Article

The experience economy: work is theatre & every business a stage: goods and services are no longer enough

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  • Strategic Horizons
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... Nowadays, consumers are in search of experiences that 'dazzle their senses', 'engage them personally', 'touch their hearts' and 'stimulate their minds' (Schmitt, 1999) whilst indulging in 'fantasies, feelings and fun' (Holbrook & Hirschman, 1982). As a result, numerous authors have underlined the relevance of creating extraordinary customer experiences as a strategy to create value, to give companies a sustainable competitive advantage and to foster customers' satisfaction, loyalty and positive word-of-mouth (Pine & Gilmore, 1998;Berry, Carbone, & Haeckel, 2002;Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2004;Shaw & Ovens, 2005;Naylor, Kleiser, Baker, & Yorkston, 2008). ...
... This research focuses on event experiences as distinct from our day-to-day experiences, happening outside the context of 'normal' life (Walls, Okumus, Wang, & Kwun, 2011). Experiences in general are seen as a sharp contrast to everyday life (Pine & Gilmore, 1998) and leisure and tourist experiences are often viewed as unique and special (Manell & Iso-Ahola, 1987), extraordinary (Morgan, Lugosi, & Ritchie, 2010) or 'peak experiences' (Quan & Wang, 2004), taking place outside the 'usual environment' and 'contracted time' (Volo, 2010). Experiences have been conceptualised in a variety of ways, including approaches based on motivations for experiences (Elands & Lengkeek, 2000), such as Cohen's (1979) tourists' experiences modes, or Vespestad and Lindberg's (2011) nature-based tourism experience categories. ...
... Experiences produce outcomes, such as satisfaction, emotions, cognition and behaviour. After all, the individual is also affected by the experience (Snell, 2011) and researchers agree that experiences trigger a multitude of emotion, physical, cognitive and spiritual recreation (Pine & Gilmore, 1998, 1999Walls et al., 2011). ...
Article
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The purpose of research presented in this paper is to determine how selected characteristics of a city event affect the satisfaction of visitors. In particular, the aim is to identify factors related to event atmospherics that determine visitor satisfaction in the city destination in continental part of Croatia. For this purpose, questionnaire was created based on previously conducted research by Bitner (1992), Oliver (1980, 1997), Baker and Crompton (2000), and Lee, Lee, Lee, and Babin (2008). It comprised measures for assessing event atmospherics, visitor satisfaction, and demographic characteristics of the respondents. The research was conducted among visitors of a city event that takes place every year during December 2018. A total of 191 questionnaires were obtained during the one-month period. Principal component analysis was utilised to determine the factor structure of city event atmospherics. In addition, multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine which factors may serve as predictors of visitor satisfaction in city event context. As a result, the analyses revealed four factors related to city event atmospherics. In addition, these factors positively and significantly affected visitor satisfaction, indicating that they have important role in determining visitor satisfaction in a city event context. These findings can contribute to the knowledge advancement of the city events, their influence on tourist satisfaction, and consequently, to better understand specific groups of visitors as well as establish efficient marketing and promotion strategies.
... Facing the fierce competition of the global tourism industry, especially with the advent of the experience economy (Pine and Gilmore, 1998), destination marketing organization have to highly emphasized and concerned with tourism experience. The shift to developing marketing strategies based on experience has presented a fundamental challenge to marketers, namely, understanding and distinguishing the salient features of tourism experience (Perdue, 2002) to better shape, package, and sell those experiences. ...
... Among the models to measure experience, one stands out for its operational design-the experience economy model known as the classic 4Es, proposed by Pine and Gilmore (1998) and widely applied in various industrial backgrounds. Oh et al. (2007) first applied the model in a tourism context and developed a measurement scale based on it (i.e., entertainment, aesthetics, escapism, and education), which can be applicable to tourism research across various destinations. ...
... Authenticity is indispensable for a meaningful experience (Hargrove, 2002). Moreover, the best real-time experience can create and enhance the maximum value of personal development (i.e., authenticity of existence) for consumers (Pine and Gilmore, 1998). In rural tourism, authenticity is based on the genuineness and verisimilitude of the rural area (Loureiro, 2014). ...
Article
This study (1) compares the tourists’ expectation and experience in China’s rural destinations, and (2) examines the (dis)confirmation effects of such comparisons on tourists’ assessments of overall travel experience, memorability, and authenticity. A total of 1323 valid responses were analyzed to test the proposed model. PLS-SEM results demonstrated that tourists’ expectation-experience (dis)confirmation had a main effect on travel experience, memorability, and authenticity. Moreover, the results from pairwise comparisons indicated that, travelers with high expectations and a high-quality experience had the highest evaluation of their overall visit experience, memorability, and authenticity. Whereas, travelers with low expectations and a low-quality experience showed the poorest assessment. Many practical and theoretical implications for destination marketing and management are discussed based on the study’s findings.
... It has long been noted that consumers value the consumption process and the consumption experience itself (e.g., Holbrook and Hirschman 1982;Pine and Gilmore 1999). In recent years, technological innovation has changed the focus of consumption from material to experience (Morewedge et al. 2021). ...
... Several streams of value-related research have focused on the contextual and experiential nature of value creation and determination and have shifted their primary interest to the importance of value-in-use rather than exchange value (Vargo et al. 2017). The hedonic nature of consumption, with its emphasis on value-in-use, has long been noted (e.g., Holbrook and Hirschman 1982), along with how consumers value the experience of consumption itself (Pine and Gilmore 1999). In recent years, owing to technological innovation, experiences are replacing material goods as the focus of consumption (Morewedge et al. 2021). ...
... This indicates that assets accumulated in the past (Kayoi culture) can become a source of significant competitive advantage. However, it is more important to create Fig. 3 Value co-creation framework using rhetorical history a new relationship with customers by giving them experiential value (Pine and Gilmore 1999). This requires using assets accumulated in the past in a new and innovative manner and not merely as they are. ...
Article
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This study explores the value co-creation framework to revive tradition-bound products using rhetorical history and service-dominant logic. This framework shows the effects of using historical significance to enable value co-creation in a new ecosystem by engaging consumers and local communities without eliminating their traditions. Existing studies merely discuss the methodology of a rhetorical emphasis on the authenticity of traditional industrial firms’ history to attract customers. This study explains the motivation to engage in value co-creation to transform tradition-bound businesses. Through these processes, businesses’ boundaries are thawed, and the customer becomes the advocate and thus, the driver of reviving tradition-bound products.
... For example, Otto and Ritchie (1996) proposed four dimensions of service experience in the context of hotels, airlines, and tours: hedonics, peace of mind, involvement, and recognition. Pine and Gilmore (1998) proposed the 4Es (i.e., entertainment, educational, esthetic, and escapist), a four-dimensional experience economy model intended to measure consumer experience in the business environment. In the travel and hospitality field, Oh et al. (2007) developed a scale based on the 4Es to analyze lodging experiences in the accommodation sector which measures entertainment (passive absorption), aesthetics (passive immersion), escapism (active immersion), and education (active absorption). ...
... Creative tourist experience and perceived memorability Customer experiences have the capacity to be uniquely memorable (Pine & Gilmore, 1998), and creating memorable experiences is a logical nexus of service industry/ experiential marketing research, including research on the tourism experience. According to Gilmore and Pine (2007), memorability is an important outcome of travel experiences. ...
