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The most important ratified EU document concerning landscape conservation and management is the European Landscape Convention. One of the primary objectives of the Con-vention is the conservation or creation of socially desirable landscape quality features, i.e. attain-ment of specific landscape quality objectives (LQO). Work on landscape quality objectives has begun at many European research centres, yet though it is in a phase of fairly intensive develop-ment, so far there has been a lack of a specific methodology required for their definition. This paper presents a method for the elaboration of landscape quality objectives developed in Poland, as well as the effects of its pilot application with relation to the projected „Roztocze-Solska Forest” Biosphere Reserve. Landscape quality objectives should include three components: 1) worthy of preservation characteristic landscape features (canon); 2) other expected features concerning landscape quality (objectives to be attained); 3) methods for the attainment and conservation of the desired status of landscape (guidelines and instruments). The detailed procedure for the identification of LQO comprises 10 stages (including studies of the expectations of local commu-nities), and the results of the work are compiled in the form of so-called „Landscape Cards”. The method may have a great significance for the practice of landscape conservation and management in Poland and in Europe. The pilot elaboration of LQO for the area of the projected „Roztocze-Solska Forest” Biosphere Reserve revealed, among other things, what landscape features are par-ticularly important for the conservation and shaping of the unique character of that region.
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Teka Kom. Ochr. Kszt. Środ. Przyr. – OL PAN, 2010, 7, 16–34
METHOD OF ELABORATION OF LANDSCAPE
QUALITY OBJECTIVES
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski, Barbara Sowińska
Department of Landscape Ecology and Nature Conservation, University of Life Sciences in Lublin
Dobrzańskiego str. 37, 20-262 Lublin, tadeusz.chmielewski@up.lublin.pl, barbara.sowinska@wp.pl
Summary. The most important ratified EU document concerning landscape conservation and
management is the European Landscape Convention. One of the primary objectives of the Con-
vention is the conservation or creation of socially desirable landscape quality features, i.e. attain-
ment of specific landscape quality objectives (LQO). Work on landscape quality objectives has
begun at many European research centres, yet though it is in a phase of fairly intensive develop-
ment, so far there has been a lack of a specific methodology required for their definition. This
paper presents a method for the elaboration of landscape quality objectives developed in Poland, as
well as the effects of its pilot application with relation to the projected „Roztocze-Solska Forest”
Biosphere Reserve. Landscape quality objectives should include three components: 1) worthy of
preservation characteristic landscape features (canon); 2) other expected features concerning
landscape quality (objectives to be attained); 3) methods for the attainment and conservation of
the desired status of landscape (guidelines and instruments). The detailed procedure for the
identification of LQO comprises 10 stages (including studies of the expectations of local commu-
nities), and the results of the work are compiled in the form of so-called „Landscape Cards”. The
method may have a great significance for the practice of landscape conservation and management
in Poland and in Europe. The pilot elaboration of LQO for the area of the projected „Roztocze-
Solska Forest” Biosphere Reserve revealed, among other things, what landscape features are par-
ticularly important for the conservation and shaping of the unique character of that region.
Key words: The European Landscape Convention, landscape quality objectives
INTRODUCTION
Till now the most important ratified EU document concerning landscape
conservation and management is the European Landscape Convention [Euro-
pean... 2000]. It was adopted by the Council of Europe on 20th October, 2000,
ratified by Poland in 2004, and published in our country only in 2006 [Europejska
Konwencja... 2006].
METHOD OF ELABORATION OF LANDSCAPE QUALITY OBJECTIVES 17
Among other things, the Convention puts an obligation on EU member
countries to:
– legally recognise landscapes as the foundation of identity of human envi-
ronment;
– establish and implement of a landscape conservation policy, realised with
the participation of regional and local authorities and taking into account public
opinion;
– incorporate the problems of landscape conservation and management in
development planning and in strategies of development of various branches of
economy.
The objective of those activities is the conservation or creation of socially
desirable landscape quality features, i.e. attainment of landscape quality objec-
tives. The Convention defines those objectives as „the formulation by the com-
petent public authorities of the aspirations of the public with regards to the land-
scape features of their surroundings” [European... 2000]. They should be formu-
lated for specific characteristic landscapes of the particular regions [Sowińska and
Chmielewski 2007a].
