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Le questionnaire des schémas cognitifs de Young : Traduction et validation préliminaire

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Le questionnaire des schémas cognitifs de Young : Traduction et validation préliminaire

... Dans la revue l'Encéphale, plusieurs travaux valident en français le premier questionnaire [18], et le deuxième questionnaire [19] de J. Young. D'autres publications étudient les relations des schémas avec la sémiologie dépressive [20] et anxieuse [21] ou démontrent l'efficacité de la thérapie des schémas [22]. ...
... Une moyenne élevée signifie donc que le schéma est présent chez le sujet. Ainsi coté, on a 6 degrés/niveaux pour chaque schéma : degré 0 : absence de schéma ; degré 0,2 : présence d'un seul item relatif au schéma ; degré 0,4 : présence de deux items relatifs au schéma ; degré 0,6 : présence de trois items relatifs au schéma ; degré 0,8 : présence de quatre items relatifs au schéma ; degré 1 : présence de cinq items relatifs au schéma [22] Les chiffres en gras correspondent aux chiffres statistiquement significatifs. ...
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Les schémas « précoces » identifiés par Young sont pertinents en clinique du sujet âgé. Ils représentent des modèles ou des thèmes importants et envahissants pour l’individu, constitués de souvenirs, d’émotions, de pensées et de sensations corporelles. L’objectif de notre recherche consiste dans l’étude du niveau d’activation des schémas cognitifs dysfonctionnels spécifiques au troisième âge en fonction des milieux de vie (maison de retraite et domicile) des personnes âgées, à savoir, les schémas de carence affective, d’abandon, de méfiance, d’exclusion, de dépendance, de vulnérabilité et de surcontrôle émotionnel. Le « Questionnaire de Schémas de Young », dans sa forme courte, a été réalisé chez 80 personnes âgées dont 40 vivant en maison de retraite et 40 à domicile avec au moins une personne. Les personnes vivant en maison de retraite, comparées aux sujets vivant à domicile ont plus d’activation des schémas de carence affective (22,5 % vs 7,5 %), d’abandon (15 % vs 0 %), de méfiance (32,5 % vs 2,5 %), d’exclusion (7,5 % vs 0 %) et de surcontrôle émotionnel (25 % vs 2,5 %). Ces résultats sont significatifs sur cinq des sept schémas étudiés, excepté les schémas de dépendance et de vulnérabilité dont le niveau d’activation ne diffère pas entre les deux groupes de l’échantillon. L’activation de ces schémas précoces chez les sujets en maison de retraite serait liée à un manque de support familial et émotionnel.
... Dans la revue l'Encéphale, plusieurs travaux valident en français le premier questionnaire [18], et le deuxième questionnaire [19] de J. Young. D'autres publications étudient les relations des schémas avec la sémiologie dépressive [20] et anxieuse [21] ou démontrent l'efficacité de la thérapie des schémas [22]. ...
