang Bo for his assistance with field work. This study was supported by the National Science
Foundation of China (30970326, U0936602, 30870291), the National Basic Research Program (973 Program)
(2007CB411600) and the Scientific Research Foundation of Yunnan University (2008YB004). We are grateful to
two anonymous referees for criticisms and comments that helped substantially to improve the manuscript.
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Zhu, Y., Du, L.-N., Chen, X.-Y. & Yang, J.-X. (2009) A new nemacheiline loach of genus Yunnanilus (Balitoridae) from
Guangxi, China—Yunnanilus jinxiensis. Zoological Research, 30, 195–198.
... Thirty-three species of Yunnanilus have been described from Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Guangxi in China, Inlé Lake in Myanmar, and Vietnam, where they usually occur in lakes, marshes or slowly flowing waters. They seem to show a particular affinity for karstic areas (Kottelat & Chu, 1988;Zheng, 1989;Zhou, 1989;Yang, 1990Yang, , 1995Ding, 1992Ding, , 1995Li et al., 1994;Li & Duan, 1999;Li et al., 2000;Freyhof & Serov, 2001;Li, 2004;Yang et al., 2004;Gan et al., 2007;An et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2012). Depending of the absence or presence of lateral line, Yunnanilus are divided into nigromaculatus group and pleurotaenia group, respectively (Yang, 1995;Chen et al., 2012). ...
... They seem to show a particular affinity for karstic areas (Kottelat & Chu, 1988;Zheng, 1989;Zhou, 1989;Yang, 1990Yang, , 1995Ding, 1992Ding, , 1995Li et al., 1994;Li & Duan, 1999;Li et al., 2000;Freyhof & Serov, 2001;Li, 2004;Yang et al., 2004;Gan et al., 2007;An et al., 2009;Chen et al., 2012). Depending of the absence or presence of lateral line, Yunnanilus are divided into nigromaculatus group and pleurotaenia group, respectively (Yang, 1995;Chen et al., 2012). Kottelat (2012) mentioned that Yunnanilus was not a monophyletic group. ...
... Yunnanilus qujinensis, together with Y. altus, Y. bajingensis, Y. caohaiensis, Y. longibarbatus, Y. ni ger, Y. niulanensis, Y. obtusirostris, and Y. pachy cephalus belong to the nigromaculatus group. These species are distinguished from other Yunnanilus species by sharing the absence of lateral line and the absence of cephalic sensory pores (Yang, 1995;Chen et al., 2012). ...
Article
Yunnanilus qujinensis, new species, is described from Nanpanjiang River drainage in a spring connected with Hujiafen Reservoir, Qujin City, Yunnan, China. It is a member of the nigromaculatus group and is distinguished from the other species by the presence of a processus dentiformis, the absence of outer gill raker on the first gill arch, lower jaw notch, 8 pharyngeal teeth and the body entirely covered by scales.
Article
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The loach tribe Yunnanilini from China is reviewed here using morphological characters and complete mitochondrial genomes of select species. Molecular data suggest that the tribe Yunnanilini is not monophyletic and can be divided into three clades. Species of the Yunnanilus nigromaculatus group form an independent genus and are placed in Eonemachilus. In the phylogenetic tree, Y. jinxiensis clusters with Paranemachilus genilepis, and Y. pulcherrimus clusters with Micronemacheilus cruciatus, indicating that Y. jinxiensis and Y. pulcherrimus belong to Paranemachilus and Micronemacheilus, respectively. Based on morphological data, Y. bailianensis and Y. longibarbatus are placed in Heminoemacheilus, while Y. jinxiensis and Y. pulcherrimus, are placed in Paranemachilus and Micronemacheilus, respectively. Yunnanilus niulanensis and Y. qujinensis are treated as junior synonyms of Eonemachilus caohaiensis. Eonemachilus, Micronemacheilus, and Yunnanilus are show short separation between anterior and posterior nostrils. The genera can be distinguished from each other by mouth structure, lateral line and cephalic lateral-line canals, and papillae on median part of both lips. The anterior and posterior nostrils of Heminoemacheilus and Paranemachilus are closely set. Paranemachilus and Micronemacheilus are distinguished by cheeks covered with scales and lips with papillae, respectively. Our phylogenetic tree and morphological characters support Traccatichthys as a valid genus, which can be distinguished from Micronemacheilus by anterior and posterior nostrils closely set (vs. clearly separated). Four species are placed in Traccatichthys.