... Authenticity is indispensable for a meaningful experience (Hargrove, 2002). The best real-time experience is argued to create and enhance the maximum value of personal development (i.e., authenticity of existence) for consumers (Pine & Gilmore, 1998). Cooper, Sherman, Rauthmann, Serfass, and Brow (2018) study of 210 participants supported that positive tourist experience enhance the perception of authenticity. ...
Article
This study aims to investigate the impact of tourist experience on tourists’ perception of memorability and authenticity in the context of creative tourism. A total of 574 valid responses were collected on site in the Tianzifang district, Shanghai. The findings identified a second-order construct of creative experience with five dimensions: escape, recognition, relaxation, interactivity, and learning. Using PLS-SEM, the study found creative tourist experience has a positive impact on memorability and authenticity. The study findings provide valuable implications for creative tourism practitioners and policymakers as well as contribute to the scarce literature body of creative tourism, authenticity, and memorability.
... The development factors of ports and destinations will change under the influence of globalisation, changing trends and economics, which will affect their perception and change their value. Experience is the last stage in the evolution of the economy, which aims to obtain maximum value from the market (Pine and Gilmore 1999). ...
... The lowest price is achieved when we offer a mass product, the highest when the product or service produces the strongest sensation and causes a change in customer's behaviour. The increase in the willingness to pay is a response to products and services that meet individual preferences that are tailored to the needs of customers (Pine and Gilmore 1999). Therefore, it follows that the services will undergo constant transformation under the influence of external and internal factors, which will influence the demand and value of goods and services offered on the market. ...
... The price increases when goods and services are produced from them. The experience and emotions are at the highest premium level (Pine and Gilmore 1999). The purchaser's experience refers to emotional, physical, intellectual and spiritual involvement in the consumption of products and services. ...
Article
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The cruise market is a constantly growing but cities are only marginally profiting from the cruise ships as tourists most money spent on the ships. The aim of the article is to point to the concept of researching the needs of tourists using expert research. The research methods used to stimulate the imaginations of the study participants were service design and its tools. The article indicates how important it is to think in the design context while designing a city and its tourist offer. Insights from the research shows how important are to deliver added value for users as in typical product.
... The relation between tourism experiences and value co-creation has been studied by researchers for some time now (Pine and Gilmore, 1998;Haahti, 2006;Vargo and Lusch, 2008;Azevedo, 2009;Binkhorst and Den Dekker, 2009;Grönroos, 2011;Grönroos and Voima, 2012;Tan et al., 2013, Andrades andCampos et al., 2018;Chen, 2018). ...
... Theoretical Background Consumers no longer buy service delivery and quality, today they buy experiences and memories (Hemmington, 2007;Walls et al., 2011). The progression to an experience economy was identified by Pine and Gilmore (1998) who noted that experiences had emerged as the fourth step in the progression of economic value following on from commodities, goods and services. Corresponding with the economic progression, the way consumers interact with the offerings changed. ...
... Corresponding with the economic progression, the way consumers interact with the offerings changed. Whilst commodities, goods and services are external to the consumer, experiences are internal, created in the mind of the consumer, as they are engaged on an emotional, intellectual and often spiritual level (Pine & Gilmore, 1998;Pullman & Gross, 2004, Oh, Fiore & Jeoung, 2007Smith & Colgate, 2007;Bastiaansen et al., 2018). Bastiaansen et al. (2018) assert that emotions are the core building blocks of experiences, thus, experiences are only memorable when they evoke emotions. ...
... On top of this, it remains to be seen to what degree processes of luxury hotels such as Ritz Carleton and traditional "experience stagers" as Pine and Gilmore call them-such as Disney (cf. Pine & Gilmore, 1999) do resemble, or have to resemble, theatrical production processes. Consequently, if we want to get more insight in "experiences" in the field of SOM, an issue that can have our attention is a further investigation into the operational process of these offerings. ...
... In the following section, I will summarize the different concepts of an experience this paper has come up with, and conclude in the final section by proposing a small research agenda that becomes more feasible now that the concept of "experience" is better delineated. § 2 Different concepts of experiences First, let us return to the concept "experiences", as it is coined by Pine and Gilmore (1998;1999). Based on their definition of experiences as personal and memorable economic offerings (cf. ...
... Based on their definition of experiences as personal and memorable economic offerings (cf. Pine & Gilmore, 1999) experiences can be discerned on an axis that ranges from absorption (the experience just enters the mind of the customer) to immersion (the customer physically enters the experience) and from active to passive participation. This results in four basic types of experiences. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper focuses on the issue that despite the surge in interest in “experiences”, both inside and outside Service Operations Management, the concept “experience” itself is still not adequately defined, thus confusing the distinctions between on the one hand “experiential” ways of marketing and on the other hand “experientially” producing services and goods that by themselves may not be experiences. Building on the “unified services theory” of Sampson and Froehle (2006) it is argued that all “experiences” have as a necessary feature the concurrent physical or virtual presence of the customer. Furthermore, it is proposed that a quintessential condition for an “experience” is that at least part of the production design explicitly aims at the emotional engagement of the customer. The proposed ”experience” concept is distinguished from theoretical concepts such as “experiential ways of marketing products and services” (Kotler, Wong, Saunders, & Armstrong, 2005; Schmitt, 1999a, , 1999b) and “co-creation experiences”(Prahalad & Ramaswamy, 2004). Further research and managerial implications are discussed.
... Experience in the festival context is a complex phenomenon, which needs to be systematically and comprehensively analyzed (Getz 2007). As a complex phenomenon, Pine and Gilmore (1998) divide it in two dimensions as the two most of important, guest participation (on the horizontal axis) and one that describes the kind of connection or environmental relationship (on the vertical axis). These two dimensions are commonly called as experience realms. ...
... Some customers may perceive participant in event or festival could be a once-in-a lifetime experience (Slåtten, Krogh, & Connolley, 2011). Those assumption supports Pine and Gilmore (1998), which stated that the orientation of the experience industry has shifted signifi cantly away from creating potential spectators to creating possibilities for participators. The second dimension (vertical) of Pine and Gilmore (1999) experience realms describes the kind of connection, or environmental relationship, that unites customers with the event or performances which is absorb and immerse. ...
... Providing satisfactory experience to attendees is the key for the long-term success of festivals (Cole & Illum, 2006). Pine and Gilmore (1998) proposed the context of evaluating the experiences generated by dimension which infl uences the richness of experience in business offerings through customer level of participation (active or passive) as well as forms of connection (immersion or absorption) in the event. The orientation of the experience industry has shifted signifi cantly away from creating potential spectators to creating possibilities for participators (Pine & Gilmore, 1998). ...
Article
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The study aimed to analyze the role of participation in creating memorable tourism experience in Cap Go Meh festival and Linggarjati festival to create loyal visitors. This study used a questionnaire of 42 questions on 5-point Likert-scale ranged from one to five range (1 = strongly disagree up to 5= strongly agree) to the festival visitors after the event. The data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and the structural model using regression analysis. It showed that the visitors have different motives to attend and take a part in the festival. The group socializationhas a positive effect on participation, which lead to immersion, then influences vivid memory and loyalty in Cap Go Meh while novelty has a positive effect on participation in Lingarjati vestival, which lead to immersion, then influences vivid memory and loyalty. Practicaly, it implied that this study has the benefit for event manager to understand the visitors characteristics. Cap Go Meh festival can be higher in group socialization. Event manager should facilitate visitors to participate as a group on God Statue parade. In Linggarjati, the visitors gain the novelty of historical site and city history merge with the stage of angklung -traditional music instrument- colossal
... During the participatory processes for the construction of the new experiences to be proposed to the tourists, we shared with the local actors the Pine and Gilmore (1999) model for the economy of experiences. The latter was the basis of the categorization we made, with special reference to the need for higher or lower physical involvement of the tourists in more active or passive experiences. ...