The consequence of those provisions of the Convention is, among other
things, the necessity of conducting an identification of landscapes occurring
within the territories of the particular countries, performing an analysis of their
characteristic features, and identifying the landscape quality objectives and pa-
rameters that are expected by the public opinion of the particular regions.
The Convention places a particular emphasis on cooperation and exchange
of experiences among the European countries, and on the participation of repre-
sentatives of the society in all undertakings connected with landscape conserva-
tion and management. An important role is ascribed especially to so-called „lo-
cal experts” [European... 2000].
Work on landscape quality objectives has begun at many European re-
search centres, yet though it is in a phase of fairly intensive development, so far
there has been a lack of a specific methodology required for their definition.
This paper presents a method for the elaboration of landscape quality objec-
tives developed in Poland, as well as the effects of its pilot application with rela-
tion to the projected „Roztocze-Solska Forest” Biosphere Reserve.
THE METHOD OF IDENTIFICATION OF LANDSCAPE QUALITY
OBJECTIVES
Analysis of current achievements of various countries of Europe in the area
of identification and implementation of landscape quality objectives [Fairclough
Marcinnes 2003, Wascher 2005, Androp 2006, Naguė and Sala 2006, Rossi et
al. 2006, Sala 2006, Stalder 2006, Sowińska and Chmielewski 2007b, van Eet-
velde and Androp 2009, Sowińska 2010] suggests the conclusion that landscape
quality objectives should include three components:
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski and Barbara Sowińska
18
1) worthy of preservation characteristic landscape features (canon),
2) other expected features concerning landscape quality (objectives to be
attained),
3) methods for the attainment and conservation of the desired status of
landscape (guidelines and instruments).
Work on landscape quality objectives should comprise 4 basic mutually in-
tegrated spatial scales: national, regional, subregional and local. Legal recogni-
tion of landscapes as the foundation of identity of human environment, general
evaluation of diversity and scale of threats to landscape resources and values,
and development of a policy of landscape conservation should take place at the
level of the individual countries. At the regional level (1 : 100 000) it is necessary to
perform charting of landscapes, combined with evaluation of landscape diver-
sity, and to develop regional strategies for landscape conservation and manage-
ment. Fundamental work on landscape quality objectives should be conducted at
a scale that is identified with by the local communities and at which plans of
landscape conservation and management are (or should be) developed. Since the
elaboration of landscape quality objectives should be done in close cooperation
with the inhabitants of the particular lands, the most suitable spatial scale for
work of this type appears to be the subregional scale, comprising mesoregions
and groups of physiographic mesoregions, individual protected areas (such as
national parks or landscape parks), or compact systems of protected areas, cul-
tural or economic subregional functional areas, etc. (1 : 50 000 and 1 : 25 000).
For selected areas, particularly valuable in terms of nature and cultural values, it
is desirable to elaborate detailed studies, conducted at the scale of 1 : 10 000 and
lower (representative natural-landscape units or their groups forming characteristic
local landscapes).
The European Landscape Convention recommends that landscape quality ob-
jectives should be elaborated for, and guidelines for their attainment should be ad-
dressed at specific territorial spatial units. The Convention, however, does not specify
what kind of such units should be so addressed, and how to perform their delimitation.
Based on the general recommendations of the European Landscape Con-
vention [European... 2000], suggestions contained in the Report of the European
Commission of 2006 [Landscape... 2006], and on the current achievements of
several European countries in this area, a method for the identification and im-
plementation of landscape quality objectives at subregional and local levels has
been developed at the Department of Landscape Ecology and Nature Conserva-
tion, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The procedure provided for in the
method comprises 10 stages (Fig. 1).
The first stage consists in the preparation of a general characterisation of
the natural and cultural heritage of the studied area. It is developed on the basis
of analysis of cartographic, descriptive, photographic and other documentation
created in prior for that area, including, in particular, geological maps, soil maps,
hydrological maps, habitat maps, tree-stand maps, maps of occurrence of rare
species, and documentation concerning the cultural heritage.
METHOD OF ELABORATION OF LANDSCAPE QUALITY OBJECTIVES 19
In the second stage it is necessary to conduct an examination of social opin-
ions and expectations concerning the values of and threats to the natural and
cultural heritage, and landscape quality expected or desired by the inhabitants
and tourists.