Article
The taxonomy and nomenclature of the fishes of the superfamily Cobitoidea (suborder Cobitoidei minus Catostomidae) are reviewed. Original descriptions of all 1499 recorded species-group names and 185 genus-group names have been checked for correct spelling, types and bibliographic references. The bibliography includes about 1010 titles. 1043 valid species in 111 valid genera are recognised. Synonymies are given, based on published information as well as unpublished observations. Endings consistent with the three possible Latin grammatical genders of genus-group names are indicated for all species-group names; basic tools are provided to establish the correct endings in most simple cases. The main nomenclatural acts are: - new family-group names: Serpenticobitidae, Barbuccidae; - new genera: Ambastaia (type species: Botia nigrolineata), Theriodes (type species: Acanthophthalmus sandakanensis), Speonectes (type species: Sundoreonectes tiomanensis); - lectotype designation: Cobitis stephanidisi (sensu Economidis, 1992); - declaration as nomen protectum: Cobitis biwae; - declaration as nomen oblitum: Cobitis schlegeli; - first reviser action on precedence of simultaneous synonyms: Parabotia kimluani over P. vancuongi, Cobitis taenia turcica over Cobitinula anatoliae, Sewellia medius over S. grandis, Parasewellia monolobata over P. polylobata, Cobitis turio over C. bilturio, Triplophysa bashanensis over T. longchiensis, Yunnanilus macrositanus over Y. forkicaudalis; - first reviser action on correct spelling of: Parabotia vancuongi, Cobitis fahireae, Hemimyzon songamensis, Sewellia analis, Parasewellia polylobata, Vanmanenia monofasciodorsalata, V. trifaseudorsala, Oreonectes microphthalmus, Paracobitis posterodorsalus, Yunnanilus macrositanus, Y. forkicaudalis, Y. spanisbripes.
Article
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A nemacheiline loach Yunnanilusjinxiensis sp. nov. has been discovered in collections from a Pearl River Drainage in Ludong village, Jingxi county, and Guangxi of China in May 2008. Yunnanilus jinxiensis is a new member of the Yunnaniluspleurotaenis group. It can be distinguished from all other congeners in this group by the following characters: body entirely covered by scales, except between pectoral fins and pelvic fins; lateral line present, with 15–20 pores; dorsal fin with 8 branched rays; pectoral fin with 13–14 branched rays; the air bladder has two chambers, the anterior ones into bony capsules and a large free posterior chamber, filling body cavity; caudal fin slightly emarginated; body depth 3.9–4.6 times the standard length (SL); head length 4.1–4.4 times SL; caudal peduncle depth 7.5–9.0 times SL; eye diameter 5.5–6.7 times the head length (HL); interorbital width 2.2–2.4 times HL.
Article
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A nemacheiline loach Yunnanilus longibarbatus sp. nov. (Holotype: KIZ 2003050255, 52.6 mm SL) has been recognized based on collections from a Hongshui River Drainage in Gaoling Township, Du-An county, Guangxi, China, in May 2003. Yunnanilus longibarbatus is a new member of the Yunnanilus nigromaculatus group and is closely related to Y. nigromaculatus (Regan), Y. obtusirostris Yang, Y. longidorsalis Li et al and Y. bajingensis Li. Yunnanilus longidorsalis can be distinguished from the other species using the following characters: branched dorsal fin rays 11 vs. 8-9; maxillary barbel only reaching mid-eye vs. posterior edge of eye; and dorsal-fin origin closer to snout tip than caudal fin base vs. vice versa. Yunnanilus longibarbatus and Y. obtusirostris have neither a processus dentiformis on the upper jaw nor a median notch on the lower jaw, making them different from Y. nigromaculatus and Y. bajingensis. Yunnanilus longibarbatus is most closely related to Y. obtusirostris through sharing many features, such as: fin-ray count; jaw structure; position of dorsal-fin; shape of caudal-fin; coverage of scales; absence of cephalic lateral line system; and presence of a lateral stripe on the body. Yunnanilus longibarbatus can be distinguished from Y. obtusirostris using the following characters: maxillary barbel reaching to the posterior edge of the opercle, making it the longest barbel in the genus Yunnanilus; presence of a non-prominent dark spot on the lower 1/3 unbranched dorsal-fin rays; lateral stripe width smaller than eye diameter vs. almost equal; lateral stripe on anterior body dissolved into blotches in large-sized specimens vs. not dissolved; has dots on dorsal head vs. absent; caudal-peduncle slender, with length 5.3-6.1 times the standardlength vs. 7.4-9.0 and length 1.3-1.8 times its depth vs. 0.8-1.1.