... The latter was the basis of the categorization we made, with special reference to the need for higher or lower physical involvement of the tourists in more active or passive experiences. Four categories were identified (Pine and Gilmore 1999): entertainment, education, aesthetic and escapist, which are referred to as the "4Es". The 4Es form permeable quadrants that reflect positions along two continua of experiences. ...
Article
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Abstract Marginal rural areas are undergoing major pressures from the effects of globalization, especially when no alternative has been found to conventional extensive agriculture and a lack of investments and vision squeezes the income of farmers. The objective of the paper is to show how Integrated Supply Chain Projects (Progetti Integrati di Filiera (PIF)), Italian rural policy tools funded in the framework of EU’s Rural Development Policy, can integrate supply chain innovation and territorial integrated strategies, fostering a multifunctional development of marginal rural areas towards a newly discovered identity. The case study is the PIF “Flora Aromatica Santa Luce” funded by the Tuscany Regional Administration RDP in 2016. The project aims at creating a new supply chain of organic aromatic plants in the Santa Luce Valley (PI). The integration is based, on the one side, on the creation and valorization of the new supply chain product, represented by an organic cosmetic line made with lavender essential oil, and, on the other side, on the territorial development of the Valley, in an economic, social, environmental and touristic perspective. From a theoretical point of view, the approach used was based on the new rural development paradigm, assuming that the processes of broadening, deepening and regrounding, together compose the main axis of rural development. The canvas model was used in order to identify a business model for the new supply chain and the territorial development of the area, while, at the methodological level, a participatory action research (PAR) approach was adopted. Results show how a supply chain project (like a PIF) can enhance innovation and stable commercial relationships within the supply chain and support processes of vertical and horizontal coordination, but also stimulate extended territorial strategies supporting the integration processes between agriculture, processing and other economic activities following a territorial multifunctional development logic. At the same time, key benefits for the policymaker and local administrations can also be identified in particular for marginal rural areas where farmers and other local actors are weaker and collective action is more difficult. Thanks to the PAR approach, a PIF can stimulate participation of farmers to relevant RDP measures but also allow convergence of individual actions towards wider regional and local strategic objectives.
... Experiences arising through emotional stimulation [11], aesthetic design, and involvement during the process will be the foundation for building strong relationships between consumers and brands, stores, services, or products. The industry creates unique and creative design ideas to enhance customer experience, so the aesthetic economy is born [12]. One of the industries is the restaurant industry which is marked by the emergence of themed restaurants. ...
... H3. There is a direct relationship between emotional value and purchase intention Customers consider novelty aspects when evaluating products or services [12]. When consumers judge a product is unique and different from other products, it will motivate them to make purchases. ...
... Kim et al. (2012) define an MTE as one that is positively recalled after the event. Conversely, some studies indicate that negative experiences are also a critical component of MTEs (Coudounaris and Sthapit, 2017;Kensinger, 2007;Larsen and Jenssen, 2004;Park & Santos, 2017;Pine and Gilmore, 1998;Sthapit, 2013). For example, Larsen and Jenssen (2004) report that even though respondents remembered positive emotions significantly more than negative ones, they remembered both positive and negative emotions from their tourism experiences. ...
... In addition, Kensinger's (2007) study indicates that negative experiences boost not only a memory's subjective vividness, but also the likelihood that event details will be remembered. Moreover, Pine and Gilmore (1998) state that poor service easily becomes an experience, creating a memorable encounter of a negative kind. Kim et al. (2012) identify seven dimensions (hedonism, novelty, knowledge, meaningfulness, involvement, local culture and refreshment) that lead to strong memorability. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to test Kim et al. ’s (2012) seven-dimension memorable tourism experience (MTE) scale in a new context and with a new sample. In addition, the study aims to test for causes or relationships between satisfaction, MTE dimensions, co-creative tourism experiences and memorability, as well as the mediating effect of memorability on tourists’ behavioural intention. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a cross-sectional survey design using a questionnaire to collect data. Three trained interviewers questioned international travellers in the boarding area in Olbia-Costa Smeralda Airport while they were waiting to board their flights home. The interviewers also distributed and administered the questionnaires. The questionnaire was in English. Data collection was carried out from August to October 2017. Findings In terms of the theoretical implications of this study, its findings result in a different MTE construct than that of Kim et al. ’s (2012) study. Although they discuss seven important experiential tourism factors that are likely to affect the memorability of a person’s experience, what emerges from the present research is that satisfaction, novelty, refreshment, involvement and knowledge significantly influence the memorability of a tourist’s experience. Research limitations/implications This study has some limitations. First, it is highly site-specific and based on a convenience sample, rendering the findings non-generalizable to either the destination under investigation or any other tourism destination. Further studies should be conducted in other Mediterranean cities to generalise the significance of these findings. Although English can be considered the primary international language, the fact that the survey has been written only in English could have excluded non-English speakers from participating in the study. In addition, the study has not considered national domestic tourists. In the future, translating the survey into different languages and interviewing domestic tourists visiting the island might be useful. Practical implications Tourism service providers could gather feedback forms from tourists to measure and improve their satisfaction. Additionally, the multiplicity of actors involved in the tourism sector should coordinate and cooperate with one another to create tourism experiences that result in high overall visitor satisfaction. Tourism service providers could also offer new and diverse encounters, for example, the chance to attend local festivals to arouse curiosity, as studies suggest that such novel activities make the experiences particularly memorable. Public officials should also focus on site rejuvenation to appeal to novelty seekers who have visited previously. Originality/value Overall, the study highlights the discrepancies in the effects of satisfaction, MTE dimensions and co-creative tourism experience on the memorability of a trip experience in relation to previous studies. The results of the analysis refute the assumption that the seven MTE dimensions are representative across a variety of destination-specific tourist experiences. Besides the identified five dimensions, opening up the discussion on other factors that might influence the memorability of tourists’ experiences presents an updated agenda.
... Holbrook and Hirschman first introduced the influential idea that consumer behavior has an experiential dimension Holbrook and Hirschman 1982), postulating experience as an alternative to a purely cognitive information processing view. Since then, there has been increasing recognition among academics Hulten, Broweus, and van Dijk 2009;Krishna 2010;Schmitt 1999) and practitioners (Lindstrom 2005;Lindstrom 2008;Underhill 2009) of the importance of subjective experiences, and among them sensory experiences (Pine and Gilmore 1999;Pine and Gilmore 2002;Schmitt 1999). In line with this, Krishna (2012) has defined sensory marketing as being "marketing that engages the consumers' senses and affects their perception, judgment, and behavior". ...
... Holbrook and Hirschman first introduced the influential idea that consumer behavior has an experiential dimension Holbrook and Hirschman 1982), postulating experience as an alternative to a purely cognitive information processing view. Since then, there has been increasing recognition among academics Hulten, Broweus, and van Dijk 2009;Krishna 2010;Schmitt 1999) and practitioners (Lindstrom 2005;Lindstrom 2008;Underhill 2009) of the importance of subjective experiences, and among them sensory experiences (Pine and Gilmore 1999;Pine and Gilmore 2002;Schmitt 1999). In line with this, Krishna (2012) has defined sensory marketing as being "marketing that engages the consumers' senses and affects their perception, judgment, and behavior". ...
