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... The perceived unreliability of the difference score has also been associated with unrealistic assumptions of the classical test theory formula (Chiou & Spreng, 1996). According to Chiou and Spreng, measurement error can promote the reliability of the post-test score relative to the pre-test score, producing a condition in which the equal variance assumption is not met. ...
... Thus, the difference score is influenced differently by reliability and stability than the ANCOVA and residual change score methods. The stability of the measure is higher when the variance of the individual true change score is smaller; if the variance is kept small, the reliability of the difference score will also be very small (Chiou & Spreng, 1996). Petscher and Schatschneider (2011), following Rogosa (1995), used the variances between the pre-test and post-test scores to determine the functional form of change over time, but Kisbu-Sakarya et al. (2013) argued that this is an inaccurate measure and it instead should be a function of the pre-test and post-test correlation. ...
... However, it is important to recall that the correlation between the pre-test and post-test scores depends on the reliability of these scores (Chiou & Spreng, 1996;Zimmerman et al. 1993). It is also important to highlight that lower pre-test post-test correlations can reduce the power of the difference score method (Zhang et al., 2014). ...
... Equations (5) and (6) demonstrate that the correlation between the components seems to be a nuisance affecting the reliability of difference scores. Many studies (e.g., Chiou and Spreng, 1996;Edwards, 2001Edwards, , 2002 have revealed that, when component measurements are positively correlated, difference scores are less reliable than either component. However, if the correlation between the components is negative, the reliability of the difference score improves compared that of the components (Tisak and Smith, 1994). ...
... Burt and Obradović (2013), however, argued that criticisms of difference scores almost always have focused on situations in which the components themselves have equal numbers of both variances and reliabilities, which place an upper limit on the reliability of difference scores. Chiou and Spreng (1996) also found that the unequal standard deviations of the components can significantly improve the reliability of the difference score, especially when the correlation between the components is high (Peter et al., 1993). Moreover, some studies (Burt and Obradović, 2013;Rogosa et al., 1982;Rogosa and Willett, 1983;Tisak and Smith, 1994) have even defended the use of difference scores, particularly when the individual difference in true change is appreciable. ...
... (3) through (6), have clearly demonstrated, and some scholars (e.g., Chiou and Spreng, 1996;Edwards, 2001Edwards, , 2002Tisak and Smith, 1994) have also found, the relationships between the reliability of the difference score and the reliabilities and correlations of the two component variables, so two hypotheses were asserted. ...
... Hence, poor reliability of interference scores is not uncommon and has also been described for other interference tasks (Paap et al. 2020). More importantly, poor reliability of a difference score should not affect significance testing, but rather the magnitude of the effect size in the repeated measures ANOVAs used for further analyses (Chiou and Spreng 1996;Thomas and Zumbo 2012). Basic mathematical assumptions of the ANOVA are not violated by poor reliability of a difference score. ...
The cognitive control dilemma describes the necessity to balance two antagonistic modes of attention: stability and flexibility. Stability refers to goal-directed thought, feeling, or action and flexibility refers to the complementary ability to adapt to an ever-changing environment. Their balance is thought to be maintained by neurotransmitters such as dopamine, most likely in a U-shaped rather than linear manner. However, in humans, studies on the stability-flexibility balance using a dopaminergic agent and/or measurement of brain dopamine are scarce.
The study aimed to investigate the causal involvement of dopamine in the stability-flexibility balance and the nature of this relationship in humans.
Distractibility was assessed as the difference in reaction time (RT) between distractor and non-distractor trials in a visual search task. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, 65 healthy participants performed the task under placebo and a dopamine precursor (L-DOPA). Using ¹⁸ F-DOPA-PET, dopamine availability in the striatum was examined at baseline to investigate its relationship to the RT distractor effect and to the L-DOPA-induced change of the RT distractor effect.
There was a pronounced RT distractor effect in the placebo session that increased under L-DOPA. Neither the RT distractor effect in the placebo session nor the magnitude of its L-DOPA-induced increase were related to baseline striatal dopamine.
L-DOPA administration shifted the stability-flexibility balance towards attentional capture by distractors, suggesting causal involvement of dopamine. This finding is consistent with current theories of prefrontal cortex dopamine function. Current data can neither confirm nor falsify the inverted U-shaped function hypothesis with regard to cognitive control.
... Consumer satisfaction is regarded as the experience of a consumer of a product over its services. If the ratings are high, some level of satisfaction is said to be achieved (Chiou & Spreng, 1996). Satisfaction is measured in subjective terms, varying from one consumer to the other, based on his/her psychological or physical satisfaction or both (Dave, 2009). ...
Electricity supply is an important factor in the socioeconomic development of any country. In spite of its importance to the household sector and the economic growth of Nigeria, not much investigation has been done on its service delivery. Thus, this study looks beyond connectivity to the factors affecting households' satisfaction with electricity supply. The study utilizes GHS data for 2019, which was analysed using a descriptive and logistic regression model. The results show that though 50% of households in Nigeria had access to electricity, only 25% had a prepaid meter. The reliability and duration of electricity in a day showed some variability due to variations in the hours of light in different areas in the country. Also, about 25% of households have had an issue with the quality of electricity while it takes days or even up to a week for PHCN staff to respond to health and safety issues. The mean monthly expenditure on electricity bills was N = 1,532. With regard to the logistic model, the result revealed that duration and quality of electricity supply were positively related to satisfaction at 1% respectively while on the contrary, reliability, health, safety and affordability were negatively related to satisfaction, but all were significant at 1%. In general, the majority of households in Nigeria (75%) are not satisfied with the services of PHCN. Thus, the study recommends that PHCN should enhance reliability by increasing the duration of electricity supply. Also, it should re-evaluate the monthly bills of households, improve the quality of the electricity it supplies, and reduce the response time relating to health and safety issues.