Stage three is the diagnosis of the state of landscape management. It is de-
veloped as a result of analysis of the current status and changes in land use struc-
ture, retrospective evaluation of results of environmental monitoring, analysis of
reach of existing and projected protected areas, study of documentation prepared
for the purposes of creation of such areas, analysis of conservation plans and
local development plans, analysis of conservation guidelines, and also of the
results of sociological studies concerning the social evaluation of landscape
quality and threats.
Stage four consists in the division of the area under study into a system of
natural-landscape units that will become the basic systems of reference for all
subsequent stages of landscape studies and projects.
Fig. 1. Diagram of the method for the elaboration of landscape quality objectives
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski and Barbara Sowińska
20
Stage five comprises typological analysis of differentiation of the whole set
of identified natural-landscape units1. The objective of this stage is grouping of
units identified in various parts of the studied area into so-called „clusters” (ty-
pological groups) with maximum possible similarity of their leading features.
This operation permits to select out of a very large set of various units those that
are the most characteristic, representative for the local differentiation of features
of the area studied. Focusing further studies on those units only, one can largely
get to know the features of all units within a given cluster [Adamczak 2001,
Chmielewski and Iwanicka 2004, Richling and Lechnio 2005, Sowińska and
Chmielewski 2008).
Stage six is the elaboration of so-called „landscape metrics”, i.e. sets of in-
dices characterising in detail the land use structure of the spatial units studied.
The indices are calculated on the basis of aerial or satellite photographs, with the
help of the Fragstag software package [McGarigal and Marks 1994, McGarigal
et al. 2002, Brown et al. 2004].
The essence of work on landscape quality objectives is to be found in
stages 7, 8 and 9.
Based on the data collected in the preceding stages (including the results
of public opinion polls), in stage seven we proceed to the elaboration of a set
of „landscape cards”, containing a description and iconography of the „canon of
landscape features” of representative natural-landscape units. Each landscape
card (Landscape Card No. ...) contains: a map of land cover of a given unit,
a numerical model of terrain, a set of numerical data, text presenting characteris-
tic, worthy of preservation or desired features of a given unit, a set of photo-
graphs and drawings (Fig. 2).
The realization of stage eight is made up of 2 parts. The first part consists
in aggregation of units similar to one another (belonging to a single cluster), and
at the same time neighbouring with one another, into territorial systems forming
„local landscapes”. The second part comprises the elaboration of a catalogue
of aims planned to be achieved in the process of conservation and management
of the desired quality of local landscapes.
The result of stage nine is a catalogue of tasks and guidelines concerning
the ways of attaining the objectives and conservation of the desired landscape
quality. The formulation of the guidelines and tasks should permit their precise
incorporation in the text of regional development strategy and in the provisions
of spatial development plans and conservation plans developed for the area un-
der analysis.
Stage ten consists in the monitoring of the process of implementation of
landscape quality objectives, including evaluation of the effectiveness of realiza-
tion of the adopted plans and indication of potential threats to the canon of land-
scape features.
1 A natural-landscape unit is a fragment of natural space, isolated on the basis of analysis of conformance
of spatial reach of various components of the natural environment, land use structure, and landscape physiog-
nomy [Chmielewski 2001, 2006, Sowińska and Chmielewski 2008].
Fig. 2. Pattern of the Landscape Card
LANDSCAPE CARD No. (number & name of the natural- landscape unit)
A. General data
B. Lithology and land relief
C. Soil
D. Characteristic of land cover
D1. Characteristic of point and line objects
Fig. 1
Location of unit Fig. 2
Photograph 1
Fig. 3
Photograph 2
Fig. 4
Elevation Fig. 5
Main structural elements
and forms of land cover
D2. Characteristic of landscape patches D3. Characteristic
of land use
Class Area
/Total Area
Mean Class Area
\Mean Total Area
Class Area Standard
Deviation
Total Area Standard
Deviation
Percentage of Landscape
Number of Patches
Patch Density
Total Edge
Mean Total Edge
Edge Density
Mean Shape Index Distri-
bution
Mean Fractal Index Dimen-
sion
Contagiom Index
Patch Richness
Patch Richness Density
Shannon's Diversity Index
Shannon's Evenness Index
E. Synthesis of landscape features: natural and cultural heritage, landscape physiognomy and threats
Leading features of land relief
Leading features of lithology and soil
Land cover structure
Leading features of patch structure
Values of natural heritage
Forms of protection of natural heritage
Values of cultural heritage
Forms of protection of cultural heritage
Landscape physiognomy
Threats to landscape values
F. Landscape feature canon G. Aims H. Task and guidelines
Inanimate nature
Animate nature
Cultural heritage
Land use structure
Landscape physiognomy
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski and Barbara Sowińska
22
RESULTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE METHOD
In Poland the first attempt at creating landscape quality objectives was un-
dertaken in 2006 with relation to the area of the projected „Roztocze-Solska
Forest” Biosphere Reserve (263 500 ha), in the Lublin Province and, partially,
Podkarpackie Province [Chmielewski (ed.) 2004, Chmielewski and Sowińska
2006, Sowińska and Chmielewski 2007, Chmielewski and Sowińska 2008].