Article
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Consumers can use alternative methods to interact with or access a brand through their mobile devices. They can type a response using a touchscreen keyboard (touch interaction) or use voice response while holding a mobile device (combined voice and touch interaction). In this study, we look at the impact of these different types of interaction on personal engagement and the effect on brand trust as relevant concerns to managers in the digital, mediated context. Using a framework based on sensory marketing and Dual Coding Theory, we conducted 2 one-way between-subjects experiments with a two-level interface interaction considering a hedonic product (Experiment 1) and utilitarian product (Experiment 2). Findings confirm a three-way interaction such that the impact of privacy concern on the relationship between personal engagement and trust depends on the nature of the platform interaction; touch vs. combined touch and voice. We also find that adding voice to the platform interface has the counterintuitive effect of reducing engagement with that platform. All in all, our results provide novel insights into the role of touch and voice in the online context when it comes to consumers' decision-making.
... Kim, Ritchie and McCormick (2012) define an MTE as one that is positively recalled after the event. Conversely, some studies indicate that negative experiences are also a critical component of MTEs (Coudounaris & Sthapit, 2017;Kensinger, 2007;Larsen & Jenssen, 2004;Park & Santos, 2017;Pine & Gilmore, 1998;Sthapit, 2013). For example, Larsen and Jenssen (2004) report that even though respondents remembered positive emotions significantly more than negative ones, they remembered both positive and negative emotions from their tourism experiences. ...
... In addition, Kensinger's (2007) study indicates that negative experiences boost not only a memory's subjective vividness, but also the likelihood that event details will be remembered. Moreover, Pine and Gilmore (1998) state that poor service easily becomes an experience, creating a memorable encounter of a negative kind. Kim et al. (2012) identify seven dimensions (hedonism, novelty, knowledge, meaningfulness, involvement, local culture and refreshment) that lead to strong memorability. ...
... The performances were created using the Experience Economy theoretical framework. It emerged in the last 30years as the dominant engine of economic activity it was propounded by Pine and Gilmore and states that "Work is Theatre and every business a stage" (Pine II et al., 2019). In other words, all businesses must orchestrate memorable events for their customers. ...
... The authors draw from a mix of varied examples to demonstrate their theory. They urge managers to look beyond traditional pricing factors like time and cost and consider charging for the value of transformation that an experience offers (Pine II et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Calabar, a coastal town in South-South Nigeria, has had a long-standing history of cultural tourist-oriented theatre performances. And today, its image as a tourist city has grown in leaps because of the Christmas Festival (A 32-day entertainment art and cultural events) it hosts annually plus other tourism products or attractions that complement the festival. Carnival seems to be a major attraction. Other attractions are not emphasized. This study explored how tourism-oriented theatres can be developed to add to existing attractions and increase varieties for tourists. The study used a combination of research methods including experiential theatre performances, participant observation, and focus group discussion. Findings show that local culture and arts and creative industries i.e., theatre can be used to promote destinations and enhance their attractiveness. They can help build the image of the city and promote indigenous arts and culture. This research significantly models the utility of theatre in the service of tourism and urban development. Some key recommendations this research makes include, the collaboration of the tourism industry, the performing arts sectors, and private business owners. Creating demand and market for specially packaged theatre products for tourists working with travel agencies to ensure that theatre is taken from the mainstream to the tourists.
... The performances were created using the Experience Economy theoretical framework. It emerged in the last 30years as the dominant engine of economic activity it was propounded by Pine and Gilmore and states that "Work is Theatre and every business a stage" (Pine II et al., 2019). In other words, all businesses must orchestrate memorable events for their customers. ...
... The authors draw from a mix of varied examples to demonstrate their theory. They urge managers to look beyond traditional pricing factors like time and cost and consider charging for the value of transformation that an experience offers (Pine II et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Calabar, a coastal town in South-South Nigeria, has had a long-standing history of cultural tourist-oriented theatre performances. And today, its image as a tourist city has grown in leaps because of the Christmas Festival (A 32-day entertainment art and cultural events) it hosts annually plus other tourism products or attractions that complement the festival. Carnival seems to be a major attraction. Other attractions are not emphasized. This study explored how tourism-oriented theatres can be developed to add to existing attractions and increase varieties for tourists. The study used a combination of research methods including experiential theatre performances, participant observation, and focus group discussion. Findings show that local culture and arts and creative industries i.e., theatre can be used to promote destinations and enhance their attractiveness. They can help build the image of the city and promote indigenous arts and culture. This research significantly models the utility of theatre in the service of tourism and urban development. Some key recommendations this research makes include, the collaboration of the tourism industry, the performing arts sectors, and private business owners. Creating demand and market for specially packaged theatre products for tourists working with travel agencies to ensure that theatre is taken from the mainstream to the tourists.
... In general, tourism is highly dependent on customer experiences and quality services, although the tourism industry has often been criticized for offering staged instead of integrated services and experiences (e.g., MacCannell, 1973;Pine & Gilmore, 1999;Sørensen & Jensen, 2015). The design methods used in tourism are experience design methods (see e.g. ...
... The design methods used in tourism are experience design methods (see e.g. Kim & Fesenmaier, 2015;Rickly & McCabe, 2017;Smit & Melissen, 2018;Tussyadiah, 2014), which reflects Pine and Gilmore's (1999) observation that tourism should focus on the experience economy rather than the service economy. Nevertheless, service design connects cultural, social and human interactions (Miettinen & Valtonen, 2012), which are at the core of tourism. ...
Article
The article explores the processes designer-makers and communities should engage in before using service design approaches to produce creative tourism experiences. These processes can yield insights into the inner processes and interactions with external environments of creative individuals and communities. Case studies from Finnish Lapland and Namibia show the importance of identity construction, creativity and storytelling for context mapping. The article presents a practical and flexible mapping tool that has been derived from these case studies. This tool can be expanded and applied by designer-makers for practical mapping activities. The findings indicate that creative tourism involving designer-makers can provide new tourism opportunities that not only generate deeply relevant experiences for tourists but also sustainable livelihoods for local designer-makers.
... Deneyim üzerine yapılan çalışmalardan Deneyim Ekonomisi (Pine -Gilmore, 1999), Deneyimsel Pazarlama (Schmitt, 1999), Müşteri Deneyimini Yönetme (Smith -Wheeler, 2002) ve Müşteri Deneyimi İnşası (Shaw -Iwens, 2002) çalışmaları kavramsal olarak öncü niteliktedir. Müşteri değeri oluşturma-da deneyimin rolü bulunmaktadır. ...
... Deneyimsel pazarlama ile tüketim ilişkisi (Holbrook -Hirschman, 1982), deneyim ekonomisi kavramı (Pine -Gilmore, 1998), deneyimsel pazarlama yaklaşımı (Schmitt, 1999), ticari deneyim kavramı (Poulsson -Kale, 2004), tüketici deneyimi yönetimi (Nagasawa, 2008) ve deneyim kalitesi (Chang -Hong, 2010) üzerine yapılan çalışmalar konunun gerek literatürde gerekse de işletmeler nezdinde önemini ortaya koymaktadır. Hızla değişen ve gelişen dünyada emtialar, mallar ve hizmetler önemini yitirmekte ya da deneyime dönüşmektedir. ...