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Introduction: Schemas represent a stable vision of oneself. Young's schema questionnaire-s3 (YSQ-s3) presents 90 perceptions of oneself, specifying 18 early maladaptive schemas (EMS). We studied the intensity and inter-relations of these 18 EMS and how they pool together into a specific domain. Method: Two hundred and ninety four subjects (294 patients from a French private practice in psychiatry and 12 volunteers) filled in a French version of the YSQ-s3. Item scores range from 1 to 6. Only the scores of 4 "true for me during most of my life" or higher were kept for the statistical analysis. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Results: The EMS mean scores ranged from 3.4 to 12.9 and standard deviations from 5.9 to 9.7. EMS score correlations range from 0.009 to 0.55. The principal component analysis (PCA), that provides linear combinations of each EMS score, yields only one meaningful component. Indeed, the screen plot that provides the eigen values associated with each principal component, suggests keeping only the first component. This component presents a size-effect and represents the "global scores intensity". The hierarchical clustering analysis (HC) fits the 18 EMS in 5 domains (r(2)=0.4): (1) "avoidance" (with 3 EMS: emotional deprivation, social isolation/alienation, emotional inhibition), (2)"give" (with 1 EMS: self-sacrifice), (3) "take" (with 3 EMS: entitlement/grandiosity, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, approval-seeking/recognition-seeking) (4) "awareness" (with 8 EMS: abandonment/instability, mistrust/abuse, defectiveness/shame, dependence/incompetence, vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment/undeveloped self, failure, subjugation) (5) "faith" (with 3 EMS: negativity/pessimism, unrelenting standards/hyper-criticalness, punitiveness). When the HC analysis is applied to the population (n=294), it yields 6 classes of patients. The mean score of the 5 domains, described above, can describe these classes. Discussion: These 5 domains do not completely fit Young's five "primary infantile needs" domains. Only 2/3 of the EMS are correctly attributed to the "primary infantile needs" domains. The 5 domains seem closely related to the 5 dimensions of the NEO-PI-R or to the 5 domains of personality disorders (criteria b) described in the DSM-5. In our understanding the dimensions "avoidance, give, take" represent 3 types of relationship to others (on behavioral level). The dimension "awareness" represents the fears and losses (on the emotional level) and "faith" represents beliefs and consciousness (on the cognitive level). The intensity of the 5 domains inside each class of patients could guide the clinical interpretation, specifically for personality disorders.
... Zur Faktorenstruktur des YSQ-L liegen mehrere Untersuchungen vor. Die Studie vonMihaescu et al. (1997) basiert auf der ersten Fassung des YSQ-L mit 123 Items und 15 Schemata in einer Übersetzung ins Französische. Die Faktorenanalyse auf Skalenebene ergab eine Zwei-Faktorenstruktur (Versagen und Narzissmus). ...
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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the associations between child maltreatment, cognitive schemas of disconnection/rejection reported in emerging adulthood, and social support perceived in emerging adulthood among young women who have exited placements in residential care. The sample is derived from a longitudinal study conducted with 132 young women who had been placed in residential care during adolescence in Montreal (Canada) in 2008–2009. The present study relied solely on the last measurement wave of this study, which was conducted approximately 5 years (2012–2014) after Wave 1. At this time, participants were out of residential care (mean age = 19.4 years). Results showed that the more severe the retrospective accounts of child maltreatment were, the less social support young women perceived as available to them in emerging adulthood. When the tendency to endorse disconnection/rejection schemas is considered, the direct connection between maltreatment and perceived social support disappears, and we instead see an indirect relationship through these schemas. Findings suggest that programs and services must go beyond identifying social‐support networks for young women care leavers. Considerable effort should be devoted to helping these young women develop the skills they need to build and maintain trusting relationships with significant people around them.
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Key practitioner message: The early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents (SQS) is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure of early maladaptive schemas for children between the ages of 10 and 16. SQS consists of five schema domains that represent Young's schema domains including 15 early maladaptive schemas and 97 items. Normative values for each schema were determined for age, gender and age/gender groups. Clinically, SQS presents valuable information about early maladaptive schemas during childhood and adolescence, before such schemas become more pervasive and persistent.
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Psychodynamic theory has long postulated the existence of a change in the psychological adaptation of women during pregnancy. Moreover, those working with pregnant women often note higher levels of sensitivity and some cognitive modifications. Cognitive schemas take into account the individual's cognitive orientation and provide information about their level of psychological adaptation. Despite an abundant literature on cognitive schemas, few studies have investigated the state of the early maladaptive schemas among pregnant woman. The current study seeks to evaluate cognitive schemas during pregnancy as a means to provide a preliminary study on theoretically proposed differences in psychological adaptation in pregnant women. One hundred and eighty-three women, (aged 20 to 40); 92 (57 %) of whom were pregnant completed the French version of the Young schema questionnaire. Analyses showed differences in activation of the schemas, depending on whether the women were pregnant or not. In particular, high demanding, imperfection, abuse/mistrust, and social isolation/alienation were all less activated in the pregnant group. The results confirm differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant samples providing some empirical support for the hypothesis that pregnancy modifies cognitive organization and psychological adaptation.