Preliminary work on standard quality objectives were also conducted for another
biosphere reserve in the Lublin Region – West Polesie (140 000 ha), established
in 2002 [Chmielewski (ed.) 2005, Chmielewski et al. 2010].
In the case of the projected „Roztocze-Solska Forest” Biosphere Reserve,
within the whole area under study 541 natural-landscape units were identified,
out of which – as a result of analysis of typological differentiation of the set – 30
units were selected for the elaboration of landscape cards and for the definition
of landscape quality objectives – one each, particularly characteristic and repre-
sentative for each identified typological group, reflecting the landscape diversity
of the region under study [Sowińska 2010]. Presented below is a synthesis of the
results of work on landscape quality objectives for one of the 30 representative
units. It is unit No. 90, classified in the group of units unique at the scale of the
whole Biosphere Reserve, situated at the edge of West Roztocze, at the junction
of that mesoregion with two other mesoregions: Central Roztocze and Solska
Forest, i.e. in a specific „landscape ecotone”. The synthesis of the results of that
work is contained in the „Landscape Card” for the unit, composed of 8 parts
(Fig. 3a–3e).
Part A. General data
Part A of the Card contains general information concerning the location of
the unit, its area, the character of its boundaries and the form of its main struc-
tural elements (Fig. 3a).
Part B. Lithology and characterisation of land relief forms
This part contains a description of the lithological elements determined on
the basis of the Detailed Geological Map of Poland, and the character of land
relief forms determined on the basis of a geomorphological map, a topographic
map, and a numerical model of the area. Hypsometry of the unit is presented in
the form of a map of absolute elevation variation within the unit area and pro-
files of land relief generated within the ArcGis 9.2 software (Fig. 3b).
Part C. Soils
The character of the soil cover was determined on the basis of a soil-
agricultural map. The ordering of the particular soil types in the Table reflects
their percentage share in the whole unit.
METHOD OF ELABORATION OF LANDSCAPE QUALITY OBJECTIVES 23
Fig. 3. Landscape card for natural-landscape unit No. 90
„Springs of river Gorajec”
Fig. 3a
A. General data
Mesoregion: West Roztocze Fig. 3.1. Location of unit in complex of NLU
of West Roztocze
Location: northern part of the unit is situated in
the Lublin Province, District of Zamość, com-
mune of Radecznica, southern part in the District
of Biłgoraj, commune of Tereszpol, between the
localities of Trzęsiny, Lipowiec, Panasówka,
Hedwiżyn, Kajetanówka
Topographic names: Mount Tałandy,
Bog Tałandy, Borczyna, Lipowieckie Meadows
Area: 1694.68 ha
Unit boundaries: N, E – second-class dirt road,
partially forest boundary;
S – provincial road;
W – forest boundary that is the boundary of the
Szczebrzeszyński Landscape Park
Typological group: W
Shape: slightly elongated
Main structural elements: no division into
structural subunits
B. Lithology and characterisation of land relief forms
Elements of lithology river sands; eolithic sands; peats and peat-like sediments; humus
sands; gaize
Relief forms valleys; accumulation plain
Maximum drop (Dm) 55 m
Drop per hectare (DpH) 0.32 m/ha
Specific geomorphological forms none
C. Soils
silt-peat and peat-silt; peat and muck-peat; podzolic; black earths proper; brown soils, leached and acid
D. Characterisation of land cover forms
D1. Characterisation of point and line objects
Point objects Number (L) Coefficient
Nearest Neighbour Ratio (NNR)
Springs (Ź) 2 X
Individual trees (Drz) 35 0.41
Line objects Length (D) km Density (G) km/ha
Rivers (Rz) 16.77 0.01
Main melioration ditches (Rm) 9.48 0.006
Hard-surfaced roads (Du) 3.03 0.002
Dirt roads (Dg) 35.33 0.02
Tadeusz J. Chmielewski and Barbara Sowińska
24
Fig. 3b
Fig. 3.2.