... Also, memory is the result of tourism experience (Zatori, Smith, & Puczko, 2018). As a vital role in the experience economy (Pine & Gilmore, 1998), consumers' memory will affect consumers' behavioral intentions (Oh, Fiore, & Jeoung, 2007;Quadri-Felitti & Fiore, 2012). It is regarded as a competitive tool for companies (Pine & Gilmore, 1999). ...
Article
At present, few studies have focused on the antecedents and consequences of music festival visitors' flow experience. Based on the cognitive appraisal theory, this study explores five antecedents of music festival visitors' flow experience (skill performance, ambiance, self-congruence, other consumers' passion, consumer-to-consumer interaction) and two consequences (visitors' memory and behavioral intentions) to enrich relevant research. In this study, a total of 419 visitors were investigated. All of the participants were visitors of 2019 Midi music festival, the largest music festival in China. Findings indicate that five antecedents are all positively related to visitors' flow experience, which in turn positively affects visitors' memory and behavioral intentions. Visitors' memory also has a positive effect on their behavioral intentions. In addition, the mediating role of flow experience between its antecedents and consequences was examined.
... Bu çalışmada yazarlar, kurumların deneyimler yaratarak müş-terileri kendine bağlamanın öneminden bahsetmiş ve teatrallik kavramına vurgu yapmıştır. Buna göre, 'mal ve hizmetler artık yeterli değildir; değer yaratmak için gereken, deneyim sahnelemektir'; dikkati üzerinde tutmak, bağlam hissini değiş-tirmek, takdir duygusu yaratmak, içinde bulunulan ruh halini değiştirmek, arınma/ rahatlama hissi sağlamak maddelerini ilgi çekici teatral deneyimler sahnelemenin püf noktaları olarak nitelendirmişlerdir (Pine ve Gilmore 1999). 1999'da yazdığı 'Deneysel Pazarlama' isimli yazısında ise Schmitt, geleneksel pazarlama metotlarının eskide kaldığından, duyumsamaya, hissetmeye, düşünmeye, oynamaya, ilişki kurmaya dayalı yeni bir ekonomik modelin ortaya çıktığından bahsetmiş ve bunu 'deneysel pazarlama' olarak adlandırmıştır (Schmitt 1999). ...
Article
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Bu makalede enstalasyon sanatının ticari mekanlarda kullanımı ele alınmış ve güncel örnekler üzerinden bir inceleme yapılmıştır. Günümüzde firmalar arası rekabet artmakta, değişen satın alma biçimleri, teknolojik gelişmeler, ürün ve sunum çeşitliliği markaların piyasada talep görmeye yönelik yeni yaklaşımlar aramasına neden olmaktadır. Bu yarışta öne çıkabilmek adına kimi markalar mekanlarını hatırlanabilir kılan sanatsal düzenlemelere yer vermektedir. Çalışmanın amacı, markaların enstalasyon sanatı ile kurduğu ilişkileri deneyim ekonomisi ekseninde incelemek, hedef, kurgu ve yöntemlere ilişkin sonuçlara ulaşmaktır. Araştırma sürecinde önce konu ile ilgili literatür taraması yapılmış; ticari mekan görselleri incelenmiş, tasarımcı görüşlerine yer verilmiş ve bir sınıflandırmaya varılmıştır. Örnekler incelendiğinde enstalasyonların hatırlanabilir müşteri deneyimleri yaratmaya, estetik, sembolik ve işlevsel boyutta değişen ihtiyaçlara cevap vermeye, müşterinin mekanla/ürünle etkileşimini arttırmaya ve kurum kimliğine ilişkin mesajlar vermeye yönelik amaçlar taşıdığı görülmektedir. Abstract In this article, use of installation art within commercial spaces has been assessed and a review has been carried out through recent examples. As competition between companies is getting tougher, brands are seeking demand through changing procurement methods, technological improvements and diversity in presentation. Some lead by allowing their places for artistic arrangements. The goal of the research is to study the relations between brands and installation art in the axis of experiment economy and deliver the results in terms of target, construction and method. During the research, a literature scan had been done first, then images were reviewed, opinions of designers were shared and a classification has been reached. When examples are analysed, it can bee seen that such installations convey the intention to create memorable customer experiences and satisfy the need of aesthetic, symbolic and functionally fluctuating demands.
... Si le concept d'expérience de la destination n'est pas clairement défini, il est lié au concept d'expérience, notamment touristique, et à la notion de destination. Dans leur ouvrage fondateur « The Experience Economy », Pine et Gilmore (1998) ont défini l'expérience du point de vue de l'entreprise, comme un événement qui engage les clients d'une manière personnelle. Puis l'expérience a été définie du point de vue des consommateurs, comme un ensemble de rencontres agréables, engageantes et mémorables pour ceux qui consomment ces événements (Oh et al., 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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Ce travail a pour objectif d'analyser l'évaluation de l'expérience de la destination touristique à travers les dimensions de l'expérience définies par Brakus et ses collègues (2009). Pour ce faire, nous menons une étude quantitative via Natural Langage Processing (NLP) sur les avis en ligne sur TripAdvisor de voyageurs commentant leurs expériences dans des régions touristiques tunisiennes. L'identification des dimensions de l'expérience pose tout d'abord la question du choix d'un outil d'analyse de contenu adéquat. Aussi, nous comparons une analyse de contenu manuelle à une analyse automatique via le dictionnaire de référence Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC, Tausczik & Pennebaker, 2010). Les résultats montrent que le codage manuel est plus riche et plus fin, et permet ainsi d'obtenir davantage d'effets significatifs. Mots clefs : expérience de la destination ; bouche à oreille électronique ; traitement naturel du langage (NLP) ; codage manuel versus automatique ; LIWC ANALYZING DESTINATION EXPERIENCE THROUGH ONLINE REVIEWS ON TRIPADVISOR: AN APPLICATION TO TUNISIA Abstract This paper aims to analyze the evaluation of destination experience through the brand experience framework of Brakus and colleagues (2009). To do so, we are conducting a quantitative study via Natural Language Processing (NLP) on the TripAdvisor online reviews of travelers commenting their experiences in Tunisian tourist regions. Identifying the dimensions of the experience first raises the question of selecting an appropriate content analysis tool. Thus, we compare a manual content coding to an automatic one via the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count reference dictionary (LIWC, Tausczik & Pennebaker, 2010). The results show that manual coding is richer and more thorough, and thus achieves significant effects.
... Since the service connotation of each beauty technician or each physical beauty store cannot be formatted, the feelings of each customer are not the same. Although the practitioners then provide services to create differentiated and distinctive services, the attitude of improving service quality has always been the common goal of operators (Pine and Gilmore, 1999). ...