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Introduction: According to Young, Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) are deep cognitive structures constituted by beliefs about the word, oneself, and one's relationship with others. Young proposed a first clinical scale to assess EMS: the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-L1). A later version, the YSQ-L2 (205 items), was developed by Young to measure 16 EMS. The Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-S2) was designed to measure 15 EMS and is a shorter instrument (75 items). Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the YSQ-S2 through a comparison of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with control subjects. We used two French versions of the YSQ-S2 for validation purposes in BPD and control samples. The first version (initial French version) is identical to the original YSQ-S2 (75 items, 15 EMS) while the second (modified French version) comprises 68 items grouped into 14 factors. Method: The control group was composed of 263 non-clinical subjects (82 males, 181 females) who were mostly university students. The mean age of the sample was 27.92 years (SD=14.26) and age ranged from 17 to 67 years. The pathological group was composed of 37 BPD patients (eight males and 29 females) from the Anxiety Disorder Unit (Neurological Hospital, Lyon) and the Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Unit (Sainte Marguerite Hospital, Marseille). The majority of these patients were employees and senior executives. Age ranged from 19 to 53 years, with an average of 34.45 years (SD=9.74). A psychiatrist diagnosed the patients with the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline-Revised. All participants filled in the French version of the original 205-item YSQ-L2 from which responses of the 75-item YSQ-S2 were extracted. Control subjects anonymously completed the YSQ-L2 in groups of 10 to 40 people and patients completed the YSQ-L2 in a clinical setting. Results: For each version of the YSQ-S2, the total score was analyzed with two-ways ANOVA (Group×Gender) and the sub-scores were analyzed with one-way MANOVA (Group). Our results showed that the two versions of the YSQ-S2 have good discrimination values between BPD patients and control subjects. Statistical comparisons indicated significant differences between the two groups. No difference appeared between males and female's scores. Results showed that BPD patients' total score and sub-scores were significantly higher than those of control subjects. Moreover, for each version of the YSQ-S2, a threshold level of pathology was obtained by the analysis of the intervals of total scores for the two groups. In the initial French version of the YSQ-S2, the scores of 15.59% of the control subjects overlapped with the scores of 94.59% of the BPD patients with a total score higher than 180. In the modified French version, the scores of 15.97% of the control subjects overlapped with the scores of 94.59% of the BPD patients with a total score higher than 160. Therefore, the pathological threshold of BPD could be set at a score of 181 and 161, respectively for the initial French version and the modified French version of the YSQ-S2. Discussion: In spite of the small size of our pathological sample (N=37), the French version (initial or modified) of the YSQ-S2 appears to be a valid measurement allowing the description of the EMS and a quite effective instrument for measuring BPD symptoms. In addition, our results suggest that it is possible to reduce the YSQ-S2, given that the suppression of several items (modified French version of the questionnaire) does not modify the cut-off point and the differences between the BPD patients and the control subjects.
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The schema concept has had an important role in both early and more recent accounts of psychopathology. Schemas are underlying cognitive structures that are thought to create vulnerability to disorders, because they act as templates for the perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Recent approaches to the understanding and treatment of personality disorders give schemas particular prominence, and the concept of early maladaptive schemas forms the cornerstone of Young's (1999) schema-focused cognitive therapy. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire--short form (YSQ-S; Young, 1998). A sample of 50 non-clinical participants completed the YSQ-S on three different occasions: in neutral mood, and following happy and depressed mood inductions. The results of 30 participants with full data sets showed that emotional deprivation and defectiveness scores increased after the depressed mood induction, whereas entitlement scores increased after the happy mood induction. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of vulnerability to psychopathology, and future directions for research are suggested.
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