Hypsometry
Fig. 3.3.
Main structural elements and land cover forms
Fig. 3.4. Valley of river Gorajec; Photo B. Sowińska 2010
Fig. 3.5. Chapel in Trzęsiny; Photo B. Sowińska 2008
METHOD OF ELABORATION OF LANDSCAPE QUALITY OBJECTIVES 25
Part D. Characterisation of land cover forms
D1. Characterisation of line and point forms of land cover
The character of point-type forms of land cover occurring in the particular
detail units was determined taking into account their number and value of the
index Nearest Neighbour Ratio calculated with the tool Average Nearest
Neighbour, available in the ArcGis software. Line objects were characterised by
giving their length and density per hectare.
D2. Characterisation of landscape patches
This part contains the results of „landscape metrics” calculated for the par-
ticular classes of land cover (Class Metric) and for the landscape of the whole
unit (Landscape Metrics) with the help of the Fragstats software (McGarigal et
al. 2002). The metrics are related to the following elements of the unit:
1. Surface area.
2. Spatial character of landscape.
3. Character of landscape boundaries.
4. Shape of patches.
5. Patch density.
6. Patch diversity in the landscape (Fig. 3c).
D3. Characterisation of land use structure
This part contains a fragment of orthophotmap illustrating the characteristic
land use structure of a given unit.
Part E. Synthesis of landscape features: natural and cultural heritage and
landscape physiognomy
The synthesis of landscape features of the unit provides a description of:
1. Leading features of land relief.
2. Land cover structure (based on the results of „landscape metrics”).
3. Values of natural heritage and forms of its protection.
4. Values of cultural heritage and forms of its protection.
5. Landscape physiognomy.
6. Threats to natural and landscape values (Fig. 3d).
Part F. Landscape feature canon of the unit
Landscape features of the unit, determining its „genius loci”, are aggre-
gated into five groups relating to:
1. Inanimate nature – leading forms of land relief, specific/rare geomor-
phological forms, character of the network of rivers.
2. Animate nature – character of various types of ecosystems.
3. Cultural heritage – character of historical objects and complexes, other
valuable objects and complexes, valuable examples of regional architecture.
4. Land use structure – character of dominant and complementary forms of
land cover, degree of anthropogenic transformation.
5. Landscape physiognomy – range of open vistas and view axes, exposi-
tion of panoramas, presence of viewing points (Fig. 3e).
Fig. 3c
D2. Set of indices concerning landscape structure („landscape metrics”)
D3. Characteristic land use structure
Indices
Class Area CA (C3)/Total Area
TA (L3)
Mean Class Area MCA \Mean Total
Area MTA
Class Area Standard Deviation CASD/
Total Area Standard Deviation TASD
Percentage of Landscape PLAND (C4)
Number of Patches NP (C5)/(L5)
Patch Density PD (C6)/(L)
Total Edge TE (C7)/(L7)
Mean Total Edge MTE
Edge Density ED (C8) / (L8)
Mean Shape Index Distribution
SHAPE_MN (C30) / (L30)
Mean Fractal Index Dimension
FRAC_MN (C36) / (L36)
Contagiom Index CONTAG (L115)
Patch Richness PR (L124)
Patch Richness Density PRD (L125)
Shannon's Diversity Index SHDI (L127)
Shannon's Evenness Index SHEI (L130)
Stagnant waters 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.003 2 0.12 148 74 0.09 1.25 1.09 X X X X X
Coniferous forests 1 330.4 266.09 327.44 78.51 5 0.29 83 812 16 762 49.39 2.80 1.15 X X X X X
Deciduous forests 126.58 12.66 11.96 7.47 10 0.59 28 576 2 858 16.84 2.04 1.12 X X X X X
Peatlands 17.87 4.47 1.81 1.05 4 0.24 5 976 1 494 3.52 1.78 1.11 X X X X X
Pastures and clearings 21.87 1.04 0.77 1.29 21 1.24 12 236 583 7.21 1.53 1.09 X X X X X
Meadows 183.74 20.42 26.58 10.84 9 0.53 35 996 3 999 21.21 2.15 1.12 X X X X X
Multi-ribbon field patterns 11.20 3.73 2.07 0.66 3 0.18 5 224 1 741 3.98 2.29 1.16 X X X X X
Belt-type tree stands 2.13 0.27 0.24 0.13 8 0.47 4 172 521.5 2.46 2.47 1.21 X X X X X
Farms 0.79 0.20 0.09 0.05 4 0.24 968 242 0.57 1.37 1.09 X X X X X
Whole unit 1694.6 25.68 144.25 X 66 3.89 103 940 1 575 61.25 1.93 1.12 82.43 9 0.53 0.77 0.35
Fig. 3d
E. Synthesis of landscape features: natural and cultural heritage and physiognomy of the land
Leading features
of land relief
Leading features
of lithology and soil cover
Water relations
Structure of land cover
Leading features
of patch types
Terrain gently sloping down to the west, with two forest-covered dunes.