Article
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COVID-19 began to spread worldwide in early 2020. Various governments have taken measures such as isolation, travel bans, and evacuation, mandating people to wear masks and go out less, in an attempt to prevent the spread of the virus. Governments also restrict human contact service industries, including beauty and hair salons. When the pandemic was very serious, consumers had great doubts about going for hairdressing so the beauty industry was greatly affected. This study designed and developed an app platform that considers the COVID-19 and is used for the psychological role of consumer safety. The methodology of this research is a qualitative study. Based on the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, Behavior (COM-B) model, and presenting the context of capabilities, opportunities, and motives of the theoretical framework, this study investigates the factors that identify the demand for the development of the platform for the beauty industry app matching mechanism. Four groups of people including consumers, beauty technicians, store managers, and application development engineers all conduct interviews based on their ability, opportunity, and motivation after experiencing the using application of OpenBeautiful. The results found that all groups of people already had the knowledge and ability to avoid infection in a pandemic, so it was possible to establish the need and feasibility of using the app platform. The use of the beauty industry app platform can bring new consumption patterns and career opportunities, and can trigger more business behavior activities. Therefore, this study starts from the COM-B model, and then explores the user needs of the platform according to the COM-B model framework, and proposes the mechanism and platform of app matching. Finally, based on the conclusion of the study, we propose practices and suggestions for the future operation of the app matching platform.
... Among the early researchers, Schmitt (1999) is the first researcher to identify the need to elaborate the concept of experience management, followed by researchers like Pine and Gilmore (1999) who focused on how to benefit the organisation by creating strong and enduring experience management. The primary reason why customer experience management has become predominantly important is the experience that customer starts encountering even before availing the actual services, through multitudinous and more complex channels and media. ...
Article
The tourism sector is witnessing a growing trend and with an increase in demand for consumers desire for highest levels of customer service and a full range of travel experiences that combine first class conveyance, excellent accommodation, and location, gourmet dining, outstanding entertainment and superior relaxation. Increased share of tourism in consumer spending is leading marketing practitioners to the recognition of influence on the customer experiences and its impact on service quality. Because of rapidly evolving customer demand for overall travel services in an intensely competitive environment, it has become very important to understand, analyze and construct customer experience to provide and improve the service quality, which in turn will improve the overall customer satisfaction leading to loyalty. This research initially employs explanatory research to investigate the customer experience management in tourism industry. Later, a conceptual framework was constructed based on the existing body of knowledge available and was tested using a survey of a judgmental sample of 600 consumers especially those who have travelled recently. Structural Equation Modelling was employed to test the proposed model. This paper tries to critically evaluate the relationship between customer experience management practices and Experience Quality.
... All the forms of communications, interactions and consumption experience of products or services automatically create unique experience in customer mind (Klaus and Maklan, 2013) but according to Pine and Gilmore (1999) an experience occurs when customer interact with the brand and brands intentionally showcase themselves in such a way that customers start perceiving them as the brand would expect. Product experience, service experience, consumption experience and shopping are the factors that affect consumer sensory experience directly and indirectly (Brakus et al., 2008). ...
... Now in market the trend of consumption has been shifted from commodities, goods, and services to experiences (Schmitt, 1999). been incorporated into, creating another potential marketing arena for Companies (Pine and Gilmore, 1999). ...
Article
Websites are key part of Internet marketing in creating and maintaining an online presence. Travel websites are an important part of the Internet marketing strategy for many tourism companies. For the usefulness of a business web site and to ensure long-term profit the managers of the company need to consider both advertising strategies to ensure increased visitation to the web site and also strategies which will enhance the customer experience in all phases of the purchase process, As the importance of Internet has grown in tourism marketing, it is important to understand customer's perceptions about the websites. Through the concept of customer value the researcher tried to find out the perception of customer towards the Make My Trip Travel website. The customer value concept is a complex theoretical construct because it touches upon a number of other concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, and loyalty so it is important to understand the customer perception .The data was collected through simple random sampling. A well-structured questionnaire consist of two sections was used to collect the data. The total of 150 respondents was selected and further the exploratory factor analysis was done to analyses the data through SPSS 20.0.
... Among the early researchers, Schmitt (1999) is the first researcher to identify the need to elaborate the concept of experience management, followed by researchers like Pine and Gilmore (1999) who focused on how to benefit the organisation by creating strong and enduring experience management. The primary reason why customer experience management has become predominantly important is the experience that customer starts encountering even before availing the actual services, through multitudinous and more complex channels and media. ...
Article
The tourism sector is witnessing a growing trend and with an increase in demand for consumer’s desire for the highest levels of customer service and a full range of travel experiences that combine first class conveyance, excellent accommodation and location, gourmet dining, outstanding entertainment and superior relaxation. Increased share of tourism in consumer spending is leading marketing practitioners to the recognition of influence on the customer experiences and its impact on service quality. Because of rapidly evolving customer demand for overall travel services in an intensely competitive environment, it has become very important to understand, analyse and construct customer experience to provide and improve the service quality, which in turn will improve the overall customer satisfaction leading to loyalty. This research initially employs explanatory research to investigate the customer experience management in the tourism industry. Later, a conceptual framework was constructed based on the existing body of knowledge available and was tested using a survey of a judgemental sample of 600 consumers especially those who have travelled recently. Structural equation modelling was employed to test the proposed model. This paper tries to critically evaluate the relationship between customer experience management practices and experience quality. Keywords: customer experience; experience quality; tourism industry.
... Tällöin tuotteen hinnalla ei ole asiakkaan näkökulmasta niin suurta merkitystä, vaan kilpailutekijänä on oletettu aitous. (Pine & Gilmore 1999;Karvonen 1999.) Tämä voidaan nähdä myös yhteydessä median kirjallisuusnostoihin: keskusteluun eivät toistuvasti nouse niinkään teosten kaunokirjalliset piirteet, vaan esimerkiksi kirjailijan omakohtaiset, teokseen rinnastettavissa olevat kokemukset. ...
Thesis
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This publication-based doctoral dissertation in literary criticism investigates the experimental poetics of the novel Neuromaani (2012) by Jaakko Yli-Juonikas. This study maps out and contextualizes the poetics of Neuromaani. I define poetics as the creative principles, conventions, and/or techniques informing a literary work as well as their study. Experimental literature is committed to raising fundamental questions about literature and its own literariness. The research questions of my study are: What is the poetics of Neuromaani like? How is it constructed? How does it work? My research material comprises the novel itself and the supplements to it that were published separately in literary magazines. Included in the discussion are also reviews of the novel and a dance performance inspired by it. The study is positioned in the framework of French theory and the new materialist approach informed and influenced by it. I scrutinize Neuromaani as a literary machine – a term coined by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari – that produces assemblages and operates through the actual and the virtual as well as repetition and affects. I also apply Gérard Genette’s theory of transtextuality, taking into account the ways it has been developed further in the field of narratology. I use theoretically and conceptually contextualizing close reading as the method of my analysis. The study consists of five articles and an introductory chapter. In each article, I focus on a different element of the novel’s poetics: the excessiveness, the materiality, the schizophrenic language and structure, the usage of found material and collage techniques, and the novel’s relation to semiocapitalism. I argue that all these viewpoints are essential to understanding the experimental poetics of Neuromaani. I introduce the concept of “excess novel” using Neuromaani as a paradigmatic example. An excess novel forms its affective relation with the reader and with other extratextual elements through its excessive poetics. I show how the different transtextual relations actualize as affective relations. I argue that the poetics of Neuromaani is experimental in that it revises and reshapes literary expression by experimenting with repetition, opens up the novel’s internal excess towards its exterior, and challenges readers and critics to re-evaluate their position in relation to the assemblage of the novel.