... 7 A major reason for this lack of between-participants variance is the subtraction methodology employed in calculating dependent variables in many experimental tasks. Difference scores and measures relying upon them have been criticized by psychometricians for their unreliability (Cronbach & Furby, 1970;Edwards, 2001;Paap & Sawi, 2016), which is a by-product of the correlation of their components (Chiou & Spreng, 1996). The components of an attention control task (e.g. ...
This chapter outlines the executive attention theory of higher-order cognition, which argues that individual differences in the ability to maintain information in working memory and disengage from irrelevant information is inextricably linked to variation in the ability to deploy domain-free attentional resources in a goal-directed fashion. It also summarizes recent addendums to the theory, particularly regarding the relationship between attention control, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence. Specifically, the chapter argues that working memory capacity and fluid intelligence measures require different allocations of the same attentional resources, a fact which accounts for their strong correlation. At various points, it addresses theoretical alternatives to the executive attention theory of working memory capacity and empirical complications of the study of attention control, including difficulties deriving coherent attention control latent factors.
... The problem for individual differences research is that a difference score is necessarily less reliable than its components, resulting in less between-subjects variance and therefore attenuated correlations. 1 Difference scores that are low in reliability can counterintuitively result in an increase in power in analysis of variance-based tests so long as the component scores are reliable (Chiou & Spreng, 1996;Overall & Woodward, 1975). In other words, maximizing power in testing for group differences and maximizing power (reliability) in assessing individual differences are at odds with each other. ...
Cognitive tasks that produce reliable and robust effects at the group level often fail to yield reliable and valid individual differences. An ongoing debate among attention researchers is whether conflict resolution mechanisms are task-specific or domain-general, and the lack of correlation between most attention measures seems to favor the view that attention control is not a unitary concept. We have argued that the use of difference scores, particularly in reaction time (RT), is the primary cause of null and conflicting results at the individual differences level, and that methodological issues with existing tasks preclude making strong theoretical conclusions. The present article is an empirical test of this view in which we used a toolbox approach to develop and validate new tasks hypothesized to reflect attention processes. Here, we administered existing, modified, and new attention tasks to over 400 participants (final N = 396). Compared with the traditional Stroop and flanker tasks, performance on the accuracy-based measures was more reliable, had stronger intercorrelations, formed a more coherent latent factor, and had stronger associations to measures of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. Further, attention control fully accounted for the relationship between working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. These results show that accuracy-based measures can be better suited to individual differences investigations than traditional RT tasks, particularly when the goal is to maximize prediction. We conclude that attention control is a unitary concept. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Prior work suggests that imagining helping others increases prosocial intentions and behavior towards those individuals. But is this true for everyone, or only for those who tend towards – or away from – helping more generally? The current study (N=283) used an imagined helping paradigm and a battery of behavioral and self‐report measures of trait prosociality to determine whether the prosocial benefits of imagination depend upon an individual’s general tendency to help others. Replicating prior work, we found links between imagination and prosociality and support for a three‐factor model of prosociality comprising altruistically, norm‐motivated, and self‐reported prosocial behaviors. Centrally, the effects of imagination on prosociality were slightly larger for less altruistic individuals but independent of norm‐motivated and self‐reported prosociality. These results suggest leveraging people’s abilities for episodic simulation as a promising strategy for increasing prosociality in general, and perhaps particularly for those least likely to help otherwise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Research on the relationship between personality traits and cognitive abilities has primarily used cross-sectional designs and considered personality traits individually in relation to cognitive dimensions. This study (N = 2652) examined the relationship between Big Five personality change profiles and change in cognitive factors, episodic memory and executive functioning. Latent profile analysis was used to capture patterns of change across the Big Five traits. Three profiles of personality change were defined: Decreasers, Maintainers, and Increasers. The Decreasers declined more in episodic memory compared to the Increasers and Maintainers. Also, the Decreasers declined more in executive functioning compared to the Increasers, but not the Maintainers. The findings advance our understanding of the links between patterns of personality change and cognitive aging.
Customers are the important stakeholders in an organization and their
satisfaction is most important for any organization. Customer
satisfaction has been a subject of great interest to organizations and
researchers. Customers are becoming most important in today's
business. In today's environment companies need to obliged customers
by providing more services in addition to what they are providing as
offerings. The objective of any organization is to maximize its profit
and minimize cost. Profit can be maximizing by increasing sales. One
of the important factors that help to increase sales is customer
satisfaction. Now the question arise what are the various services
organizations are offering to the customers? Are the customers
satisfied with these services? What are the various dimensions of
services? What is the impact of these service dimensions on customer
Most of the researchers think that service quality is related to customer
satisfaction. They used service quality dimensions to evaluate service
quality. The aim of the paper is to find out the relationship between
customer satisfaction & service quality in Indian call centers with
respect to the service quality dimensions.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.