Article
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Two new loaches of subfamily Nemacheilinae have been recognized on basis of collections from Hongshuihe River,a tributary of Xijiang in Du'an County,Guangxi,China.All type specimens of Yunnanilus pulcherrimus sp.nov.(Holotype:KIZ 995001,39.6 mm SL) were collected from an underground river,and had diagnosis characters:dorsal-fin 3,8-9 (occasionally 3,9);anal-fin 3,5-6 (occasionally 3,6);pectoral-fin 1,8-10;pelvic-fin 1,6-7 (occasionally 1,6);branched caudalfin rays 14-16 (occasionally 14);gill rakers 11-12 on the inner side of 1st gill arch;vertebrae (1 ex.) 4+29.The new species is closely related to Yunnanilus pleurotaenia (Regan,1904) in length of lateral-line,pattern of scale coverage,count of fin rays,shape of caudal-fin and length of rostral barbels,but can be distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern and the elongated papillae on upper and lower lips,and can be further distinguished from Y.Pleurotaenia by some morphometric characters:standard length/body depth 4.3-5.6 (5.0) vs.3.9-4.9 (4.2),standard length/head length 4.4-5.1 (4.7) vs.3.7-3.9 (3.8),standard length/caudal-peduncle length 5.7-7.1 (6.3) vs.7.7-9.1 (8.4),head length/snout length 2.7-3.5 (3.0) vs.2.5-2.8 (2.6),caudal-peduncle length/depth 1.2-1.7 (1.4) vs.1.1-1.2 (1.1).All type specimens of Triplophysa flavicorpus sp.nov.(Holotype:KIZ 995004,76.4 mm SL) were diagnosticated by characters:dorsal-fin 3,10;anal-fin 3,6-7;pectoral-fin 1,11;pelvic-fin 1,6-7 (occasionally 1,6);branched caudal-fin rays 8+8;gill rakers 5-9 on the outer side and 11-12 on the inner side of 1st gill arch;vertebrae (1 ex.) 4+34.The new triplophysid species is closely related to Triplophysa nandanensis Lan et al.1995 by dorsal-fin origin at mid point of body,lateral-line complete and deep forked caudal-fin,and can be easily distinguished from all congeners by following characters:10 branched dorsal fin rays,6-7 branched anal fin rays,body covered by tiny scales,lateral-line complete,6-7 broad vertical bars on body and 1 narrow longitudinal stripe along lateral-line,caudal-fin deeply forked,a large black spot on caudal-fin base,2 black bars on both lobes of caudal-fin,posterior tip of pelvic-fin surpasses anus,a developed axillary lobe present at pelvic-fin base,upper lip completely interrupted at the middle.Both genera of Yunnanilus and Triplophysa are plateaus-indicator fishes.The genus of Yunnanilus is endemic to the eastern Yunnan Plateau.The genus of Triplophysa occurs mainly in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.The geographical location of the two new loach species in Guangxi are far away from the distribution centers of their genera.Their distribution patterns are obviously disjunct.A preliminary phylogenetic analysis on both new species and their relatives demonstrates that disjunct patterns might have been yielded by vicariant mode of speciations.
Article
The genus Yunnanilus Nichols, 1925 is revised; Eonemachilus Berg, 1938 is a junior subjective synonym. Yunnanilus includes at least nine described species and five undescribed species. The status of Y. salmonides Chaudhuri is still incertae sedis. Six new species are described: Y. parvus, Y. altus, Y. pachycephalus, Y. niger, Y. macrogaster and Y. paludosus. The last three species occur sympatrically in a small endorheic basin of eastern Yunnan; they developed different feeding specializations which allowed them to use different niches. Other species also have peculiar specializations. The diversity of feeding habits and related adaptations in Yunnanilus is greater than in the whole subfamily Nemacheilinae and is one more example of supralimital specialization. Speciation of fishes on the Yunnan Plateau is discussed. Several species are endangered or possibly extinct.
A new species of dwarfism in Yunnanilus (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae)
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Zhou, W. & He, J.-C. (1989) A new species of dwarfism in Yunnanilus (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 14, 380-384.
The loaches of the subfamily nemacheilinae in China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae)
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A new species of the Yunnanilus from Guizhou, China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae)
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Ding, R.-H. (1992) A new species of the Yunnanilus from Guizhou, China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 17, 489-491.
A new species of view and admire fishes (should be "aquarium fish", the author notes) from Kunming-Yunnanilus tigerivinus, sp.nov
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Li, W.-X. & Duan, S. (1999) A new species of view and admire fishes (should be "aquarium fish", the author notes) from Kunming-Yunnanilus tigerivinus, sp.nov. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University, 14, 254-256.
Revision of Yunnanilus with description of a miniature species flock and six new species from TERMS OF USE This pdf is provided by Magnolia Press for private/research use. Commercial sale or deposition in a public library or website is prohibited
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Kottelat, M. & Chu, X.-L (1988) Revision of Yunnanilus with description of a miniature species flock and six new species from TERMS OF USE This pdf is provided by Magnolia Press for private/research use. Commercial sale or deposition in a public library or website is prohibited.
Two new species of Yunnanilus from Yunnan Province, China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae)
  • W.-X Li
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Li, W.-X, Mao, W.-N., Sun, R.-F. & Lu, Z.-M. (1994) Two new species of Yunnanilus from Yunnan Province, China (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 19, 370-374.