... Bu çalışmada yazarlar, kurumların deneyimler yaratarak müş-terileri kendine bağlamanın öneminden bahsetmiş ve teatrallik kavramına vurgu yapmıştır. Buna göre, 'mal ve hizmetler artık yeterli değildir; değer yaratmak için gereken, deneyim sahnelemektir'; dikkati üzerinde tutmak, bağlam hissini değiş-tirmek, takdir duygusu yaratmak, içinde bulunulan ruh halini değiştirmek, arınma/ rahatlama hissi sağlamak maddelerini ilgi çekici teatral deneyimler sahnelemenin püf noktaları olarak nitelendirmişlerdir (Pine ve Gilmore 1999). 1999'da yazdığı 'Deneysel Pazarlama' isimli yazısında ise Schmitt, geleneksel pazarlama metotlarının eskide kaldığından, duyumsamaya, hissetmeye, düşünmeye, oynamaya, ilişki kurmaya dayalı yeni bir ekonomik modelin ortaya çıktığından bahsetmiş ve bunu 'deneysel pazarlama' olarak adlandırmıştır (Schmitt 1999). ...
... The show consists of the multiplication of icons and images through media. In the future, advertising messages will transmit even more feelings of permanent adventure and happiness (Pine II & Gilmore, 1999). ...
Article
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The aim is to analyse the present and the possible future of the concept of advertising. The present concept is more related to the fact that marketers moved from a product focus to a sales focus, and now to eventually a relationship focus. The future concept is related to the growing customization of strategies based on the nature of the product category and the life-cycle stage of the product and the customers in the context of the development of the convergence culture, the experience economy and the new technologies connected to the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
... This is the background against which immersive and interactive arts have had their rapid growth in popularity, particularly since the turn of the 21 st century. In the fine and digital arts, as well as across the performing arts -from experimental participatory theatre to commercial immersive events -the Experience Economy (Pine 1999) has coaxed and sometimes jolted audiences out of a general acceptance of their traditional passive role of reception. The possibilities posed by increased audience agency within a changing culture have been welcomed with enthusiasm, particularly by commentators and academics, who have interpreted it as promising new levels of emancipatory creativity for the audience. ...
Article
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The way we tell stories shapes what we are: it articulates the way we position ourselves in relation to the world. This article explores how immersive practices, as used in virtual reality and intermedial performance, provoke novel dynamics between artist and audience that no longer fit within Western traditions of aesthetic exchange and furthermore challenge our understanding of narrative production and reception. It proposes that new ways of reasoning are needed to allow audience agency and the evolving role of the artist to be explored more fully than is currently possible in mainstream theatre scholarship. One source that can provide a model for considering the dynamics between audience and performer in immersive performance is the Indigenous story systems of Australia. There is a significant synergy between the structure and operation of First Nation songlines and contemporary immersive performance. This is explored with reference to the work of contemporary anthropologists and Indigenous scholars and to recent immersive work from the companies Kaleider and Theatre Conspiracy. The article considers how both ancient narratives and contemporary immersive practices require people to engage with data/ physical space in a specific manner in order for stories to be realised. Furthermore, both bestow creative responsibility and the role of custodian on the user, through whose actions narrative is manifested. Immersive performance challenges assumptions about how information is generated, processed, and passed on, and the power structures involved in such exchanges. This research explores how non-traditional narrative practices can assist the debate about the future of storytelling.
... In this sense, Pine and Gilmore (1999) already signalled that creative cities became fertile ground for the economy of experiences by possessing the resources and capabilities that pique the interest of twentyfirst-century consumers. As a result, it is clear that these aspects must be prioritised, and arguments must be sought in the creative potential of localities to make them more valuable for tourist attraction and, more importantly, more interesting for residents in terms of resources and services available. ...
Article
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The creative cities have presented themselves as a new and distinct way of offering attractions to tourists, and these new possibilities have resulted in differentiated and unique experiences for those who not only enjoy but also frequently participate in the creative processes. As a result of this knowledge gap, this article has the following objectives: to relate what has recently been published in one of the main databases in the literature on creative cities and the tourist experience; to detect the objectives and contexts of research on creative cities and the tourist experience; and to identify what has been done in Recife - PE/Brazil - which is one of UNESCO’s creative cities - to encourage, enhance, and disseminate the creative potential of this city. As a methodology for selecting what has been published, criteria for article selection were established using keywords such as creative cities, tourism, and tourist experience. Furthermore, a synthesis of knowledge on this topic was possible, allowing perception of what is already known about the topic and what still needs to be researched, as well as pointing out directions for future investigations and some limitations of studies in this area. Because some study gaps were identified, it is possible to conclude that the themes of creative cities related to the tourist experience have the potential to be much more researched. The main limitation of this study is the fact that it is a systematic review of the literature, through only one database, and therefore, it is suggested as relevant for future research an updated systematic review, since many other works arise daily.
... Mehmet et al. [32] found that the dimensions of education and entertainment do not affect satisfaction; however, aesthetics, and escapism do. Pine and Gilmore's [33] model of the four dimensions of experience offers a valuable framework for understanding student preferences. According to them, the richest experiences are those that combine feeling, learning, being, and doing. ...
Article
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Iconic architecture and landscape architecture are most often understood through photographic media that mediates between the idea and the reality for those learning to design. The drastic lockdown responses to COVID-19 and the limitations on local and international travel highlighted the importance of the visual and the potential of the virtual. However, visual media can also be understood as systems that go far beyond a strict representation of an object. In this climate where publicity, politics, and perception play ever more crucial roles, representations of iconic architecture and landscapes increasingly blur the boundaries between the imaginary and the tangible. This paper examines the experience of iconic architecture and landscape in four iconic European cities (Paris, Barcelona, Seville, and Lisbon) as seen through the eyes of fifty postgraduate architecture, interior architecture, and landscape architecture students from New Zealand. It compares their understanding of a building or landscape from its photographic image before engaging with the physical reality. Students were asked to first identify iconic architecture and landscape, then closely analyze and document the essential qualities which established its pre-eminence. A subsequent visit to each of the places provided the opportunity for comparison and the testing of the realities and fictions of the icons themselves. Our research finds that today's architecture students are savvy and sophisticated consumers of technology. It also presents FABRIC, a conceptual framework that offers additional scaffolding for educating design students through experiential learning in a time of travel restrictions.
... It aims, in general, "to generate new or improved products, to introduce new production processes, to develop new sales markets, to develop new supply markets and to reorganize and/or restructure the company" (Schumpeter, 1997) or to find "new forms of information and communication systems necessary for the development of new products/services" (Weiermair, 1998), which may require" consumer involvement to obtain information that may suggest new ways of profitable business" (Weiermair and Mathies, 2002) and can be concretized into an "idea, practice, process or product that turns into an application that is perceived as new by an individual" (Ottenbacher, Gnoth, 2005). Research and development in tourism is intended, as appropriate: to "increase the value of tourist services by improving quality or lowering the cost" (Hesket, 1986) or "a new orientation related to new technology, more experienced consumers, tourism development" (Poon, 1993) or "new holiday formulas that offer new experiences" (Bartaletti, 1998) or "creating new experiences covering leisure, educational, aesthetic and escape elements" (Pine and Gilmore, 1999) or "the challenge of delivering greater value to tourism turnover, reducing costs in marketing processes, bringing product changes to ensure varied tourist experiences for consumers aware of quality and willing to have as many options as possible" (Weiermaier, 2001). ...
... Mathwick et al. [3] pointed out that Internet offer an array of shopping experiences, and in the process, deliver not only more value, but also different kinds of value. Thus, retailers or e-retailers redefine themselves as a source of memories, rather than goods, as an "experience stager" rather than a service/product provider [4]. Today, the difference between physical and digital environment tends to disappear when we talk about shopping. ...