Large maximum drop in elevation (Dm = 55)
Prevalence of surface sand formations (70%) with belts of peats and peat-like deposits
Mosaic of uniform types of soil cover
Upper section of river Gorajec with its spring area
Densely grouped individual trees (DrzNNR = 0.41)
Large length of river network (RzD = 16.77)
Low density of melioration ditches (RmG = 0.006)
Low density of hard-surfaced roads (RmG = 0.002)
Large length of dirt roads (DgD = 35.33)
Large total landscape surface area (CA = 1694.68)
Large mean patch size (MTA = 25.68)
Large number of patches in landscape (NP = 66)
Very large total length of patch boundaries (TE = 103940)
Very large number of various patch types in landscape (PR = 9)
Low density of patches in landscape (PRD = 0.53)
Very small area of patches of stagnant waters (CA = 0.05) and its mean value (MCA = 0.025)
Small area of belt tree patches and farms (CA = 2.13/0.79) and its mean value (MCA = 0.27/0.20)
Vary large area of coniferous forests (CA = 1330.45) and high mean value of the area (MCA = 266.09)
Very low percentage share of stagnant water patches and farms (PLAND = 0.003/0.05)
High percentage share of coniferous forest patches (PLAND = 78.51)
Low percentage share of multi-ribbon field patches and belt-like tree stands (PLAND = 0.66/0.13)
Small number of stagnant water patches (NP = 2)
Very small length of boundaries of stagnant water patches (TE = 148) and its mean value (MTE = 74)
Very big length of boundaries of coniferous forest patches (TE = 83812) and its mean value (MTE = 16762)
Big length of boundaries of meadow patches (TE = 35996)
Very low density of boundaries of stagnant water patches and farms (ED = 0.09/0.57)
Values of natural heritage Natural character of upper section of river Gorajec and its spring area.
Small waterlogged areas of meadows and peatlands.
Integrated complex of pine forests with local patches of alder and dry-ground forest along the river valley.
Numerous stands of rare, protected and endangered species:
Common sundew/D. rotundifolia (1)
Lesser spotted eagle/Aguila pomarina (1)
Western Capercaille/Tetrao urogallus (2)
Common crane/Grus grus (2)
Forms of protection of natural heritage The unit forms a part of Natura 2000 areas: OSO Solska Forest PLB060008 and SOO Ranges of Solska
Forest PLH060034
The whole unit is situated within the Szczebrzeszyński Landscape Park
The northern part belongs to the buffer zone of the Roztoczański National Park
Monument of inanimate nature – springs at the Chapel of St. Anthony
Object under ecological use: „Bog Tałandy”
Values of cultural heritage Sacral-spring complex: 19th century wooden log-structure shrine dedicated to St. Anthony.
Forms of protection of cultural heritage Communal list of protected objects: St. Anthony shrine in Trzęsiny
Landscape physiognomy Slightly rising terrain covered with a mosaic of coniferous and deciduous forests and meadows, with very
short reach of view openings.