Chapter
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The purpose of this study is to see how the eight aspects of experiential value and perceived risk affect people's attitudes regarding internet purchasing in developing nations. An average of 204 valid questionnaires were collected from a Tunisian internet consumer sample. The items of each scale were subjected to exploratory factor analysis. All of the variables' dimensions were subjected to principal component analysis employing varimax rotation in SPSS. The different dimensions of scales were analyzed and the items that did not have good loadings (superior to 0.5), have contributions higher than 0.3 on many factors, and that they do not have any contribution higher or equal to 0.5 to one of the principal and identified components were eliminated. The site's experience value is a strong predictor of how people will feel about purchasing there. 31.9 percent of the intention to buy from the site is explained by attitude. This latter, however, only represents 3.3% of the online shopping behavior. Perceived risk fails to significantly predict the attitude towards online shopping (p=.158). This study's conclusions have ramifications for consumer educators. They could, in fact, utilise these data to figure out how to make the customer decision-making process easier in the context of e-commerce. Consumer education programs should take into consideration the major facilitators factors and their antecedents when focused on the attitude towards shopping from the site. This study is the first to evaluate the impacts of eight experiential values on attitudes regarding online buying, which is a theoretical contribution to knowledge. The non significance of the perceived risk on the attitude and consequently its failure as a factor that inhibits the online shopping for the Tunisian sample bring us to look for other variables explaining the non adoption of the online shopping. Only, the self-oriented value dimension (aesthetics, playfulness, efficiency, and excellence) was taken into consideration by the majority of studies in the online context.
... På kulturområder i dag gennemføres fremstød typisk via den eventkontekst, der er opstået i lyset af den oplevelsesøkonomiske udvikling (Pine & Gilmore 1999;Getz 2011). Det er efterhånden velkendt stof inden for alle kulturområder, og gennem de seneste årtier har der ad disse veje også jaevnligt vaeret synlig opmaerksomhed for bøger, litteratur og laesning. ...
... Several authors have emphasized that experiences integrate many factors, including different levels such as physical, intellectual, social, mental, emotional, and spiritual (e.g. Gentile, Spiller, & Noci, 2007;Mossberg, 2007;Pine & Gilmore, 1998). Kinds of individual resources (e.g. ...
Article
Virtual reality is transforming the travel industry as both enhancement and replacement of experiences. The purpose of this study is to examine how travelers achieve flow states in VR experiences. Based on the flow theory, the study combines physiological measures with self-reported survey measures to understand people’s flow experiences. A laboratory experiment was conducted with 9D virtual reality motion theater simulator and iMEC 12 electrocardiogram monitor equipment. The contradictory results between the two measures indicate that travelers’ physiological reactions may not match their psychological perceptions. Compared to control, arousal has a stronger role in mediating travelers’ flow states.
... The above has clearly stated and identified the gap between Mid Valley Megamall and Sunway Pyramid Shopping Centre in term of the customer perceived value and value proposition. Accordingly to Pine and Gilmore (1999) who stated that experiences would be a new source of value creation for businesses as well as a decisive factor in the development of products, services and marketing strategies. Shopper view that a shopping centre which succeed in attending needs of shopper's experiential shall become the destination attraction to them. ...
Article
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Shopping mall industry in Malaysia especially in Klang Valley facing the issue of oversupply. According to Knight Frank research (2018), the recent completion of circa 1.40million sq.ft. has brings the net lettable area of retail space in Klang Valley’s cumulative supply to 58.97million sq.ft. in 2H2018. Shopping mall’s owners and operators need to continuously refresh and reinvent. Also, to embark on asset enhancement initiative (AEI) and creating new experience to stay relevant in the competitive environment. Hence, an effective value proposition is important and it needs to be distinct. This research applies academic models and framework to develop a value proposition of shopping mall. Herewith, Mid Valley Megamall is the shopping mall under study and comparing with the leading competitor in the market which is Sunway Pyramid Shopping Centre. The objectives of this paper including identification of customer’s perceive value of shopping mall, critical evaluation of existing value proposition of Mid Valley Megamall with Sunway Pyramid Shopping Centre. Nevertheless, to identify gap and finally to propose a new value proposition for Mid Valley Megamall. Monroe (1990) and Holbrook’s Typology Value (1999) Framework is using in elaborating customer’s perceived value of shopping mall. Followed by using Piercy (2009) and Lawton (n.d) Model in differentiating and evaluating the existing value proposition of both shopping malls. Finally, a new value position proposal is recommended to Mid Valley Megamall in order to stimulate a competitive advantage among its competitors.
Article
As of the 2010s, E-Sports have become one of the fastest growing new media formats, bringing about great economic benefits. The aim of the current study is to analyze the semantic network of the posts and comments on Reddit about eSports. Furthermore, this study explores the types of user experiences linked to eSports consumption that are identified from semantic networks. The study chose three different games and collected posts and comments of them on Reddit. The collected data was analyzed by semantic network analysis. NetDraw packaged with UCINET is used for data visualization. The research provides a systematic description of various experiences of consumers with E-Sports from different game types.
Chapter
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En el marco de las redes sociales se encuentran Instagram y Flickr, aplicaciones que permiten a los usuarios compartir fotografías, tanto en su plataforma como en otras redes sociales, sobre su vida cotidiana, experiencias, viajes, gustos y pensamientos, convirtiendo al sujeto en fotógrafo profesional debido al uso de filtros y efectos que trasforman las imágenes en obras de arte fotográficas (Paiva y Nicolau, 2013, citado en Manosso y Gãndara, 2016). Hablando del desarrollo de la actividad turística, Aquino (2014) señala que el turista fotógrafo se convierte en un sujeto productor del mundo-imagen, por el deseo de posesión y status que la fotografía y el turismo acarrea. El espacio urbano turístico se distingue por la presencia y distribución territorial de los atractivos del lugar, así como por la imagen proyectada a quienes visitarán el destino en el futuro. En el caso de Comala en Colima, México, está materialización de la experiencia turística se refleja (muchas de ellas como selfies) en los siguientes elementos que, para el visitante, resultan importantes durante su visita: arquitectura, paisaje, actividades culturales, gastronomía, servicios, profesiones y oficios, y artesanías. En ambas redes sociales, las fotografías a la entrada de Comala suman en total 23,550, donde los turistas manifiestan que estos ambientes o lugares son importantes y significativos.
Article
This research attempts to examine the impact of the coffee shop characteristics towards the consumers experience when they visit the coffee shop. The coffee shop characteristics including functional, atmosphere, design, and social characteristics. The population of this study are all Surabaya productive age residents, and the sample of this study was determined using Quota Sampling and the Isaac and Michael formula with the respondents requirements are those who had been visiting and/or consuming products directly at Starbucks Surabaya on maximum of 2 -3 months before filling out the questionnaire, with total of 384 respondents needed to be obtained. The questionnaire was distributed online and offline, with total 369 questionnaires are used in this study. This research uses SEM analysis. This research found that only the functional and social characteristics of the coffee shop have significant effect on the experience gained by its consumers; while the atmosphere and design characteristics have no significant effect, as the design characteristics have negative effect on the consumers experience. The practical contribution of research for the coffee shop owner are to maintains functional and social aspects as well as, improving aspects of design characteristics and atmosphere so that consumers gain experience when visiting.
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