Threats to natural and landscape values Current: overgrowing of meadows through natural succession; high-positioned power lines; degradation of
the environment through sewage dumping into surface waters and surface runoff from farming lands
Potential: regulation of rivers and melioration of wetlands; disappearance of wetlands and related
meadow-peatland ecosystems; construction of hard-surfaces roads dissecting integrated forest complex;
encroachment of fields and built-up areas onto forest lands
Fig. 3e
F. Canon of landscape features G. Aims to attain H. Guidelines for landscape conservation and management
Inanimate nature
Spring area of river Gorajec
Upper, predominantly natural section
of river Gorajec
Parabolic, forest-covered dunes
Animate nature
Patches of mid-forest peatbogs
and meadows
Adler communities and dry-ground
forest in river valley
Complex of pine forests
Partial restoration of natural water relations
in the region of Bog Tałandy
Conservation of the complex
of forest-covered dunes
Preservation and enrichment of biodiversity
of meadow communities
Preservation of peatland communities
Conservation of forests in the valley of river
Gorajec
Enhancement of age and species diversity
of the pine forests
Creation of a buffer zone along water
courses, ponds and peatbogs
Elaboration and implementation of conservation plan for the
Szczebrzeszyński Landscape Park
Damming of water outflow and creation of local flooded
areas in the region of former „Bog Tałandy”, removal of
a part of the tree stands on the recreated bog, restitution of
selected rare species
Ban on regulation of riverbed and supplying water courses.
Ban on sand exploitation
Ban on drainage of the land
Preservation of mowed meadow communities
Retardation of natural succession of trees and bushes onto
meadows and peatbogs
After realization of the program of restoration of „Bog
Tałandy”, consideration of possibility of giving it the status
of a nature reserve
Monitoring of rare bog-peatbog and meadow species
Forest management adapted to the requirements of land-
scape park and Natura 2000 site
Maintenance of high humidity of forest habitats
Observation of tree stand conformance with habitat
Introduction of lower floor of local deciduous trees and
bushes into pine stands
Monitoring of rare forest species (lesser spotted eagle,
capercaille, crane, among others)
Non-localisation of total felling areas along the river valley
and near the peatbogs
Cultural heritage
Wooden log-structure shrine dedicated to
St. Anthony, from the end of 19th cen-
tury, situated near mid-forest springs
Single farms surrounded with small
patches of fields
Land use structure
Mosaic of various forms of land cover
Large number of land cover patches
Domination of forest ecosystems (86%)
with numerous clearings
Moderate share of peatland and meadow
ecosystems (12%)
Very small share of arable fields and
built-up areas (0.7%)
Landscape physiognomy
View openings occur only in the
meadow area situated in the eastern part
of the unit
Exceptional architectural-landscape
interior created by the spring-sacral
complex in Trzęsiny
Aesthetic enhancement of the surroundings
of the shrine to St. Anthony
Preservation of the forest – meadow
– peatbog mosaic
Preservation of the view openings on the
meadows
Bringing into prominence the dominant of the
architectural-landscape interior of St. An-
thony shrine
Replacement of shrine roofing from eternit to shingle
Replacement of the spring area walling from the stone-
concrete wall to a naturalistic spatial composition of local
stone (marl)
Preservation of mid-forest peatbog enclaves
Ban on new building permits
Preservation of open meadow spaces
Elimination of tree and bush stands obscuring the most
interesting view axes and openings connecting the shrine
with the spring area niche and the water course valley
METHOD OF ELABORATION OF LANDSCAPE QUALITY OBJECTIVES 31
Part G. Aims to attain
For each of the five groups of features determining the „landscape feature
canon” of the unit a set of aims is formulated, related to the particular compo-
nents of landscape and concerning their protection, conservation/preservation,
enhancement/improvement of values, management, restoration, etc.
Part H. Guidelines for landscape conservation and management
Guidelines are provided for each of the aims, permitting the conservation,
restoration or achievement of the desired „landscape feature canon”. The guide-
lines relate to the principles of conservation and management of the particular
elements of landscape.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The developed method for the elaboration of landscape quality objec-
tives may have a great importance for the practice of landscape conservation and
management in Poland and in Europe.
2. Landscape quality objectives should include three components: 1) wor-
thy of preservation characteristic landscape features (canon); 2) other expected
features concerning landscape quality (objectives to be attained); 3) methods
for the attainment and conservation of the desired status of landscape (guide-
lines and instruments).
3. In the process of identification of landscape quality objectives a very
important element is to get to know the expectations of local communities and
tourists concerning the quality of landscape in which they would like to live and rest.
4. The pilot elaboration of LQO for the area of the projected „Roztocze-
Solska Forest” Biosphere Reserve revealed, among other things, what landscape
features are particularly important for the conservation and shaping of the unique
character of that region.
5. The elaborated LQO may constitute an important argument in favour of
urgent creation of that Reserve, and a valuable tool for the management of land-
scape conservation and balanced development of that area.
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Tadeusz J. Chmielewski and Barbara Sowińska
34
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godne zachowania, charakterystyczne cechy krajobrazu (kanon), 2) inne oczekiwane cechy doty-
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sjk obejmuje 10 etapów (w tym badania oczekiwań społeczności lokalnych), a wyniki prac zapi-
sywane są w postaci tzw. „kart krajobrazowych”. Opracowana metoda może mieć wielkie znacze-
nie dla praktyki ochrony i kształtowania krajobrazu w Polsce i Europie. Pilotażowe opracowanie
sjk dla obszaru projektowanego rezerwatu biosfery „Roztocze-Puszcza Solska” wykazało m. in.,
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charakteru tego regionu.
Słowa kluczowe: Europejska konwencja krajobrazowa, standardy jakości krajobrazu
... They should be defined for specific and characteristic landscapes of individual regions. The primary goal of LQOs was to secure high quality of landscapes on the European continent by the authorities of each country in collaboration with local communities (Chmielewski and Sowińska 2010). This requires determining which qualities are most worthy of concern (Arler 2000). ...
... Research on LQOs undertaken so far in different countries was conducted in relation to one natural region or administrative area (Nagu_ e and Sala 2006; Chmielewski and Sowińska 2010;Ramos 2010). A comparative analysis LQOs identified for different regions has not been done so far, and there are only a few comparative studies that reflect public preferences for different types of landscapes (for example, Sevenant and Antrop 2009). ...
... In Poland, studies of the development of methodological framework for LQOs identification started in 2006. It was assumed that LQOs should include three main components: 1. characteristic landscape features worthy of preservation (landscape canon); 2. other expected features concerning landscape quality (objectives to be attained); and 3. methods for the achievement and conservation of the desired status of landscape (guidelines and instruments) (Chmielewski and Sowińska 2010;Sowińska and Chmielewski 2011). ...
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Identifying and enhancing landscape, in: Proceedings from " Fifth meeting of the workshops for the implementation of the European Landscape Convention: Landscape quality objective: from theory to practice " . European Spatial Planning and Landscape
  • M Antrop
Antrop M., 2006. Identifying and enhancing landscape, in: Proceedings from " Fifth meeting of the workshops for the implementation of the European Landscape Convention: Landscape quality objective: from theory to practice ". European Spatial Planning and Landscape, No 84, Council of Europe Publishment, Girona, 10–12.
West Polesie Biospere Reserve: values, functioning, perspectives of development. Monograph of a region (in Polish). Wyd. Poleski Park Narodowy
  • T J Chmielewski
Chmielewski T.J. (red.) 2005. " West Polesie " Biospere Reserve: values, functioning, perspectives of development. Monograph of a region (in Polish). Wyd. Poleski Park Narodowy; Wojewoda Lubelski. Lublin-Urszulin, 1–206.
Landscape quality objectives of the projected Roztocze-Solska Forest Biosphere Reserve as an instrument of management of rural areas (in Polish) Doctoral dissertation written at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin under the direction of T
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Sowińska B., 2010. Landscape quality objectives of the projected " Roztocze-Solska Forest " Biosphere Reserve as an instrument of management of rural areas (in Polish). Doctoral dissertation written at the University of Life Sciences in Lublin under the direction of T.J. Chmielewski (unpublished material), pp. 256.
Landscape opportunities for territorial organization – LOTO, in: Proceedings from " Fifth meeting of the workshops for the implementation of the European Landscape Convention: Landscape quality objective: from theory to practice " . European Spatial Planning and Landscape
  • A Rossi
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Rossi A., Angrilli M., Scazzosi L., 2006. Landscape opportunities for territorial organization – LOTO, in: Proceedings from " Fifth meeting of the workshops for the implementation of the European Landscape Convention: Landscape quality objective: from theory to practice ". European Spatial Planning and Landscape, No 84, Council of Europe Publishment, Girona, 93–98.
Socio-ecological approach for landscape quality objectives identification and implementation on the area of two biosphere reserves
  • T J Chmielewski
  • B Sowińska
  • Ż Kozak
Chmielewski T.J., Sowińska B., Kozak Ż., 2010. Socio-ecological approach for landscape quality objectives identification and implementation on the area of two biosphere reserves, in: Krauze K., Mirtl M., Frenzel M. (eds), LTER Europe – the next generation of ecosystem research. A guide through European Long-Term Ecological Research Networks, Sites and Processes. Springer Verlag (in press).